Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
ABSTRACT: Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.
Project description:If microbial degradation of carbon substrates in arctic soil is stimulated by climatic warming, this would be a significant positive feedback on global change. With data from a climate change experiment in Northern Sweden we show that warming and enhanced soil nutrient availability, which is a predicted long-term consequence of climatic warming and mimicked by fertilization, both increase soil microbial biomass. However, while fertilization increased the relative abundance of fungi, warming caused only a minimal shift in the microbial community composition based on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) profiles. The function of the microbial community was also differently affected, as indicated by stable isotope probing of PLFA and NLFA. We demonstrate that two decades of fertilization have favored fungi relative to bacteria, and increased the turnover of complex organic compounds such as vanillin, while warming has had no such effects. Furthermore, the NLFA-to-PLFA ratio for (13)C-incorporation from acetate increased in warmed plots but not in fertilized ones. Thus, fertilization cannot be used as a proxy for effects on warming in arctic tundra soils. Furthermore, the different functional responses suggest that the biomass increase found in both fertilized and warmed plots was mediated via different mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. RESULTS: Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on ?-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have higher responsiveness to low dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, up-regulating the biosynthetic pathway when fed dietary VO. As global aquaculture searches for alternative oils for feeds, this study alerts to the potential of VO introducing contaminants and demonstrates the detoxifying role of intestine. Finally, data indicate genotype-specific responses in the intestinal transcriptome and proteome to dietary VO, including possibly structural properties of the intestinal layer and defence against cellular stress, with Lean fish being more susceptible to diet-induced oxidative stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon. RESULTS: A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the liver transcriptome of two family groups selected according to their estimated breeding values (EBVs) for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat', fed diets containing either FO or a VO blend. Diet principally affected metabolism genes, mainly of lipid and carbohydrate, followed by immune response genes. Genotype had a much lower impact on metabolism-related genes and affected mostly signalling pathways. Replacement of dietary FO by VO caused an up-regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, but there was a clear genotype effect as fatty acyl elongase (elovl2) was only up-regulated and desaturases (?5 fad and ?6 fad) showed a higher magnitude of response in Lean fish, which was reflected in liver fatty acid composition. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) was also up-regulated by VO and the effect was independent of genotype. Genetic background of the fish clearly affected regulation of lipid metabolism, as PPAR? and PPAR? were down-regulated by the VO diet only in Lean fish, while in Fat salmon SREBP-1 expression was up-regulated by VO. In addition, all three genes had a lower expression in the Lean family group than in the Fat, when fed VO. Differences in muscle adiposity between family groups may have been caused by higher levels of hepatic fatty acid and glycerophospholipid synthesis in the Fat fish, as indicated by the expression of FAS, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase 2. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified metabolic pathways and key regulators that may respond differently to alternative plant-based feeds depending on genotype. Further studies are required but data suggest that it will be possible to identify families better adapted to alternative diet formulations that might be appropriate for future genetic selection programmes.
Project description:There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils.Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic beta-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA.This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels.
Project description:Temporary Mediterranean ponds are complex ecosystems which support a high diversity of organisms that include heterotrophic microorganisms, algae, crustaceans, amphibians and higher plants, and have the potential to supply food and a resting place to migratory birds. The role of heterotrophs at the base of the food web in providing energy to the higher trophic levels was studied in temporary ponds in Central and Southern Portugal. The relative quantification of the hetero and autotrophic biomass at the base of the food web in each pond was derived from the polar fatty acid (PLFA) composition of seston through the application of the matrix factorization program CHEMTAX that used specific PLFA and their relative proportion as markers for e.g., classes of bacteria, algae and fungi. The species composition of the culturable microbial communities was identified through their fatty acid profiles. The biomass in the lower trophic level of some ponds presented an even proportion of auto to heterotrophic organisms whilst either bacteria or algae dominated in others. In a selected subset of ponds, the incorporation of bacterial fatty acids was observed to occur in potentially herbivorous zooplankton crustacean. Zooplankton consumed and incorporated bacterial fatty acids into their body tissues, including into their phospholipids, which indicates that energy of heterotrophic origin contributes to the aquatic food webs of temporary ponds.
Project description:As part of a study investigating the effects of genotype on responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon, a microarray analysis of the intestine transcriptome of two family groups, identified as 'Lean' or 'Fat' (based on flesh lipid content), which were fed a diet containing either 100% fish oil (FO) or 100% vegetable oil (VO) was undertaken.
Project description:The fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium fujikuroi produce carotenoids, lipophilic terpenoid pigments of biotechnological interest, with xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin as the main end product. Their carotenoid biosynthesis is activated by light and negatively regulated by the RING-finger protein CarS. Global transcriptomic analysis identified in both species a putative 1-kb lncRNA that we call carP, referred to as Fo-carP and Ff-carP in each species, upstream to the gene carS and transcribed from the same DNA strand. Fo-carP and Ff-carP are poorly transcribed, but their RNA levels increase in carS mutants. The deletion of Fo-carP or Ff-carP in the respective species results in albino phenotypes, with strong reductions in mRNA levels of structural genes for carotenoid biosynthesis and higher mRNA content of the carS gene, which could explain the low accumulation of carotenoids. Upon alignment, Fo-carP and Ff-carP show 75-80% identity, with short insertions or deletions resulting in a lack of coincident ORFs. Moreover, none of the ORFs found in their sequences have indications of possible coding functions. We conclude that Fo-carP and Ff-carP are regulatory lncRNAs necessary for the active expression of the carotenoid genes in Fusarium through an unknown molecular mechanism, probably related to the control of carS function or expression.
Project description:River damming causes a decrease in water current velocity which leads to an increase in richness and abundance of organisms atypical for running waters. Zooplankton is a representative example of such organisms. The influx of zooplankton from carp ponds is an additional factor that increases richness and abundance of zooplankton in rivers. We hypothesized that zooplankton dispersing from the carp ponds colonize the impoundments in river and the richness of zooplankton increase in impoundments by development of new species, not observed in the upstream. The zooplankton was collected monthly from April to September of 2013 and 2014. Sampling sites were located in the Barycz river (in the lotic sections and in the dam impoundments), as well as in its tributaries, which are the outlets of carp ponds. The most changes in zooplankton richness and abundance were observed at sites located within the dam impoundments, especially in relation to the lower values of the current velocity. Since the abundance of pelagic rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in the carp pond outlets was similar to that at lower sites in the Barycz, the influence of the carp pond outlets on the abundance in the dam and lotic sections was significant. The river itself in its impounded sections provides advantageous conditions for retention and colonization by a high abundance of zooplankton dispersing from the carp ponds, and for the development of species not occurred in the upstream, which, in turn, increases richness.
Project description:As part of a study investigating the effects of genotype on responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon, a microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, identified as 'Lean' or 'Fat' (based on flesh lipid content), which were fed a diet containing either 100% fish oil (FO) or 100% vegetable oil (VO) was undertaken. Cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism pathways that were differentially affected by diet depending on the genetic background of the fish were identified.<br><br>The TRAITS/SGP (v.2.1) salmon 17k cDNA microarray was used in this experiment. A dual-labelled experimental design was employed for the microarray hybridisations. aRNA from each experimental sample (Cy3 labelled) was competitively hybridised against a common pooled-reference sample (Cy5 labelled), which comprised equal amounts of aRNA from each of the samples used in the study. This design permits valid statistical comparisons across all treatments to be made. The entire experiment comprised 24 hybridisations - 2 lipid phenotypes (Lean/Fat) × 2 diets (FO/VO) × 6 biological replicates.
Project description:There is an increasing interest from the aquafeed industry in functional feeds containing selected additives that improve fish growth performance and health status. Functional feed additives include probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and phytogenics (substances derived from plants and their extracts). This study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of a mucilage extract rich in galactomannan oligosaccharides (GMOS), a mixture of garlic and labiatae-plants oils (PHYTO), and a combination of them (GMOSPHYTO), on gut microbiota composition of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed with a low fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) diet. Three experimental diets and a control diet (plant-based formulation with 10% FM and 6% FO) were tested in a 63-days feeding trial. To analyze the microbiota associated to feeds and the intestinal autochthonous (mucosa-adhered) and allochthonous (transient) microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME2 pipeline were used. Metabarcoding analysis of feed-associated bacteria showed that the microbial communities of control (CTRL) feed deeply differed from those of experimental diets. The number of reads was significantly lower in CTRL feed than in other feeds. The OTU (operational taxonomic unit) number was instead similar between the feeds, ranging from 42 to 50 OTUs. The variation of resident gut microbiota induced by diet was lower than the variation of transient intestinal microbiota, because feedstuffs are a major source of allochthonous bacteria, which can temporarily integrate into the gut transient microbiome. However, the composition of transient bacterial communities was not simply a mirror of feed-borne bacteria. Indeed, the microbial profile of feeds was different from both faecal and mucosa profiles. Our findings suggest that the dietary inclusion of GMOS (0.5%) and PHYTO (0.02%) in a low FM and FO diet induces changes in gut microbiota composition of European sea bass. However, if on allochthonous microbiota the combined inclusion of GMOS and PHYTO showed an antagonistic effect on bactericidal activity against Vibrionales, at mucosa level, only GMOSPHYTO diet increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidales, Lactobacillales, and Clostridiales resident bacterial orders. The main beneficial effects of GMOS and PHYTO on gut microbiota are the reduction of coliforms and Vibrionales bacteria, which include several potentially pathogenic species for fish, and the enrichment of gut microbiota composition with butyrate producer taxa. Therefore, these functional ingredients have a great potential to be used as health-promoting agents in the farming of European sea bass and other marine fish.