A comprehensive genome-wide study on tissue-specific and abiotic stress-specific miRNAs in Triticum aestivum.
ABSTRACT: Productivity of wheat crop is largely dependent on its growth and development that, in turn, is mainly regulated by environmental conditions, including abiotic stress factors. miRNAs are key regulators of gene expression networks involved in diverse aspects of development and stress responses in plants. Using high-throughput sequencing of eight small RNA libraries prepared from diverse abiotic stresses and tissues, we identified 47 known miRNAs belonging to 20 families, 49 true novel and 1030 candidate novel miRNAs. Digital gene expression analysis revealed that 257 miRNAs exhibited tissue-specific expression and 74 were associated with abiotic stresses. Putative target genes were predicted for miRNAs identified in this study and their grouping into functional categories indicated that the putative targets were involved in diverse biological processes. RLM-RACE of predicted targets of three known miRNAs (miR156, miR160 and miR164) confirmed their mRNA cleavage, thus indicating their regulation at post-transcriptional level by the corresponding miRNAs. Mapping of the sequenced data onto the wheat progenitors and closely related monocots revealed a large number of evolutionary conserved miRNAs. Additional expression profiling of some of these miRNAs in other abiotic stresses underline their involvement in multiple stresses. Our findings provide valuable resource for an improved understanding of the role of miRNAs in stress tolerance as well as plant development.
Project description:Purpose: To identify abiotic stress responsive and tissue specific miRNAs at genome wide level in wheat (Triticum aestivum) Results: Small RNA libraries were constructed from four tissues (root, shoot, mature leaf and spikelets) and three stress treatments of wheat seedlings (control, high temperature, salinity and water-deficit). A total of 59.5 million reads were obtained by high throughput sequencing of eight wheat libraries, of which 32.5 million reads were found to be unique. Using UEA sRNA workbench we identified 47 conserved miRNAs belonging to 20 families, 1030 candidate novel and 51 true novel miRNAs. Several of these miRNAs displayed tissue specific expression whereas few were found to be responsive to abiotic stress treatments. Target genes were predicted for miRNAs identified in this study and their grouping into functional categories revealed that the putative targets were involved in diverse biological processes. RLM-RACE of predicted targets of three conserved miRNAs (miR156, miR160 and miR164) confirmed their mRNA cleavage, thus indicating their regulation at post-transcriptional level by corresponding miRNAs. Expression profiling of confirmed target genes of these miRNAs was also performed. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive study on profiling of miRNAs in a variety of tissues and in response to several abiotic stresses in wheat. Our findings provide valuable resource for better understanding on the role of miRNAs in stress tolerance as well as plant development. Additionally, this information could be utilized for designing wheat plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance and higher productivity. Total eight (three stress, one control and four tissue specific small RNA libraries were pepared and sequenced independently [wheat control (WC), wheat high temperature stressed (WHTS), wheat salinity stressed (WSS) and wheat drought stressed (WDS), wheat shoot(WSH), wheat leaf (WLF), wheat flower(WFL), wheat root(WRT)] on Illumina GAIIx
Project description:Drought has become one of the most serious abiotic stresses influencing crop production worldwide. Understanding the molecular regulatory networks underlying drought adaption and tolerance in crops is of great importance for future breeding. microRNAs (miRNAs), as important components of post-transcriptional regulation, play crucial roles in drought response and adaptation in plants. Here, we report a miRNome analysis of two maize inbred lines with contrasting levels of drought tolerance under soil drought in the field. Differential expression analysis showed 11 and 34 miRNAs were uniquely responded to drought in H082183 (drought tolerant) and Lv28 (drought sensitive), respectively, in leaves. In roots, 19 and 23 miRNAs uniquely responded to drought in H082183 and Lv28, respectively. Expression analysis of these drought-responsive miRNA-mRNA modules revealed miR164-MYB, miR164-NAC, miR159-MYB, miR156-SPL and miR160-ARF showed a negative regulatory relationship. Further analysis showed that the miR164-MYB and miR164-NAC modules in the tolerant line modulated the stress response in an ABA (abscisic acid)-dependent manner, while the miR156-SPL and miR160-ARF modules in the sensitive line participated in the inhibition of metabolism in drought-exposed leaves. Together, our results provide new insight into not only drought-tolerance-related miRNA regulation networks in maize but also key miRNAs for further characterization and improvement of maize drought tolerance.
Project description:Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes including adaptive response towards abiotic stresses. To unravel small RNAs and more specifically miRNAs that can potentially regulate determinants of abiotic stress tolerance, next generation sequencing of B. juncea seedlings subjected to high temperature, high salt and drought conditions was carried out. With the help of UEA sRNA workbench software package, 51 conserved miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families were identified. As there was limited genomic information available for B. juncea, we generated and assembled its genome sequence at a low coverage. Using the generated sequence and other publically available Brassica genomic/transcriptomic resources as mapping reference, 126 novel (not reported in any plant species) were discovered for the first time in B. juncea. Further analysis also revealed existence of 32 and 37 star sequences for conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. The expression of selected conserved and novel miRNAs under conditions of different abiotic stresses was revalidated through universal TaqMan based real time PCR. Putative targets of identified conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted in B. rapa to gain insights into functional roles manifested by B. juncea miRNAs. Furthermore, SPL2-like, ARF17-like and a NAC domain containing protein were experimentally validated as targets of miR156, miR160 and miR164 respectively. Investigation of gene ontologies linked with targets of known and novel miRNAs forecasted their involvement in various biological functions.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of short (21-23 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecule, mediate repressive gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level, and play an important role in defense and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present study, Affymetrix® miRNA Array, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for miRNAs and their targets, and miRNA promoter analysis were used to validate the gene expression patterns of miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa plantlets induced with the poplar stem canker pathogen, Botryosphaeria dothidea. Twelve miRNAs (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR172, miR319, miR398, miR408, miR1448, and miR1450) were upregulated in the stem bark of P. trichocarpa, but no downregulated miRNAs were found. Based on analysis of the miRNAs and their targets, a potential co-regulatory network was developed to describe post-transcriptional regulation in the pathological development of poplar stem canker. There was highly complex cross-talk between diverse miRNA pathway responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The results suggest that miR156 is probably an integral component of the miRNA response to all environmental stresses in plants. Cis-regulatory elements were binding sites for the transcription factors (TFs) on DNA. Promoter analysis revealed that TC-rich repeats and a W1-box motif were both tightly related disease response motifs in Populus. Promoter analysis and target analysis of miRNAs also revealed that some TFs regulate their activation/repression. Furthermore, a feedback regulatory network in the pathological development of poplar stem canker is provided. The results confirm that miRNA pathways regulate gene expression during the pathological development of plant disease, and provide new insights into understanding the onset and development of poplar stem canker.
Project description:Small RNAs (sRNAs, including small interfering RNAs [siRNAs] and micro RNAs [miRNAs]) are key mediators of RNA silencing (or RNA interference), which play important roles in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stimulation. Verticillium wilt is a plant vascular disease caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogens, such as Verticillium dahliae. We previously reported that V. dahliae infection increased two plant endogenous miRNAs that were exported to fungal cell to silence virulence genes. To investigate plant sRNAs in genome-wide response to V. dahliae infection, in this study, we constructed two sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis roots with and without V. dahliae infection, respectively. In total, 31 conserved miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed during the early stage of infection with V. dahliae using sRNA sequencing. Among these, the expression levels of miR160, miR164, miR166, miR167, miR390 and miR156h were confirmed by northern blot. Reverse transcription quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the induction of miRNAs (miR160, miR164, miR166 and miR167) upon V. dahliae infection downregulated the expression of their targeted genes (ARF10, NAC1, PHV and ARF6), respectively. In addition, we identified specific phased siRNAs generated from distinct regions of two libraries. Profiling of these miRNAs and sRNAs lay the foundation for further understanding and utilising the host-induced gene silencing strategy to control plant vascular pathogens.
Project description:Environmental stresses influence the growth and development of plants by influencing patterns of gene expression. Different regulators control gene expression, including transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs: ~21 nucleotides long) are encoded by miRNA genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNP-II) and play key roles in plant development and physiology. There is little knowledge currently available on miRNAs and their function in response to environmental stresses in safflower. To obtain more information on safflower miRNAs, we initially used a comparative genomics approach and succeeded in identifying 126 miRNAs belonging to 29 conserved families, along with their target genes. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of seven conserved miRNAs related to drought, salinity, heat, and Cd stress in the leaf and root organs using qRT-PCR, for the first time. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis found that target genes of miRNAs are often TFs such as AP2/ERF and HD-ZIP as well as NAC domain-containing proteins. Expression analyses confirmed that miRNAs can play a vital role in keeping safflower stress-tolerant. Differential expression of miR156, miR162, miR164, miR166, miR172, miR398, and miR408 regulate the expression of their respective target genes. These genes activate several pathways leading to physiological and biochemical responses to abiotic stresses. Some conserved miRNAs were regulated by abiotic stresses. Our finding provides valuable information to understand miRNAs in relation to different abiotic stresses in safflower.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression by guiding target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs can have large-scale regulatory effects on development and stress response in plants. RESULTS: To test whether miRNAs play roles in regulating response to powdery mildew infection and heat stress in wheat, by using Solexa high-throughput sequencing we cloned the small RNA from wheat leaves infected by preponderant physiological strain Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici (Egt) or by heat stress treatment. A total of 153 miRNAs were identified, which belong to 51 known and 81 novel miRNA families. We found that 24 and 12 miRNAs were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress, respectively. We further predicted that 149 target genes were potentially regulated by the novel wheat miRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that diverse set of wheat miRNAs were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress and could function in wheat responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses.
Project description:microRNA (miRNA) participates in various physiological and biochemical processes in plants by regulating corresponding target genes. NAC [NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor) and CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)] transcription factors, usually as the targets of miR164, play important roles in the regulation of plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In a previous study, the target gene of tae-miR164 in wheat was sequenced through degradome sequencing. In this study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of the candidate target gene, which is a NAC transcription factor gene in the NAM subfamily, and designated it as TaNAC21/22 after bioinformatics analysis. The interaction between TaNAC21/22 and tae-miR164 was confirmed experimentally through co-transformation of both genes in tobacco leaves. Transcript accumulation of TaNAC21/22 and tae-miR164 showed contrasting divergent expression patterns in wheat response to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). TaNAC21/22 was confirmed to be located in the nucleus and could function as a transcriptional activator. Silencing of the individual gene showed that TaNAC21/22 negatively regulates resistance to stripe rust. These results indicate that the target of tae-miR164, a novel NAC transcription factor from the NAM subfamily of wheat, plays an important role in regulating the resistance of host plants to stripe rust.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitous components of endogenous plant transcriptome. miRNAs are small, single-stranded and ~21 nt long RNAs which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are known to play essential roles in various aspects of plant development and growth. Previously, a number of miRNAs have been identified in potato through in silico analysis and deep sequencing approach. However, identification of miRNAs through deep sequencing approach was limited to a few tissue types and developmental stages. This study reports the identification and characterization of potato miRNAs in three different vegetative tissues and four stages of tuber development by high throughput sequencing. RESULTS: Small RNA libraries were constructed from leaf, stem, root and four early developmental stages of tuberization and subjected to deep sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analysis. A total of 89 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 33 families), 147 potato-specific miRNAs (with star sequence) and 112 candidate potato-specific miRNAs (without star sequence) were identified. The digital expression profiling based on TPM (Transcripts Per Million) and qRT-PCR analysis of conserved and potato-specific miRNAs revealed that some of the miRNAs showed tissue specific expression (leaf, stem and root) while a few demonstrated tuberization stage-specific expressions. Targets were predicted for identified conserved and potato-specific miRNAs, and predicted targets of four conserved miRNAs, miR160, miR164, miR172 and miR171, which are ARF16 (Auxin Response Factor 16), NAM (NO APICAL MERISTEM), RAP1 (Relative to APETALA2 1) and HAM (HAIRY MERISTEM) respectively, were experimentally validated using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Gene ontology (GO) analysis for potato-specific miRNAs was also performed to predict their potential biological functions. CONCLUSIONS: We report a comprehensive study of potato miRNAs at genome-wide level by high-throughput sequencing and demonstrate that these miRNAs have tissue and/or developmental stage-specific expression profile. Also, predicted targets of conserved miRNAs were experimentally confirmed for the first time in potato. Our findings indicate the existence of extensive and complex small RNA population in this crop and suggest their important role in pathways involved in diverse biological processes, including tuber development.
Project description:Disease resistance genes encoding proteins with nucleotide binding sites and Leucine-Rich Repeat (NB-LRR) domains include many members involved in the effector-triggered immunity pathway in plants. The transcript levels of these defense genes are negatively regulated by diverse microRNAs (miRNAs) in angiosperms and gymnosperms. In wheat, using small RNA expression datasets and degradome datasets, we identified five miRNA families targeting NB-LRR defense genes in monocots, some of which arose in the Triticeae species era. These miRNAs regulate different types of NB-LRR genes, most of them with coil-coiled domains, and trigger the generation of secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNA) as a phased pattern in the target site regions. In addition to acting in response to biotic stresses, they are also responsive to abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, salt, and light stress. Their copy number and expression variation in Triticeae suggest a rapid birth and death frequency. Altogether, non-conserved miRNAs as conserved transcriptional regulators in gymnosperms and angiosperms regulating the disease resistance genes displayed quick plasticity including the variations of sequences, gene copy number, functions, and expression level, which accompanied with NB-LRR genes may be tune-regulated to plants in natural environments with various biotic and abiotic stresses.