The activation of the decapping enzyme DCP2 by DCP1 occurs on the EDC4 scaffold and involves a conserved loop in DCP1.
ABSTRACT: The removal of the 5'-cap structure by the decapping enzyme DCP2 and its coactivator DCP1 shuts down translation and exposes the mRNA to 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation by XRN1. Although yeast DCP1 and DCP2 directly interact, an additional factor, EDC4, promotes DCP1-DCP2 association in metazoan. Here, we elucidate how the human proteins interact to assemble an active decapping complex and how decapped mRNAs are handed over to XRN1. We show that EDC4 serves as a scaffold for complex assembly, providing binding sites for DCP1, DCP2 and XRN1. DCP2 and XRN1 bind simultaneously to the EDC4 C-terminal domain through short linear motifs (SLiMs). Additionally, DCP1 and DCP2 form direct but weak interactions that are facilitated by EDC4. Mutational and functional studies indicate that the docking of DCP1 and DCP2 on the EDC4 scaffold is a critical step for mRNA decapping in vivo. They also revealed a crucial role for a conserved asparagine-arginine containing loop (the NR-loop) in the DCP1 EVH1 domain in DCP2 activation. Our data indicate that DCP2 activation by DCP1 occurs preferentially on the EDC4 scaffold, which may serve to couple DCP2 activation by DCP1 with 5'-to-3' mRNA degradation by XRN1 in human cells.
Project description:DCP1 stimulates the decapping enzyme DCP2, which removes the mRNA 5' cap structure committing mRNAs to degradation. In multicellular eukaryotes, DCP1-DCP2 interaction is stabilized by additional proteins, including EDC4. However, most information on DCP2 activation stems from studies in S. cerevisiae, which lacks EDC4. Furthermore, DCP1 orthologs from multicellular eukaryotes have a C-terminal extension, absent in fungi. Here, we show that in metazoa, a conserved DCP1 C-terminal domain drives DCP1 trimerization. Crystal structures of the DCP1-trimerization domain reveal an antiparallel assembly comprised of three kinked alpha-helices. Trimerization is required for DCP1 to be incorporated into active decapping complexes and for efficient mRNA decapping in vivo. Our results reveal an unexpected connectivity and complexity of the mRNA decapping network in multicellular eukaryotes, which likely enhances opportunities for regulating mRNA degradation.
Project description:Cap hydrolysis is a critical step in several eukaryotic mRNA decay pathways and is carried out by the evolutionarily conserved decapping complex containing Dcp2 at the catalytic core. In yeast, Dcp1 is an essential activator of decapping and coactivators such as Edc1 and Edc2 are thought to enhance activity, though their mechanism remains elusive. Using kinetic analysis we show that a crucial function of Dcp1 is to couple the binding of coactivators of decapping to activation of Dcp2. Edc1 and Edc2 bind Dcp1 via its EVH1 proline recognition site and stimulate decapping by 1000-fold, affecting both the K(M) for mRNA and rate of the catalytic step. The C-terminus of Edc1 is necessary and sufficient to enhance the catalytic step, while the remainder of the protein likely increases mRNA binding to the decapping complex. Lesions in the Dcp1 EVH1 domain or the Edc1 proline-rich sequence are sufficient to block stimulation. These results identify a new role of Dcp1, which is to link the binding of coactivators to substrate recognition and activation of Dcp2.
Project description:The Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex catalyses the removal of the mRNA 5' cap structure. Activator proteins, including Edc3 (enhancer of decapping 3), modulate its activity. Here, we solved the structure of the yeast Edc3 LSm domain in complex with a short helical leucine-rich motif (HLM) from Dcp2. The motif interacts with the monomeric Edc3 LSm domain in an unprecedented manner and recognizes a noncanonical binding surface. Based on the structure, we identified additional HLMs in the disordered C-terminal extension of Dcp2 that can interact with Edc3. Moreover, the LSm domain of the Edc3-related protein Scd6 competes with Edc3 for the interaction with these HLMs. We show that both Edc3 and Scd6 stimulate decapping in vitro, presumably by preventing the Dcp1:Dcp2 complex from adopting an inactive conformation. In addition, we show that the C-terminal HLMs in Dcp2 are necessary for the localization of the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex to P-bodies in vivo. Unexpectedly, in contrast to yeast, in metazoans the HLM is found in Dcp1, suggesting that details underlying the regulation of mRNA decapping changed throughout evolution.
Project description:Removal of the 5' cap on mRNA by the decapping enzyme Dcp2 is a critical step in 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. Understanding the structural basis of Dcp2 activity has been a challenge because Dcp2 is dynamic and has weak affinity for the cap substrate. Here we present a 2.6-Å-resolution crystal structure of a heterotrimer of fission yeast Dcp2, its essential activator Dcp1, and the human NMD cofactor PNRC2, in complex with a tight-binding cap analog. Cap binding is accompanied by a conformational change in Dcp2, thereby forming a composite nucleotide-binding site comprising conserved residues in the catalytic and regulatory domains. Kinetic analysis of PNRC2 revealed that a conserved short linear motif enhances both substrate affinity and the catalytic step of decapping. These findings explain why Dcp2 requires a conformational change for efficient catalysis and reveals that coactivators promote RNA binding and the catalytic step of decapping, possibly through different conformational states.
Project description:A critical step in mRNA degradation is the removal of the 5' cap structure, which is catalyzed by the Dcp1-Dcp2 complex. The crystal structure of an S. pombe Dcp1p-Dcp2n complex combined with small-angle X-ray scattering analysis (SAXS) reveals that Dcp2p exists in open and closed conformations, with the closed complex being, or closely resembling, the catalytically more active form. This suggests that a conformational change between these open and closed complexes might control decapping. A bipartite RNA-binding channel containing the catalytic site and Box B motif is identified with a bound ATP located in the catalytic pocket in the closed complex, suggesting possible interactions that facilitate substrate binding. Dcp1 stimulates the activity of Dcp2 by promoting and/or stabilizing the closed complex. Notably, the interface of Dcp1 and Dcp2 is not fully conserved, explaining why the Dcp1-Dcp2 interaction in higher eukaryotes requires an additional factor.
Project description:The conserved decapping enzyme Dcp2 recognizes and removes the 5' eukaryotic cap from mRNA transcripts in a critical step of many cellular RNA decay pathways. Dcp2 is a dynamic enzyme that functions in concert with the essential activator Dcp1 and a diverse set of coactivators to selectively and efficiently decap target mRNAs in the cell. Here we present a 2.84?Å crystal structure of K. lactis Dcp1-Dcp2 in complex with coactivators Edc1 and Edc3, and with substrate analog bound to the Dcp2 active site. Our structure shows how Dcp2 recognizes cap substrate in the catalytically active conformation of the enzyme, and how coactivator Edc1 forms a three-way interface that bridges the domains of Dcp2 to consolidate the active conformation. Kinetic data reveal Dcp2 has selectivity for the first transcribed nucleotide during the catalytic step. The heterotetrameric Edc1-Dcp1-Dcp2-Edc3 structure shows how coactivators Edc1 and Edc3 can act simultaneously to activate decapping catalysis.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNA degradation often occurs in a process whereby translation initiation is inhibited and the mRNA is targeted for decapping. In yeast cells, Pat1, Scd6, Edc3, and Dhh1 all function to promote decapping by an unknown mechanism(s). We demonstrate that purified Scd6 and a region of Pat1 directly repress translation in vitro by limiting the formation of a stable 48S preinitiation complex. Moreover, while Pat1, Edc3, Dhh1, and Scd6 all bind the decapping enzyme, only Pat1 and Edc3 enhance its activity. We also identify numerous direct interactions between Pat1, Dcp1, Dcp2, Dhh1, Scd6, Edc3, Xrn1, and the Lsm1-7 complex. These observations identify three classes of decapping activators that function to directly repress translation initiation and/or stimulate Dcp1/2. Moreover, Pat1 is identified as critical in mRNA decay by first inhibiting translation initiation, then serving as a scaffold to recruit components of the decapping complex, and finally activating Dcp2.
Project description:The removal of the 5' cap structure by the decapping enzyme DCP2 inhibits translation and generally commits the mRNA to irreversible 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation by XRN1. DCP2 catalytic activity is stimulated by DCP1, and these proteins form the conserved core of the decapping complex. Additional decapping factors orchestrate the recruitment and activity of this complex in vivo. These factors include enhancer of decapping 3 (EDC3), EDC4, like Sm14A (LSm14A), Pat, the LSm1-7 complex, and the RNA helicase DDX6. Decapping factors are often modular and feature folded domains flanked or connected by low-complexity disordered regions. Recent studies have made important advances in understanding how these disordered regions contribute to the assembly of decapping complexes and promote phase transitions that drive RNP granule formation. These studies have also revealed that the decapping network is governed by interactions mediated by short linear motifs (SLiMs) in these disordered regions. Consequently, the network has rapidly evolved, and although decapping factors are conserved, individual interactions between orthologs have been rewired during evolution. The plasticity of the network facilitates the acquisition of additional subunits or domains in pre-existing subunits, enhances opportunities for regulating mRNA degradation, and eventually leads to the emergence of novel functions.
Project description:mRNA decapping by Dcp2 is a critical step in several major eukaryotic mRNA decay pathways. Dcp2 forms the catalytic core of a mRNP that is configured for processing diverse substrates by pathway-specific activators. Here we elaborate a model of catalysis by Dcp2 which posits that activity is controlled by a conformational equilibrium between an open, inactive and closed, active form of the enzyme. Structural studies on yeast Dcp2 indicate that the general activator Dcp1 and substrate promote the closed form of the enzyme. Kinetic studies indicate the catalytic step of decapping is rate-limiting and accelerated by Dcp1. We propose that regulation of conformational transitions in Dcp2 during a rate-limiting step after assembly of the decapping mRNP provides a checkpoint for determining if an mRNA is degraded or recycled to translation.
Project description:Most eukaryotic mRNAs harbor a characteristic 5' m7GpppN cap that promotes pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and translation while also protecting mRNAs from exonucleolytic attacks. mRNA caps are eliminated by Dcp2 during mRNA decay, allowing 5'-3' exonucleases to degrade mRNA bodies. However, the Dcp2 decapping enzyme is poorly active on its own and requires binding to stable or transient protein partners to sever the cap of target mRNAs. Here, we analyse the role of one of these partners, the yeast Pby1 factor, which is known to co-localize into P-bodies together with decapping factors. We report that Pby1 uses its C-terminal domain to directly bind to the decapping enzyme. We solved the structure of this Pby1 domain alone and bound to the Dcp1-Dcp2-Edc3 decapping complex. Structure-based mutant analyses reveal that Pby1 binding to the decapping enzyme is required for its recruitment into P-bodies. Moreover, Pby1 binding to the decapping enzyme stimulates growth in conditions in which decapping activation is compromised. Our results point towards a direct connection of Pby1 with decapping and P-body formation, both stemming from its interaction with the Dcp1-Dcp2 holoenzyme.