Thiol-dependent recovery of catalytic activity from oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases.
ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in the regulation of mammalian signal transduction. During some cell signaling processes, the generation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide inactivates selected PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low-molecular weight and protein thiols in the cell have the potential to regenerate the catalytically active PTPs. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively inactivated PTPs (PTP1B and SHP-2) by various low-molecular weight thiols and the enzyme thioredoxin. All monothiols examined regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B, with apparent rate constants that varied by a factor of approximately 8. In general, molecules bearing low-pKa thiol groups were particularly effective. The biological thiol glutathione repaired oxidized PTP1B with an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.023 ± 0.004 M(-1) s(-1), while the dithiol dithiothreitol (DTT) displayed an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.325 ± 0.007 M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme thioredoxin regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B at a substantially faster rate than DTT. Thioredoxin (2 ?M) converted oxidized PTP1B to the active form with an observed rate constant of 1.4 × 10(-3) s(-1). The rates at which these agents regenerated oxidized PTP1B followed the order Trx > DTT > GSHand comparable values observed at 2 ?M Trx, 4 mM DTT, and 60 mM GSH. Various disulfides that are byproducts of the reactivation process did not inactivate native PTP1B at concentrations of 1-20 mM. The common biochemical reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine regenerates enzymatic activity from oxidized PTP1B somewhat faster than the thiol-based reagents, with a rate constant of 1.5 ± 0.5 M(-1) s(-1). We observed profound kinetic differences between the thiol-dependent regeneration of activity from oxidized PTP1B and SHP-2, highlighting the potential for structural differences in various oxidized PTPs to play a significant role in the rates at which low-molecular weight thiols and thiol-containing enzymes such as thioredoxin and glutaredoxin return catalytic activity to these enzymes during cell signaling events.
Project description:The inhibitory reversible oxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is an important regulatory mechanism in growth factor signaling. Studies on PTP oxidation have focused on pathways that increase or decrease reactive oxygen species levels and thereby affect PTP oxidation. The processes involved in reactivation of oxidized PTPs remain largely unknown. Here the role of the thioredoxin (Trx) system in reactivation of oxidized PTPs was analyzed using a combination of in vitro and cell-based assays. Cells lacking the major Trx reductase TrxR1 (Txnrd1(-/-)) displayed increased oxidation of PTP1B, whereas SHP2 oxidation was unchanged. Furthermore, in vivo-oxidized PTP1B was reduced by exogenously added Trx system components, whereas SHP2 oxidation remained unchanged. Trx1 reduced oxidized PTP1B in vitro but failed to reactivate oxidized SHP2. Interestingly, the alternative TrxR1 substrate TRP14 also reactivated oxidized PTP1B, but not SHP2. Txnrd1-depleted cells displayed increased phosphorylation of PDGF-? receptor, and an enhanced mitogenic response, after PDGF-BB stimulation. The TrxR inhibitor auranofin also increased PDGF-? receptor phosphorylation. This effect was not observed in cells specifically lacking PTP1B. Together these results demonstrate that the Trx system, including both Trx1 and TRP14, impacts differentially on the oxidation of individual PTPs, with a preference of PTP1B over SHP2 activation. The studies demonstrate a previously unrecognized pathway for selective redox-regulated control of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.
Project description:The role in the activation of microsomal 5'-deiodinase (5'-DI) of rat hepatic cytosolic components of Mr approx. 13,000 (Fraction B) was studied in the presence of various concentrations of thiol compounds such as dithiothreitol (DTT), dihydrolipoamide (DHLA), GSH, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). Although Fraction B (which was prepared by gel filtration to exclude GSH and GSSG) had no intrinsic 5'-DI activity, could not stimulate microsomal 5'-DI activity in the absence of added thiol and did not contain GSH as a mixed disulphide, it could produce a 3-fold increase in the maximal deiodinase activity achievable with DTT as well as other thiols, with the order being the same as the activation potency of these thiols in the absence of Fraction B (i.e. DHLA greater than DTT greater than 2-ME greater than GSH). These observations suggest that: a component of cytosolic Fraction B, designated 'deiodination factor B' (DFB), operates as an efficient intermediary to enhance activation of microsomal 5'-DI by thiols through a mechanism independent of GSH; thiols may participate in a non-specific thiol-disulphide exchange with inactive (oxidized) DFB to convert it into an active form that contains one or more thiol groups and is more effective than GSH or other thiols in facilitating the re-activation of inactive (oxidized) microsomal 5'-DI thiol (ESI) to its active state (ESH).
Project description:Thiol-disulfide interconversions play a crucial role in the chemistry of biological systems. They participate in the major systems that control the cellular redox potential and prevent oxidative damage. In addition, thiol-disulfide exchange reactions serve as molecular switches in a growing number of redox-regulated proteins. We developed a differential thiol-trapping technique combined with two-dimensional gel analysis, which in combination with genetic studies, allowed us to obtain a snapshot of the in vivo thiol status of cellular proteins. We determined the redox potential of protein thiols in vivo, identified and dissected the in vivo substrate proteins of the major cellular thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases, and discovered proteins that undergo thiol modifications during oxidative stress. Under normal growth conditions most cytosolic proteins had reduced cysteines, confirming existing dogmas. Among the few partly oxidized cytosolic proteins that we detected were proteins that are known to form disulfide bond intermediates transiently during their catalytic cycle (e.g., dihydrolipoyl transacetylase and lipoamide dehydrogenase). Most proteins with highly oxidized thiols were periplasmic proteins and were found to be in vivo substrates of the disulfide-bond-forming protein DsbA. We discovered a substantial number of redox-sensitive cytoplasmic proteins, whose thiol groups were significantly oxidized in strains lacking thioredoxin A. These included detoxifying enzymes as well as many metabolic enzymes with active-site cysteines that were not known to be substrates for thioredoxin. H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress resulted in the specific oxidation of thiols of proteins involved in detoxification of H(2)O(2) and of enzymes of cofactor and amino acid biosynthesis pathways such as thiolperoxidase, GTP-cyclohydrolase I, and the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE. Remarkably, a number of these proteins were previously or are now shown to be redox regulated.
Project description:Irreversible oxidation of Cys residues to sulfinic/sulfonic forms typically impairs protein function. We found that persulfidation (CysSSH) protects Cys from irreversible oxidative loss of function by the formation of CysSSO1-3H derivatives that can subsequently be reduced back to native thiols. Reductive reactivation of oxidized persulfides by the thioredoxin system was demonstrated in albumin, Prx2, and PTP1B. In cells, this mechanism protects and regulates key proteins of signaling pathways, including Prx2, PTEN, PTP1B, HSP90, and KEAP1. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we show that (i) CysSSH and CysSSO3H species are abundant in mouse liver and enzymatically regulated by the glutathione and thioredoxin systems and (ii) deletion of the thioredoxin-related protein TRP14 in mice altered CysSSH levels on a subset of proteins, predicting a role for TRP14 in persulfide signaling. Furthermore, selenium supplementation, polysulfide treatment, or knockdown of TRP14 mediated cellular responses to EGF, suggesting a role for TrxR1/TRP14-regulated oxidative persulfidation in growth factor responsiveness.
Project description:Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA; EC ) reverses the inactivation of many proteins due to the oxidation of critical methionine residues by reducing methionine sulfoxide, Met(O), to methionine. MsrA activity is independent of bound metal and cofactors but does require reducing equivalents from either DTT or a thioredoxin-regenerating system. In an effort to understand these observations, the four cysteine residues of bovine MsrA were mutated to serine in a series of permutations. An analysis of the enzymatic activity of the variants and their free sulfhydryl states by mass spectrometry revealed that thiol-disulfide exchange occurs during catalysis. In particular, the strictly conserved Cys-72 was found to be essential for activity and could form disulfide bonds, only upon incubation with substrate, with either Cys-218 or Cys-227, located at the C terminus. The significantly decreased activity of the Cys-218 and Cys-227 variants in the presence of thioredoxin suggested that these residues shuttle reducing equivalents from thioredoxin to the active site. A reaction mechanism based on the known reactivities of thiols with sulfoxides and the available data for MsrA was formulated. In this scheme, Cys-72 acts as a nucleophile and attacks the sulfur atom of the sulfoxide moiety, leading to the formation of a covalent, tetracoordinate intermediate. Collapse of the intermediate is facilitated by proton transfer and the concomitant attack of Cys-218 on Cys-72, leading to the formation of a disulfide bond. The active site is returned to the reduced state for another round of catalysis by a series of thiol-disulfide exchange reactions via Cys-227, DTT, or thioredoxin.
Project description:Protein S-nitrosylation mediated by cellular nitric oxide (NO) plays a primary role in executing biological functions in cGMP-independent NO signaling. Although S-nitrosylation appears similar to Cys oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species, the molecular mechanism and biological consequence remain unclear. We investigated the structural process of S-nitrosylation of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). We treated PTP1B with various NO donors, including S-nitrosothiol reagents and compound-releasing NO radicals, to produce site-specific Cys S-nitrosylation identified using advanced mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. Quantitative MS showed that the active site Cys-215 was the primary residue susceptible to S-nitrosylation. The crystal structure of NO donor-reacted PTP1B at 2.6 A resolution revealed that the S-NO state at Cys-215 had no discernible irreversibly oxidized forms, whereas other Cys residues remained in their free thiol states. We further demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of the Cys-215 residue protected PTP1B from subsequent H(2)O(2)-induced irreversible oxidation. Increasing the level of cellular NO by pretreating cells with an NO donor or by activating ectopically expressed NO synthase inhibited reactive oxygen species-induced irreversible oxidation of endogenous PTP1B. These findings suggest that S-nitrosylation might prevent PTPs from permanent inactivation caused by oxidative stress.
Project description:The identification of substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is an essential step toward a complete understanding of the physiological function of members of this enzyme family. PTPs are defined by a conserved catalytic domain harboring 27 invariant residues. From a mutagenesis study of these invariant residues that was guided by our knowledge of the crystal structure of PTP1B, we have discovered a mutation of the invariant catalytic acid (Asp-181 in PTP1B) that converts an extremely active enzyme into a "substrate trap." Expression of this D181A mutant of PTP1B in COS and 293 cells results in an enzyme that competes with endogenous PTP1B for substrates and promotes the accumulation of phosphotyrosine primarily on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as well as on proteins of 120, 80, and 70 kDa. The association between the D181A mutant of PTP1B and these substrates was sufficiently stable to allow isolation of the complex by immunoprecipitation. As predicted for an interaction between the substrate-binding site of PTP1B and its substrates, the complex is disrupted by vanadate and, for the EGF receptor, the interaction absolutely requires receptor autophosphorylation. Furthermore, from immunofluorescence studies, the D181A mutant of PTP1B appeared to retain the endogenous EGF receptor in an intracellular complex. These results suggest that the EGF receptor is a bona fide substrate for PTP1B in vivo and that one important function of PTP1B is to prevent the inappropriate, ligand-independent, activation of newly synthesized EGF receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum. This essential catalytic aspartate residue is present in all PTPs and has structurally equivalent counterparts in the dual-specificity phosphatases and the low molecular weight PTPs. Therefore we anticipate that this method may be widely applicable to facilitate the identification of substrates of other members of this enzyme family.
Project description:Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) counteract protein tyrosine phosphorylation and cooperate with receptor-tyrosine kinases in the regulation of cell signaling. PTPs need to undergo oxidative inhibition for activation of cellular cascades of protein-tyrosine kinase phosphorylation following growth factor stimulation. It has remained enigmatic how such oxidation can occur in the presence of potent cellular reducing systems. Here, using in vitro biochemical assays with purified, recombinant protein, along with experiments in the adenocarcinoma cell line A431, we discovered that bicarbonate, which reacts with H2O2 to form the more reactive peroxymonocarbonate, potently facilitates H2O2-mediated PTP1B inactivation in the presence of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) together with NADPH. The cellular experiments revealed that intracellular bicarbonate proportionally dictates total protein phosphotyrosine levels obtained after stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that bicarbonate levels directly correlate with the extent of PTP1B oxidation. In fact, EGF-induced cellular oxidation of PTP1B was completely dependent on the presence of bicarbonate. These results provide a plausible mechanism for PTP inactivation during cell signaling and explain long-standing observations that growth factor responses and protein phosphorylation cascades are intimately linked to the cellular acid-base balance.
Project description:Although originally considered toxic, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been implicated in mediating various biological processes. Nevertheless, its cellular targets and mode of action are not well understood. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which regulate numerous signal transduction pathways, use an essential cysteine residue at the active site, which is characterized by a low pK(a) and is susceptible to reversible oxidation. Here, we report that PTP1B was reversibly inactivated by H(2)S, in vitro and in cells, through sulfhydration of the active-site cysteine residue. Unlike oxidized PTP1B, the sulfhydrated enzyme was preferentially reduced in vitro by thioredoxin, compared to glutathione or dithiothreitol. Sulfhydration of PTP1B in cells required the presence of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), a critical enzyme in H(2)S production, and resulted in inhibition of phosphatase activity. Suppression of CSE decreased H(2)S production and decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine-619 in PERK [protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase], thus reducing its activation in response to ER stress. PERK, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2, leading to attenuation of protein translation, was a direct substrate of PTP1B. In addition, CSE knockdown led to activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase SRC, previously shown to be mediated by PTP1B. These effects of suppressing H(2)S production on the response to ER stress were abrogated by a small-molecule inhibitor of PTP1B. Together, these data define a signaling function for H(2)S in inhibiting PTP1B activity and thereby promoting PERK activity during the response to ER stress.
Project description:Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Each polypeptide of the large subunit of eukaryotic RNRs contains two redox-active cysteine pairs, one in the active site and the other at the C-terminus. In each catalytic cycle, the active-site disulfide is reduced by the C-terminal cysteine pair, which in turn is reduced by thioredoxins or glutaredoxins. Dithiols such as DTT are used in RNR studies instead of the thioredoxin or glutaredoxin systems. DTT can directly reduce the disulfide in the active site and does not require the C-terminal cysteines for RNR activity. Here we demonstrate that the phosphines tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THP) are efficient non-thiol RNR reductants, but in contrast to the dithiols DTT, bis(2-mercaptoethyl)sulfone (BMS), and (S)-(1,4-dithiobutyl)-2-amine (DTBA) they act specifically via the C-terminal disulfide in a manner similar to thioredoxin and glutaredoxin. The simultaneous use of phosphines and dithiols results in ~3-fold higher activity compared to what is achieved when either type of reductant is used alone. This surprising effect can be explained by the concerted action of dithiols on the active-site cysteines and phosphines on the C-terminal cysteines. As non-thiol and non-protein reductants, phosphines can be used to differentiate between the redox-active cysteine pairs in RNRs.