Modulation of K(ATP) currents in rat ventricular myocytes by hypoxia and a redox reaction.
ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the possible regulatory mechanisms of redox agents and hypoxia on the K(ATP) current (I(KATP)) in acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes.Single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record the K(ATP) current (I(KATP)) in acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes.Oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 1 mmol/L) increased the I(KATP), while reduced glutathione (GSH, 1 mmol/L) could reverse the increased I(KATP) during normoxia. To further corroborate the effect of the redox agent on the K(ATP) channel, we employed the redox couple DTT (1 mmol/L)/H2O2 (0.3, 0.6, and 1 mmol/L) and repeated the previous processes, which produced results similar to the previous redox couple GSH/GSSG during normoxia. H2O2 increased the I(KATP) in a concentration dependent manner, which was reversed by DTT (1 mmol/L). In addition, our results have shown that 15 min of hypoxia increased the I(KATP), while GSH (1 mmol/L) could reverse the increased I(KATP). Furthermore, in order to study the signaling pathways of the I(KATP) augmented by hypoxia and the redox agent, we applied a protein kinase C(PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide VI (BIM), a protein kinase G(PKG) inhibitor KT5823, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors KN-62 and KN-93. The results indicated that BIM, KT5823, KN-62, and KN-93, but not H-89, inhibited the I(KATP) augmented by hypoxia and GSSG; in addition, these results suggest that the effects of both GSSG and hypoxia on K(ATP) channels involve the activation of the PKC, PKG, and CaMK II pathways, but not the PKA pathway.The present study provides electrophysiological evidence that hypoxia and the oxidizing reaction are closely related to the modulation of I(KATP).
Project description:Cellular mechanisms that maintain redox homeostasis are crucial, providing buffering against oxidative stress. Glutathione, the most abundant low molecular weight thiol, is considered the major cellular redox buffer in most cells. To better understand how cells maintain glutathione redox homeostasis, cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with extracellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the effect on intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSSG were monitored over time. Intriguingly cells lacking GLR1 encoding the GSSG reductase in S. cerevisiae accumulated increased levels of GSH via a mechanism independent of the GSH biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, residual NADPH-dependent GSSG reductase activity was found in lysate derived from glr1 cell. The cytosolic thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system and not the glutaredoxins (Grx1p, Grx2p, Grx6p, and Grx7p) contributes to the reduction of GSSG. Overexpression of the thioredoxins TRX1 or TRX2 in glr1 cells reduced GSSG accumulation, increased GSH levels, and reduced cellular glutathione E(h)'. Conversely, deletion of TRX1 or TRX2 in the glr1 strain led to increased accumulation of GSSG, reduced GSH levels, and increased cellular E(h)'. Furthermore, it was found that purified thioredoxins can reduce GSSG to GSH in the presence of thioredoxin reductase and NADPH in a reconstituted in vitro system. Collectively, these data indicate that the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system can function as an alternative system to reduce GSSG in S. cerevisiae in vivo.
Project description:Several lines of evidence indicate that perturbations in the extracellular thiol/disulfide redox environment correlate with the progression and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). Cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide Cystine (CySS) constitute the most abundant, low-molecular-weight thiol/disulfide redox couple in the plasma, and Cys homeostasis is adversely affected during the inflammatory response to infection and injury. While much emphasis has been placed on glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), little is known about the regulation of the Cys/CySS couple in ALI. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endotoxin administration causes a decrease in Cys and/or an oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox state (E(h) Cys/CySS), and to determine whether these changes were associated with changes in plasma E(h) GSH/GSSG. Mice received endotoxin intraperitoneally, and GSH and Cys redox states were measured at time points known to correlate with the progression of endotoxin-induced lung injury. E(h) in mV was calculated using Cys, CySS, GSH, and GSSG values by high-performance liquid chromatography and the Nernst equation. We observed distinct effects of endotoxin on the GSH and Cys redox systems during the acute phase; plasma E(h) Cys/CySS was selectively oxidized early in response to endotoxin, while E(h) GSH/GSSG remained unchanged. Unexpectedly, subsequent oxidation of E(h) GSH/GSSG and E(h) Cys/CySS occurred as a consequence of endotoxin-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results indicate that enhanced oxidation of Cys, altered transport of Cys and CySS, and decreased food intake each contribute to the oxidation of plasma Cys/CySS redox state in endotoxemia.
Project description:White adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in obesity pathophysiology. Redox signaling underlies several aspects of WAT physiology; however, the thiol redox environment of WAT has not yet been fully characterized. Dietary and endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during development can transiently impact the cellular redox environment, but it is unknown whether these exposures can reprogram the WAT thiol redox environment. To characterize the WAT thiol redox environment, we took a descriptive approach and measured thiol redox parameters using high-performance liquid chromatography in mouse mesenteric (mWAT), gonadal (gWAT) and subinguinal (sWAT) depots. Cysteine (CYSS:CYS) and glutathione (GSSG:GSH) redox potentials (Eh) were more oxidizing in gWAT and sWAT than mWAT. Increased body weight, relative WAT weight and age were associated with oxidizing GSSG:GSH Eh in mWAT in a sex-specific manner. Body weight and relative WAT weight were also positively associated with GSSG:GSH Eh in sWAT. We carried out a second mouse study with perinatal exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) and Mediterranean and Western high-fat diets (HFDs) to determine whether early-life chemical and dietary factors have long-lasting impacts on mWAT redox parameters. Mice exposed to Mediterranean HFD or BPA had more oxidizing GSSG:GSH mWAT Eh than controls, with more pronounced differences in females. These findings suggest an important role for the thiol redox environment in WAT physiology. Observed sex-specific and depot-specific differences in thiol redox parameters are consistent with known WAT physiology. Lastly, mWAT GSSG:GSH Eh may be reprogrammed by developmental exposure to HFDs and EDCs, which may have implications for obesity risk.
Project description:Sildenafil, a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) induces powerful protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PDE-5 inhibition increases cGMP levels that activate cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). However, the cause and effect relationship of PKG in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection and the downstream targets of PKG remain unclear. Adult ventricular myocytes were treated with sildenafil and subjected to simulated ischemia and reoxygenation. Sildenafil treatment significantly decreased cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis. The PKG inhibitors, KT5823, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio) (R(p)-8-pCPT-cGMPs), or DT-2 blocked the anti-necrotic and anti-apoptotic effect of sildenafil. Selective knockdown of PKG in cardiomyocytes with adenoviral vector containing short hairpin RNA of PKG also abolished sildenafil-induced protection. Furthermore, intra-coronary infusion of sildenafil in Langendorff-isolated mouse hearts prior to ischemia-reperfusion significantly reduced myocardial infarct size after 20 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion, which was abrogated by KT5823. Sildenafil significantly increased PKG activity in intact hearts and cardiomyocytes. Sildenafil also enhanced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. All these changes (except Akt phosphorylation) were significantly blocked by KT5823 and short hairpin RNA of PKG. These studies provide the first evidence for an essential role of PKG in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection. Moreover, our results demonstrate that sildenafil activates a PKG-dependent novel signaling cascade that involves activation of ERK and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta leading to cytoprotection.
Project description:Thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems are considered to be two major redox systems in animal cells. They are reduced by NADPH via Trx reductase (TR) or oxidized GSH (GSSG) reductase and further supply electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, antioxidant defense, and redox regulation of signal transduction, transcription, cell growth, and apoptosis. We cloned and characterized a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase, Trx and GSSG reductase (TGR), that exhibits specificity for both redox systems. This enzyme contains a selenocysteine residue encoded by the TGA codon. TGR can reduce Trx, GSSG, and a GSH-linked disulfide in in vitro assays. This unusual substrate specificity is achieved by an evolutionary conserved fusion of the TR and glutaredoxin domains. These observations, together with the biochemical probing and molecular modeling of the TGR structure, suggest a mechanism whereby the C-terminal selenotetrapeptide serves a role of a protein-linked GSSG and shuttles electrons from the disulfide center within the TR domain to either the glutaredoxin domain or Trx.
Project description:rs10911021 (a single nucleotide polymorphism present upstream of the GLUL gene) affects glutamic acid metabolism, and was shown to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with T2DM but a definite mechanism is unknown. It may affect glutathione cycle, an important effector in the antioxidant defense mechanism, in the cells. We checked the association of this SNP with CHD and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdeheyde (MDA), GSH and GSSG in Pakistani patients.A total of 650 subjects (425 CHD cases and 225 controls) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination technique. The levels of MDA, GSH and GSSG were measured by standard protocols.The risk allele frequency was higher in cases than controls, but the difference was insignificant (p = 0.55). The SNP was not associated with CHD (p = 0.053) but when the analysis was limited to CHD patients having DM, a significant association (p = 0.03) was observed. The blood levels of MDA and GSSG were higher while that of GSH was significantly lower in the cases than the controls (p < 0.05). Each risk allele increased MDA and GSSG by 0.29 (0.036) mmol/l and 0.4 (0.04) mmol/l, respectively, while decreased GSH by -0.36 (0.03) mmol/l. The SNP was not associated with any of the tested blood lipids.The SNP rs10911021 was associated with CHD only in patients having diabetes, but the SNP was associated with total oxidative stress biomarkers MDA and GSH and GSSG levels. As the SNP rs10911021 showed significant association with oxidative stress parameters and these parameters should an increased oxidative stress in the CHD subjects, it can be concluded that the SNP may have contributed to increase the risk of heart diseases in the diabetic subjects by increasing the oxidative stress.
Project description:Mechanisms of mercury (Hg) toxicity at low doses from seafood consumption, the most common exposure route, are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that seafood Hg exposure is related to a shift in redox status, indicated by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) in blood, or increase in redox potential (Eh). We also examined whether key seafood nutrients (selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) confound or modify this shift. We measured blood concentrations of total Hg, Se, GSH, GSSG, and the Omega-3 Index (% omega-3s of total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes) in seafood consumers in Long Island, NY. We examined relationships between Hg, GSH:GSSG ratio and Eh. Elevated blood Hg (>5.8µgL(-1)) was associated with lower GSH:GSSG (?=-116.73, p=0.01), with no evidence of confounding by Se or Omega-3 Index. However, in models stratified by Omega-3 Index levels, Hg-GSH:GSSG associations were weakened among those with high Omega-3 Index levels (>6% of fatty acids, ?=-63.46, p=0.28), and heightened among those with low Omega-3 Index (?=-182.53, p<0.01). We observed comparable patterns for Eh in relation to Hg. These results support the hypothesis that Hg exposure from seafood is linked to a shift in redox status toward oxidative stress, modified by omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Further work should examine the role of different seafood nutrients and Hg-induced shifts in redox status in the diverse health effects associated with elevated Hg exposure.
Project description:In most organisms, thioredoxin (Trx) and/or glutathione (GSH) systems are essential for redox homeostasis and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Platyhelminth parasites have a unique and simplified thiol-based redox system, in which the selenoprotein thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase domains, is the sole enzyme supplying electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and Trx. This enzyme has recently been validated as a key drug target for flatworm infections. In this study, we show that TGR possesses GSH-independent deglutathionylase activity on a glutathionylated peptide. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deglutathionylation and GSSG reduction are mediated by the Grx domain by a monothiolic mechanism and that the glutathionylated TGR intermediate is resolved by selenocysteine. Deglutathionylation and GSSG reduction via Grx domain, but not Trx reduction, are inhibited at high [GSSG]/[GSH] ratios. We found that Trxs (cytosolic and mitochondrial) provide alternative pathways for deglutathionylation and GSSG reduction. These pathways are operative at high [GSSG]/[GSH] and function in a complementary manner to the Grx domain-dependent one. Despite the existence of alternative pathways, the thioredoxin reductase domains of TGR are an obligate electron route for both the Grx domain- and the Trx-dependent pathways. Overall, our results provide an explanation for the unique array of thiol-dependent redox pathways present in parasitic platyhelminths. Finally, we found that TGR is inhibited by 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-3-methyl-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene (NOC-7), giving further evidence for NO donation as a mechanism of action for oxadiazole N-oxide TGR inhibitors. Thus, NO donors aimed at TGR could disrupt the entire redox homeostasis of parasitic flatworms.
Project description:Mitochondrial disorders are associated with decreased energy production and redox imbalance. Glutathione plays a central role in redox signaling and protecting cells from oxidative damage. In order to understand the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction on in vivo redox status, and to determine how this varies by mitochondrial disease subtype and clinical severity, we used a sensitive tandem mass spectrometry assay to precisely quantify whole blood reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione levels in a large cohort of mitochondrial disorder patients. Glutathione redox potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. Compared to healthy controls (n = 59), mitochondrial disease patients (n = 58) as a group showed significant redox imbalance (redox potential -251 mV ± 9.7, p<0.0001) with an increased level of oxidation by ? 9 mV compared to controls (-260 mV ± 6.4). Underlying this abnormality were significantly lower whole blood GSH levels (p = 0.0008) and GSH/GSSG ratio (p = 0.0002), and significantly higher GSSG levels (p<0.0001) in mitochondrial disease patients compared to controls. Redox potential was significantly more oxidized in all mitochondrial disease subgroups including Leigh syndrome (n = 15), electron transport chain abnormalities (n = 10), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (n = 8), mtDNA deletion syndrome (n = 7), mtDNA depletion syndrome (n = 7), and miscellaneous other mitochondrial disorders (n = 11). Patients hospitalized in metabolic crisis (n = 7) showed the greatest degree of redox imbalance at -242 mV ± 7. Peripheral whole blood GSH and GSSG levels are promising biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction, and may give insights into the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of the various mitochondrial disorders. In particular, evaluation of redox potential may be useful in monitoring of clinical status or response to redox-modulating therapies in clinical trials.
Project description:ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in neurons regulate excitability, neurotransmitter release and mediate protection from cell-death. Furthermore, activation of KATP channels is suppressed in DRG neurons after painful-like nerve injury. NO-dependent mechanisms modulate both KATP channels and participate in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of neuropathic pain. Therefore, we investigated NO modulation of KATP channels in control and axotomized DRG neurons.Cell-attached and cell-free recordings of KATP currents in large DRG neurons from control rats (sham surgery, SS) revealed activation of KATP channels by NO exogenously released by the NO donor SNAP, through decreased sensitivity to [ATP]i. This NO-induced KATP channel activation was not altered in ganglia from animals that demonstrated sustained hyperalgesia-type response to nociceptive stimulation following spinal nerve ligation. However, baseline opening of KATP channels and their activation induced by metabolic inhibition was suppressed by axotomy. Failure to block the NO-mediated amplification of KATP currents with specific inhibitors of sGC and PKG indicated that the classical sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway was not involved in the activation by SNAP. NO-induced activation of KATP channels remained intact in cell-free patches, was reversed by DTT, a thiol-reducing agent, and prevented by NEM, a thiol-alkylating agent. Other findings indicated that the mechanisms by which NO activates KATP channels involve direct S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in the SUR1 subunit. Specifically, current through recombinant wild-type SUR1/Kir6.2 channels expressed in COS7 cells was activated by NO, but channels formed only from truncated isoform Kir6.2 subunits without SUR1 subunits were insensitive to NO. Further, mutagenesis of SUR1 indicated that NO-induced KATP channel activation involves interaction of NO with residues in the NBD1 of the SUR1 subunit.NO activates KATP channels in large DRG neurons via direct S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in the SUR1 subunit. The capacity of NO to activate KATP channels via this mechanism remains intact even after spinal nerve ligation, thus providing opportunities for selective pharmacological enhancement of KATP current even after decrease of this current by painful-like nerve injury.