Serum bactericidal assays to evaluate typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella vaccines.
ABSTRACT: Invasive Salmonella infections for which improved or new vaccines are being developed include enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B and sepsis and meningitis in young children in sub-Saharan Africa caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, particularly S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Assays are needed to measure functional antibodies elicited by the new vaccines to assess their immunogenicities and potential protective capacities. We developed in vitro assays to quantify serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) activity induced by S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Typhimurium, and S. Enteritidis vaccines in preclinical studies. Complement from various sources was tested in assays designed to measure antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing. Serum from rabbits 3 to 4 weeks of age provided the best complement source compared to serum from pigs, goats, horses, bovine calves, or rabbits 8 to 12 weeks of age. For S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Typhi SBA assays to be effective, bacteria had to be harvested at log phase. In contrast, S. Paratyphi A was equally susceptible to killing whether it was grown to the stationary or log phase. The typhoidal serovars were more susceptible to complement-mediated killing than were the nontyphoidal serovars. Lastly, the SBA endpoint titers correlated with serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) titers in mice immunized with mucosally administered S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Paratyphi A but not S. Typhi live attenuated vaccines. The SBA assay described here is a useful tool for measuring functional antibodies elicited by Salmonella vaccine candidates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contains more than 2,600 serovars of which four are of major medical relevance for humans. While the typhoidal serovars (Typhi and Paratyphi A) are human-restricted and cause enteric fever, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium and Enteritidis) have a broad host range and predominantly cause gastroenteritis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS:We compared the core proteomes of Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis using contemporary proteomics. For each serovar, five clinical isolates (covering different geographical origins) and one reference strain were grown in vitro to the exponential phase. Levels of orthologous proteins quantified in all four serovars and within the typhoidal and non-typhoidal groups were compared and subjected to gene ontology term enrichment and inferred regulatory interactions. Differential expression of the core proteomes of the typhoidal serovars appears mainly related to cell surface components and, for the non-typhoidal serovars, to pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins between Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, as well as understanding of disease progression.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contains more than 2,600 serovars of which four are of major medical relevance for humans. While the typhoidal serovars (Typhi and Paratyphi A) are human-restricted and cause enteric fever, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium and Enteritidis) have a broad host range and predominantly cause gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared the core proteomes of Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis using contemporary proteomics. Five isolates, covering different geographical origins, and one reference strain per serovar were grown in vitro to the exponential phase. Protein levels of orthologous proteins between serovars were compared and subjected to gene ontology term enrichment and inferred regulatory interactions. Differential expression of the core proteomes of the typhoidal serovars appears mainly related to cell surface components and, for the non-typhoidal serovars, to pathogenicity. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, and understanding of disease progression.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.
Project description:Abstract Objective There are no vaccines for most of the major invasive Salmonella strains causing severe infection in humans. We evaluated the specificity of adaptive T memory cell responses generated after Salmonella Typhi exposure in humans against other major invasive Salmonella strains sharing capacity for dissemination. Methods T memory cells from eleven volunteers who underwent controlled oral challenge with wtS. Typhi were characterised by flow cytometry for cross?reactive cellular cytokine/chemokine effector responses or evidence of degranulation upon stimulation with autologous B?lymphoblastoid cells infected with either S. Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A (PA), S. Paratyphi B (PB) or an invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strain of the S. Typhimurium serovar (iNTSTy). Results Blood T?cell effector memory (TEM) responses after exposure to S. Typhi in humans evolve late, peaking weeks after infection in most volunteers. Induced multifunctional CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ TEM cells elicited after S. Typhi challenge were cross?reactive with PA, PB and iNTSTy. The magnitude of multifunctional CD4+ TEM cell responses to S. Typhi correlated with induction of cross?reactive multifunctional CD8+ TEM cells against PA, PB and iNTSTy. Highly multifunctional subsets and T central memory and T effector memory cells that re?express CD45 (TEMRA) demonstrated less heterologous T?cell cross?reactivity, and multifunctional Th17 elicited after S. Typhi challenge was not cross?reactive against other invasive Salmonella. Conclusion Gaps in cross?reactive immune effector functions in human T?cell memory compartments were highly dependent on invasive Salmonella strain, underscoring the importance of strain?dependent vaccination in the design of T?cell?based vaccines for invasive Salmonella. Vaccines are lacking against several of the major causes of invasive Salmonella disease, such as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella and S. Paratyphi A. These studies demonstrate that T memory cell effector responses generated after human wtSalmonella Typhi mucosal infection are multifunctional and cross?reactive against S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B and an invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella Typhimurium strain, yet the specific functional characteristics of the memory T?cell responses are significantly impacted by serovar. These data provide a rationale for strain?specific vaccination against invasive Salmonella for next?generation T?cell?based vaccines.
Project description:Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide and a major cause of bloodstream infections in infants and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) and Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) are the most common serovars in this region. However, data describing rarer invasive NTS serovars, particularly those belonging to serogroups C1 and C2, circulating in SSA are lacking. We previously conducted systematic blood culture surveillance on pediatric patients in Bamako, Mali, from 2002 to 2014, and the results showed that serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis accounted for 32% and 36% of isolates, respectively. Here, we present data on 27 Salmonella serogroup C1 strains that were isolated during this previous study. The strains were typed by serum agglutination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixteen strains were Salmonella Paratyphi C, four were Salmonella Colindale, and two were Salmonella Virchow. Interestingly, five strains were identified as the very rare Salmonella Brazzaville using a combination of serum agglutination and flagellin gene typing. Phenotypic characterization showed that Salmonella Brazzaville produced biofilm and exhibited catalase activity, which were not statistically different from the gastroenteritis-associated Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 19. All tested Salmonella Paratyphi C strains were poor biofilm producers and showed significantly less catalase activity than Salmonella Typhimurium ST19. Overall, our study provides insight into the Salmonella serogroup C1 serovars that cause invasive disease in infants in Mali. In addition, we show that MLST and flagellin gene sequencing, in association with traditional serum agglutination, are invaluable tools to help identify rare Salmonella serovars.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.
Project description:Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi differs in its clinical presentation from gastroenteritis caused by S. Typhimurium and other non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. The different clinical presentations are attributed in part to the virulence-associated capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi, which prevents phagocytes from triggering a respiratory burst by preventing antibody-mediated complement activation. Paradoxically, the Vi antigen is absent from S. Paratyphi A, which causes a disease that is indistinguishable from typhoid fever. Here, we show that evasion of the phagocyte respiratory burst by S. Paratyphi A required very long O antigen chains containing the O2 antigen to inhibit antibody binding. We conclude that the ability to avoid the phagocyte respiratory burst is a property distinguishing typhoidal from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars that was acquired by S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A independently through convergent evolution.
Project description:Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are major causes of invasive bacterial infections in children under 5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa, with case fatality rates of ~20%. There are no licensed NTS vaccines for humans. Vaccines that induce antibodies against a Salmonella Typhi surface antigen, Vi polysaccharide, significantly protect humans against typhoid fever, establishing that immune responses to Salmonella surface antigens can be protective. Flagella proteins, abundant surface antigens in Salmonella serovars that cause human disease, are also powerful immunogens, but the functional capacity of elicited anti-flagellar antibodies and their role in facilitating bacterial clearance has been unclear. We examined the ability of anti-flagellar antibodies to mediate microbial killing by immune system components in-vitro and assessed their role in protecting mice against invasive Salmonella infection. Polyclonal (hyperimmune sera) and monoclonal antibodies raised against phase 1 flagellin proteins of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium facilitated bacterial uptake and killing of the homologous serovar pathogen by phagocytes. Polyclonal anti-flagellar antibodies accompanied by complement also achieved direct bacterial killing. Serum bactericidal activity was restricted to Salmonella serovars expressing the same flagellin used as immunogen. Notably, individual anti-flagellin monoclonal antibodies with complement were not bactericidal, but this biological activity was restored when different monoclonal anti-flagellin antibodies were combined. Passive transfer immunization with a monoclonal IgG antibody specific for phase 1 flagellin from S. Typhimurium protected mice against lethal challenge with a representative African invasive S. Typhimurium strain. These findings have relevance for the use of flagellin proteins in NTS vaccines, and confirm the role of anti-flagellin antibodies as mediators of protective immunity.
Project description:Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-13 is conserved in many serovars of S. enterica, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum. However, it is absent in typhoid serovars such as S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, which carry SPI-8 at the same genomic location. Because the interaction with macrophages is a critical step in Salmonella pathogenicity, in this study we investigated the role played by SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi with cultured murine (RAW264.7) and human (THP-1) macrophages.Our results showed that SPI-13 was required for internalization of S. Enteritidis in murine but not human macrophages. On the other hand, SPI-8 was not required for the interaction of S. Typhi with human or murine macrophages. Of note, the presence of an intact copy of SPI-13 in a S. Typhi mutant carrying a deletion of SPI-8 did not improve its ability to be internalized by, or survive in human or murine macrophages.Altogether, our results point out to different roles for SPI-13 and SPI-8 during Salmonella infection. While SPI-13 contributes to the interaction of S. Enteritidis with murine macrophages, SPI-8 is not required in the interaction of S. Typhi with murine or human macrophages. We hypothesized that typhoid serovars have lost SPI-13 and maintained SPI-8 to improve their fitness during another phase of human infection.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai are human-adapted pathogens that cause typhoid (enteric) fever. The acute prevalence in some global regions and the disease severity of typhoidal Salmonella have necessitated the development of rapid and specific detection tests. Most of the methodologies currently used to detect serovar Typhi do not identify serovars Paratyphi A or Sendai. To assist in this aim, comparative sequence analyses were performed at the loci of core bacterial genetic determinants and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 genes encoded by clinically significant S. enterica serovars. Genetic polymorphisms specific for serovar Typhi (at trpS), as well as polymorphisms unique to human-adapted typhoidal serovars (at sseC and sseF), were observed. Furthermore, entire coding sequences unique to human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella strains (i.e., serovar-specific genetic loci rather than polymorphisms) were observed in publicly available comparative genomic DNA microarray data sets. These polymorphisms and loci were developed into real-time PCR, standard PCR, and liquid microsphere suspension array-based molecular protocols and tested for with a panel of clinical and reference subspecies I S. enterica strains. A proportion of the nontyphoidal Salmonella strains hybridized with the allele-specific oligonucleotide probes for sseC and sseF; but the trpS allele was unique to serovar Typhi (with a singular serovar Paratyphi B strain as an exception), and the coding sequences STY4220 and STY4221 were unique among serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai. These determinants provided phylogenetic data on the genetic relatedness of serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai; and the protocols developed might allow the rapid identification of these Salmonella serovars that cause enteric fever.