Kinase insert domain receptor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) genetic variation is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this investigation was to determine if kinase insert domain/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR/VEGFR2) genetic variation was associated with the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).This was a case-control study of 174 patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. Patient blood samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the KDR locus. OHSS development, clinical outcome variables, SNP and haplotype frequencies were compared between control (n = 155) and OHSS (n = 19) groups.Patients who developed OHSS had significantly higher response markers (estradiol levels of the day of hCG administration, number of follicles developed, number of eggs retrieved) than control patients. When adjusted for age and self-identified race, the rs2305945 G/T genotype was associated (P = 0.027) with a decreased risk (OR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.93) of developing OHSS using an overdominant model. The rs2305945 G/T variant was also associated with decreased COH response (number of follicles, number of eggs retrieved) in an overdominant model. The rs2305948, rs1870378, rs2305945 (C-T-G) haplotype was associated with both decreased COH response and OHSS risk (unadjusted OR = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.80, P = 0.031).The KDR receptor is believed to play a central role OHSS development and is a target for pharmacological prevention of OHSS. These results indicate that genetic variation in the KDR gene may impact individual risk of developing OHSS from COH. In addition, the rs2305948 SNP and C-T-G haplotype might serve as potential biomarkers for poor ovarian response to COH.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between a purported luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LHCGR) high function polymorphism (rs4539842/insLQ) and outcome to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).This was a prospective study of 172 patients undergoing COH at the Fertility and IVF Center at GWU. DNA was isolated from blood samples and a region encompassing the insLQ polymorphism was sequenced. We also investigated a polymorphism (rs4073366 G?>?C) that was 142 bp from insLQ. The association of the insLQ and rs4073366 alleles and outcome to COH (number of mature follicles, estradiol level on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, the number of eggs retrieved and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)) was determined.Increasing age and higher day 3 (basal) FSH levels were significantly associated with poorer response to COH. We found that both insLQ and rs4073366 were in linkage disequilibrium (LD) and no patients were homozygous for both recessive alleles (insLQ/insLQ; C/C). The insLQ variant was not significantly associated with any of the main outcomes to COH. Carrier status for the rs4073366 C variant was associated (P?=?0.033) with an increased risk (OR 2.95, 95% CI?=?1.09-7.96) of developing OHSS.While age and day 3 FSH levels were predictive of outcome, we found no association between insLQ and patient response to COH. Interestingly, rs4073366 C variant carrier status was associated with OHSS risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that LHCGR genetic variation might function in patient risk for OHSS.
Project description:Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of IVF/ICSI therapy. The pathophysiology and etiology of the disease is still not fully clarified.To assess whether polymorphisms of the VEGF/VEGF-receptor system contribute to the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), we performed a retrospective analysis of 116 OHSS patients, and 124 female controls. The following SNPs were genotyped: Rs2071559 (VEGFR2-604); rs2305948 (VEGFR2-1192); rs1870377 (VEGFR2-1719); rs2010963 (VEGF-405); and rs111458691 (VEGFR1-519). Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis was performed in the three loci of the VEGFR2 gene.We found an overrepresentation of the T allele of the VEGFR1-519 polymorphism in OHSS patients (P = 0.02, OR: 3.62, CI: 1.16 - 11.27). By genotype modeling, we found that polymorphism of VEGFR1-519 and VEGF-405 showed significant differences in patients and controls (p = 0.02, OR: 3.79 CI: 1.98 - 11.97 and p = 0.000005, OR: 0.29, CI: 0.17 - 0.50). LD analysis revealed significant linkage disequilibrium in VEGFR2.Polymorphisms in the VEGFR2 gene and in the VEGF gene are associated with the occurrence of OHSS. This strengthens the evidence for an important role of the VEGF/VEGF- receptor system in the occurrence of OHSS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Important candidate genes involved in the ovarian response to exogenous FSH are the estrogen receptor genes (ESRs), since the effects of estrogens on follicle growth, maturation and oocyte release. It is known that some markers of ovarian stimulation can help to personalize the treatment, adjusting the dose of exogenous rFSH, thus preventing excessive wear of the patient. Inspired on this information we aimed to analyze four different polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor genes ESR1: rs2234693/T-397C (PvuII) and rs9340799/A-351G (Xbal) and ESR2: rs4986938/G1082A (RsaI) and rs1256049/A + 1730G (AluI), and their association with assisted reproduction outcomes in Brazilian women that underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed involving 136 infertile women less than 39 years of age with normal ovarian reserve. Patients were divided according to the same COH protocol for statistical analysis. The Taqman assay was used for PvuII and XbaI of ESR1, and RsaI and AluI of ESR2 genotyping. Serum estradiol and FSH were measured by Elisa assay. RESULTS: The PvuII (ESR1) TT and RsaI (ESR2) GG genotypes were associated with a longer induction period and higher doses of medication (p < 0.03). The XbaI (ESR1) AA genotype was associated with better COH results, including a larger number of follicles, mature oocytes, embryos, and good quality embryos (p < 0.05). The AluI GG genotype showed an association with the Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) (p = 0.03). According to the haplotype analysis of ER1 (PvuII/XbaI), we demonstrated that the CA combination increases by 0.68 the number of good quality embryos while the TG decreases it by 0.71 (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: ER polymorphisms have an association with the assisted reproduction outcomes in Brazilian women.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To compare fertilization, implantation and pregnancy rates in donor oocyte cycles triggered for final oocyte maturation with either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in the same donor population in two sequential stimulation cycles. DESIGN: Prospective randomized cross-over trial. SETTING: Private infertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Eighty-eight stimulation cycles in 44 egg donors. INTERVENTIONS: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with GnRH antagonist protocol triggered with hCG or GnRH agonist (leuprolide acetate 0.15 mg) in the same egg donors in two consecutive cycles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome measure was the proportion of mature and fertilized oocytes per donor cycle. Secondary outcome measures were implantation and pregnancy rates in the recipients and incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in oocyte donors. RESULT(S): The proportion of mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes and mean embryo scores were comparable between the two triggering agents. While implantation (36.53% vs, 32.93%), pregnancy (69.08% vs. 68.81%) and clinical pregnancy (41.3% vs. 40.2%) rates were comparable for the groups, the incidence of OHSS was significantly lower in GnRH than in hCG triggered cycles. CONCLUSION(S): Fertilization, implantation and pregnancy rates from donor oocytes stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocol were identical for donor cycles triggered with hCG and GnRH agonist. GnRH antagonist triggering in egg donors was associated with lower rates of OHSS.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Age, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), low body mass index (BMI), high antral follicle count (AFC), increased anti-Muller hormone (AMH) levels, and elevated serum estradiol (E2) concentrations are risk factors for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). However, data on the relationship between risk factors and OHSS severity in patients with PCOS are rare.<h4>Objective</h4>This retrospective study examined the risk factors for OHSS and their effect on OHSS severity in patients with PCOS undergoing <i>in vitro</i> fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).<h4>Method</h4>The records of 2,699 women were reviewed and included in this study. These women were diagnosed with PCOS during their first IVF/ICSI cycle between January 2010 and December 2017. We analyzed the association between each of the interrogated risk factors (including female age, BMI, AFC, basal serum E2, and the number of oocytes retrieved) and OHSS. The effects of each risk factor on OHSS severity were further explored. Logistic regression was performed as part of the above analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 2,699 women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART), 75.2% had a normal response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), while 24.8% developed OHSS. All OHSS patients were younger and had lower BMIs and basal serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 levels but higher AFCs than those in the normal group. AFC demonstrated a strong correlation with OHSS, with a cutoff value of 24 in patients with PCOS. A total of 19.5% of the patients had mild OHSS, while 80.5% had moderate OHSS. Compared with those in the moderate OHSS group, those in the mild OHSS group were older and had higher basal serum FSH levels and lower serum E2 and T levels. However, BMI and AFC were not different between the mild and moderate OHSS groups. Basal serum E2 showed a strong correlation with OHSS severity, with a cutoff value of 37.94 pg/ml.<h4>Conclusions</h4>AFC is a strong marker of OHSS, and basal serum E2 is the best predictor of OHSS severity in women with PCOS undergoing IVF treatment.
Project description:STUDY QUESTION:What is the threshold for the prediction of moderate to severe or severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) based on the number of growing follicles ? 11 mm and/or estradiol (E2) levels? SUMMARY ANSWER:The optimal threshold of follicles ?11 mm on the day of hCG to identify those at risk was 19 for both moderate to severe OHSS and for severe OHSS. Estradiol (E2) levels were less prognostic of OHSS than the number of follicles ? 11 mm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:In comparison to long gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocols, the risk of severe OHSS is reduced by approximately 50% in a GnRH antagonist protocol for ovarian stimulation prior to in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while the two protocols provide equal chances of pregnancy per initiated cycle. Nevertheless, moderate to severe OHSS may still occur in GnRH antagonist protocols if human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is administered to trigger final oocyte maturation, especially in high responder patients. Severe OHSS following hCG trigger may occur with an incidence of 1-2% in a relatively young (aged 18 to 36 years) IVF population treated in a GnRH-antagonist protocol. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:From the Engage, Ensure and Trust trials, in total, 2,433 women who received hCG for oocyte maturation and for whom the number of follicles ? 11 mm and the level of E2 on the day of hCG administration were known were included in the analyses. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:The threshold for OHSS prediction of moderate and severe OHSS was assessed in women treated with corifollitropin alfa or daily recombinant follicle stimulation hormone (rFSH) in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-antagonist protocol. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses for moderate to severe OHSS and severe OHSS were performed on the combined dataset and the sensitivity and specificity for the optimal threshold of number of follicles ? 11 mm, E2 levels on the day of (hCG), and a combination of both, were determined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:The optimal threshold of follicles ? 11 mm on the day of hCG to identify those at risk of moderate to severe OHSS was 19 (sensitivity and specificity 62.3% and 75.6%, respectively) and for severe OHSS was also 19 (sensitivity and specificity 74.3% and 75.3%, respectively). The positive and negative predictive values were 6.9% and 98.6%, respectively, for moderate to severe OHSS, and 4.2% and 99.5% for severe OHSS. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:This was a retrospective analysis of combined data from three trials following ovarian stimulation with two different gonadotropins. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:For patients with 19 follicles or more ?11 mm on the day of hCG, measures to prevent the development of OHSS should be considered. Secondary preventive measures include cycle cancellation or coasting, use of a GnRH agonist to trigger final oocyte maturation in place of hCG and a freeze all strategy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00702845 NCT00696800 NCT00696878.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is the routine regimen used to generate a sufficient number of follicles during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Poor ovarian response is a challenge encountered by many clinicians during COH and poor ovarian responders (PORs) usually have higher follicle stimulating hormone levels, lower levels of anti-Mullerian hormone and few oocytes retrieved, which have been attributed mainly to advanced maternal age and poor follicle reserve or other reasons that could impair ovarian response during ovarian stimulation. Over the last few decades, researchers have proposed a series of strategies and ovarian stimulation protocols to improve pregnancy outcomes in patients with POR during their IVF/ICSI treatment. However, clinical decisions regarding COH protocols in PORs during IVF/ICSI treatment remain controversial. Traditional pairwise meta-analysis only allows the direct comparison of two protocols in COH for patients with POR. However, many of these COH protocols have not been compared directly in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, we aim to use network meta-analysis (NMA) to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of COH protocols and to generate treatment rankings of these COH protocols for the most clinically important and commonly reported outcomes events.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SinoMed, CNKI, WanFang database and Chongqing VIP information databases will be searched for all RCTs of COH for POR women during IVF/ICSI from inception to 31 March 2020. Primary outcomes will include live birth rate and number of oocytes retrieved. Secondary outcomes will include ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate, multiple pregnancy rate and cycle cancellation rate. Pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian NMA will be conducted for each outcome. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression, and sensitivity analysis will be performed to assess the robustness of the findings. The generation of NMA plots and subsequent results will be performed by using R V.4.0.1. The assessment of confidence in network estimates will use the Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis)web application (see https://cinema.ispm.unibe.ch/).<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>This review does not require ethics approval and the results of the NMA will be submitted to a peer-review journal.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious iatrogenic condition, predominantly related to the hormone used to induce oocyte maturation during IVF treatment. Kisspeptin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has recently been demonstrated to safely trigger final oocyte maturation during IVF treatment even in women at high risk of OHSS. However, to date, the safety of kisspeptin has not been compared to current hormonal triggers of oocyte maturation. DESIGN:We conducted a retrospective single-centre cohort study investigating symptoms and clinical parameters of early OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS (antral follicle count or total number of follicles on day of trigger ≥23) triggered with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (n = 40), GnRH agonist (GnRHa; n = 99) or kisspeptin (n = 122) at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, UK (2013-2016). RESULTS:Clinical Parameters of OHSS: Median ovarian volume was larger following hCG (138 ml) than GnRHa (73 ml; P < .0001), and in turn kisspeptin (44 ml; P < .0001). Median ovarian volume remained enlarged 20-fold following hCG, 8-fold following GnRHa and 5-fold following kisspeptin compared to prestimulation ovarian volumes. Mean (±SD) ascitic volumes were lesser following GnRHa (9 ± 44 ml) and kisspeptin (5 ± 8 ml) than hCG (62 ± 84 ml; P < .0001). Symptoms of OHSS were most frequent following hCG and least frequent following kisspeptin. Diagnosis of OHSS: The odds ratio for OHSS diagnosis was 33.6 (CI 12.6-89.5) following hCG and 3.6 (CI 1.8-7.1) following GnRHa, when compared to kisspeptin. CONCLUSION:Triggering oocyte maturation by inducing endogenous gonadotrophin release is preferable to the use of exogenous hCG in women at high risk of OHSS.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the gene expression profile of the granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles obtained after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with either recombinant FSH (rFSH) or urine derived human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG).
Project description:Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a disorder associated with elevated serum VEGFA following chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) exposure in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycles in women. In this study, we tested the effect of intravenous VEGFA neutralization on OHSS-like symptoms and vascular function in rhesus macaques during COS cycles.Monkeys (n = 8) were treated with 3 COS protocols and assigned randomly to groups as follows: 1) COS alone (Control, n = 5); 2) COS + VEGF mAb Avastin 19 ± 5 h before hCG (Avastin pre-hCG; n = 6); 3) COS + Avastin 3-4 days post-hCG (Avastin post-hCG; n = 4); 4) COS + Simulated Early Pregnancy (SEP n = 3); or 5) COS + SEP + Avastin (SEP + Avastin n = 3). Follicles were aspirated 36 h post-hCG, fluid was collected from one follicle for analysis of steroid and vascular hormone content. Remaining follicles were aspirated, and luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs) cultured for 24 h. Ovarian/uterine vascular flow (VF) and blood volume (BV) were analyzed by contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) before hCG bolus and 6-8 days post-hCG bolus/time of peak SEP response. Ovarian permeability to albumin was analyzed by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) post-hCG.Abdominal fluid was present in 4/5 Control, 2/6 Avastin pre-hCG, and 3/4 Avastin post-hCG females. Neutralization of VEGFA before hCG reduced ovarian VF, BV, and permeability to albumin (P < 0.05), while only ovarian VF and permeability were reduced in Avastin-post hCG group (P < 0.05). There was no effect of Avastin on ovarian vascular function during COS + SEP. VEGF levels in follicular fluid were reduced 78-fold by Avastin pre-hCG, and LGCs exposed to Avastin in vivo also released 4-fold less VEGF into culture media (P < 0.05). Culture medium of LGCs exposed to VEGFA neutralization in vivo had lower levels of P4 and ANGPT1, and an increased ratio of ANGPT2/1 (P < 0.05). Uterine VF was reduced by SEP + Avastin in the basalis/junctional zone (P < 0.05).Avastin treatment before hCG prevents the development of symptoms associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In vitro data suggest neutralization of VEGFA alters expression of other vascular factors typically induced by hCG in the luteinizing follicle. Neutralization of VEGFA action alters the vascular function of the basalis zone of the uterus during simulated early pregnancy, indicating a potential effect on embryo implantation.