The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement.
ABSTRACT: Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale's reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population.
Project description:Although numerous studies have examined the factors influencing problematic Internet use (PIU), few studies have investigated the interactions between inappropriate physical and mental health (e.g., cyberbullying, Internet pornography, and Internet fraud) as factors facilitating PIU and examined the moderating effect of community bond. Thus, this study analyzed the moderating role of community bond in the relationship between cyberbullying, Internet pornography, Internet fraud, and PIU. Using a cross-sectional survey, adolescents were surveyed through self-report questionnaires. A total of 5,211 responses were received from participant students at 60 senior high schools in Taiwan. Statistical analyses were performed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that cyberbullying, Internet pornography, Internet fraud, and community bond have significant positive effects on PIU. Community bond has a significant moderating effect in the relationship between cyberbullying, Internet fraud, and the PIU of adolescents. Parental Internet attitude and behavior were found to significantly moderate the relationship between inappropriate physical and mental health, community bond, and PIU. The results suggest that public health and education policies should focus more on adolescents who require additional assistance. Furthermore, school policies could be more informed in regard to relevant psychosocial variables and patterns of Internet use. Finally, this study may serve as a reference for parents, schools, and government education authorities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problematic internet use (PIU) is an increasingly worrisome issue, as youth population studies are establishing links with internalizing and externalizing problems. There is a need for a better understanding of psychiatric diagnostic profiles associated with this issue, as well as its unique contributions to impairment. Here, we leveraged the ongoing, large-scale Child Mind Institute Healthy Brain Network, a transdiagnostic self-referred, community sample of children and adolescents (ages 5-21), to examine the associations between PIU and psychopathology, general impairment, physical health and sleep disturbances. METHODS:A total sample of 564 (190 female) participants between the ages of 7-15 (mean?=?10.80, SD?=?2.16), along with their parents/guardians, completed diagnostic interviews with clinicians, answered a wide range of self-report (SR) and parent-report (PR) questionnaires, including the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and underwent physical testing as part of the Healthy Brain Network protocol. RESULTS:PIU was positively associated with depressive disorders (SR: aOR?=?2.43, CI: 1.22-4.74, p?=?.01; PR: aOR?=?2.56, CI: 1.31-5.05, p?=?.01), the combined presentation of ADHD (SR: aOR?=?1.91, CI: 1.14-3.22, p?=?.01; PR: n.s.), Autism Spectrum Disorder (SR: n.s.; PR: aOR?=?2.24, CI: 1.34-3.73, p?<?.001), greater levels of impairment (SR: Standardized Beta?=?4.63, CI: 3.06-6.20, p?<?.001; PR: Standardized Beta?=?5.05, CI: 3.67-6.42, p?<?.001) and increased sleep disturbances (SR: Standardized Beta?=?3.15, CI: 0.71-5.59, p?=?.01; PR: Standardized Beta?=?3.55, CI: 1.34-5.75, p?<?.001), even when accounting for demographic covariates and psychiatric comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS:The association between PIU and psychopathology, as well as its impact on impairment and sleep disturbances, highlight the urgent need to gain an understanding of mechanisms in order to inform public health recommendations on internet use in U.S. youth.
Project description:Introduction:To explore the moderating effect of physical activity and the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between marital satisfaction and adolescents' problematic internet use (PIU). Methods:This study adopted a sample of 288 adolescents and their parents, and measured adolescents' depression, PIU, physical activity, and parents' marital satisfaction. Results:These results showed that parental marital satisfaction negatively predicted adolescents' PIU. Adolescents' depression played a mediating role between parental marital satisfaction and adolescents' PIU. Further mediated moderation effect analysis showed that the interaction between marital satisfaction and adolescents' physical activity affected the PIU through adolescents' depression. Specifically, for individuals with lower physical activity, the marital satisfaction affected the PIU through adolescents' depression. However, for the group with higher physical activity, physical activity weakened the effects of marital satisfaction on adolescents' depression, and the mediating effect of depression did not reach a significant level. Conclusion:These results are of theoretical and practical significance in understanding and intervening to address adolescents' PIU.
Project description:While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Problematic internet use (PIU; otherwise known as Internet Addiction) is a growing problem in modern societies. There is scarce knowledge of the demographic variables and specific internet activities associated with PIU and a limited understanding of how PIU should be conceptualized. Our aim was to identify specific internet activities associated with PIU and explore the moderating role of age and gender in those associations. METHODS:We recruited 1749 participants aged 18 and above via media advertisements in an Internet-based survey at two sites, one in the US, and one in South Africa; we utilized Lasso regression for the analysis. RESULTS:Specific internet activities were associated with higher problematic internet use scores, including general surfing (lasso ?: 2.1), internet gaming (?: 0.6), online shopping (?: 1.4), use of online auction websites (?: 0.027), social networking (?: 0.46) and use of online pornography (?: 1.0). Age moderated the relationship between PIU and role-playing-games (?: 0.33), online gambling (?: 0.15), use of auction websites (?: 0.35) and streaming media (?: 0.35), with older age associated with higher levels of PIU. There was inconclusive evidence for gender and gender?×?internet activities being associated with problematic internet use scores. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social anxiety disorder were associated with high PIU scores in young participants (age???25, ?: 0.35 and 0.65 respectively), whereas generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were associated with high PIU scores in the older participants (age?>?55, ?: 6.4 and 4.3 respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Many types of online behavior (e.g. shopping, pornography, general surfing) bear a stronger relationship with maladaptive use of the internet than gaming supporting the diagnostic classification of problematic internet use as a multifaceted disorder. Furthermore, internet activities and psychiatric diagnoses associated with problematic internet use vary with age, with public health implications.
Project description:Problematic Internet use (PIU) has been gradually recognized as a mental health issue among adolescents and young students. PIU shows many similarities with substance use disorders, but the shared and distinct mechanisms underlying them are unclear. The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationships between impulsive traits and PIU as well as cigarette smoking behaviors among young adults. Two independent samples of university students (N 1 = 1281, N 2 = 1034, respectively) over 3 years were assessed with multiple measurements of impulsivity, including the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the UPPSP Impulsive Behaviors Scale (UPPSP), and the Delay-discounting Test (DDT). Logistic regression models revealed that across the two independent samples, BIS-11 Attentional Impulsiveness was the common trait positively predicting both PIU and cigarette smoking. While BIS-11 Motor Impulsiveness as well as UPPSP Lack of Perseverance, Lack of Premeditation, and Negative Urgency were the typical traits linked to PIU as positive predictors, UPPSP Sensation Seeking was the unique trait linked to cigarette smoking as a positive predictor. These results suggested that specific dimensions of impulsivity might be concurrently implicated in PIU and cigarette smoking among young adults, putatively representing important trait marks for addictive behaviors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problematic internet use (PIU) is associated with mental health concerns such as depression and affects more than 12% of young adults. Few studies have explored potential influences of parent-college student digital communication on college students' risk of PIU. OBJECTIVE:This study sought to understand the relationship between parent-college student digital communication frequency via phone calls, text messages, and Facebook contacts and PIU among college students. METHODS:Incoming first-year students were randomly selected from registrar lists of a midwestern and northwestern university for a 5-year longitudinal study. Data from interviews conducted in summer 2014 were used. Measures included participants' daily Facebook visits, communication frequency with parents via phone call and text message, and 3 variables related to Facebook connection status and communication: (1) parent-college student Facebook friendship status, (2) college student blocking personal Facebook content from parent, and (3) Facebook communication frequency. PIU risk was assessed using the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale. Analysis included participants who reported visiting Facebook at least once per day. Multiple linear regression was used, followed by a post hoc mediation with Hayes process macro to further investigate predictive relationships among significant variables. RESULTS:A total of 151 participants reported daily Facebook use and were included in analyses. Among these participants, 59.6% (90/151) were female, 62.3% (94/151) were from the midwestern university, and 78.8% (119/151) were white. Mean Facebook visits per day was 4.3 (SD 3.34). There was a collective significant effect between participant daily Facebook visits, college student-parent phone calls, texts, and all 3 Facebook connection variables (F6,144=2.60, P=.02, R2=.10). Phone calls, text messages, and Facebook contacts were not associated with PIU risk. However, two individual items were significant predictors for PIU: participant daily Facebook visits were positively associated with increased PIU risk (b=0.04, P=.006) and being friends with a parent on Facebook was negatively associated with PIU risk (b=-0.66, P=.008). Participant daily Facebook visits were not a significant mediator of the relationship between college student-parent Facebook friendship and PIU risk (b=-0.04; 95% CI -0.11 to 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:This study did not find support for a relationship between parent-college student digital communication frequency and PIU among college students. Instead, results suggested Facebook friendship may be a protective factor. Future studies should examine how a parent-child Facebook friendship might protect against PIU among children at varying developmental stages.
Project description:Rising global rates of pathological Internet use (PIU) and related psychological impairments have gained considerable attention in recent years. In an effort to acquire evidence-based knowledge of this relationship, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours among school-based adolescents in eleven European countries. This cross-sectional study was implemented within the framework of the European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe. A representative sample of 11,356 school-based adolescents (M/F: 4,856/6,500; mean age: 14.9) was included in the analyses. PIU was assessed using the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Self-destructive behaviours were evaluated by the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and Paykel Suicide Scale. Results showed that suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), depression, anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were significant and independent predictors of PIU. The correlation between PIU, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention was stronger among females, while the link between PIU and symptoms of depression, anxiety and peer relationship problems was stronger among males. The association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours was stronger in countries with a higher prevalence of PIU and suicide rates. These findings ascertain that psychopathology and suicidal behaviours are strongly related to PIU. This association is significantly influenced by gender and country suggesting socio-cultural influences. At the clinical and public health levels, targeting PIU among adolescents in the early stages could potentially lead to improvements of psychological well-being and a reduction of suicidal behaviours.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Problematic online gaming (POG) and problematic Internet use (PIU) have become a serious public mental health problem, with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) included in "Conditions for further study" section of DSM-5. Although higher immersive tendency is observed in people affected by POG, little is known about the simultaneous effect of immersive tendency and its highly comorbid mental disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to assess the relationship between immersive tendency, ADHD, and IGD. METHODS:Cross-sectional interview study was conducted in Seoul, Korea with 51 male undergraduate students; 23 active gamers and 28 controls. RESULTS:Current ADHD symptoms showed partial mediation effect on the path of immersive tendency on POG and PIU. The mediation model with inattention explained variance in both POG and PIU better than other current ADHD symptom models (R2=69.2 in POG; 69.3 in PIU). Childhood ADHD symptoms models demonstrated mediation effect on both POG and PIU which explained less variance than current ADHD symptom models (R2=53.7 in POG; 52.1 in PIU). Current ADHD symptoms, especially inattention, appear to mediate the effect of immersive tendency on POG/PIU. CONCLUSION:Immersive tendencies may entail greater susceptibility to IGD, and comorbidity with ADHD may mediate the effect of immersive tendency on IGD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problematic internet use (PIU) among youth has become a public health concern. Previous studies identified socio-demographic background risk factors for PIU. The effects of online activities on youth PIU behavior are not well investigated. METHODS:This cross-sectional study assessed the roles of online activities for PIU behavior of undergraduate students in Bahir Dar University, North West Ethiopia. Data were collected from 812 randomly selected regular program students recruited from 10 departments. Respondents completed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used for analyses. RESULTS:The results indicated that social networking (75.5%), entertainment (73.6%), academic works (70.9%), and online gaming (21.6%) are the important online activities students are engaging in the internet. About 33% and 1.8% of students showed symptoms of mild and severe PIU, respectively. Taking online activities into account improved the model explaining PIU behavior of students. Online activities explained 46% of the variance in PIU. Using the internet for social networking (AOR = 7.078; 95% CI: 3.913-12.804) and online gaming (AOR = 2.175; 95% CI: 1.419-3.335) were risk factors for PIU. CONCLUSIONS:The findings revealed that more than a third of the respondents showed symptoms of PIU. Online activities improved the model explaining PIU behavior of students. Thus, university authorities need to be aware of the prevalence of PIU and introduce regulatory mechanisms to limit the usage of potentially addictive online activities and promoting responsible use of the internet.