Architecture and assembly of the archaeal Cdc48*20S proteasome.
ABSTRACT: ATP-dependent proteases maintain protein quality control and regulate diverse intracellular functions. Proteasomes are primarily responsible for these tasks in the archaeal and eukaryotic domains of life. Even the simplest of these proteases function as large complexes, consisting of the 20S peptidase, a barrel-like structure composed of four heptameric rings, and one or two AAA+ (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) ring hexamers, which use cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold and translocate substrates into the 20S proteolytic chamber. Understanding how the AAA+ and 20S components of these enzymes interact and collaborate to execute protein degradation is important, but the highly dynamic nature of prokaryotic proteasomes has hampered structural characterization. Here, we use electron microscopy to determine the architecture of an archaeal Cdc48 ? 20S proteasome, which we stabilized by site-specific cross-linking. This complex displays coaxial alignment of Cdc48 and 20S and is enzymatically active, demonstrating that AAA+ unfoldase wobbling with respect to 20S is not required for function. In the complex, the N-terminal domain of Cdc48, which regulates ATP hydrolysis and degradation, packs against the D1 ring of Cdc48 in a coplanar fashion, constraining mechanisms by which the N-terminal domain alters 20S affinity and degradation activity.
Project description:Proteasomes are essential and ubiquitous ATP-dependent proteases that function in eukarya, archaea, and some bacteria. These destructive but critically important proteolytic machines use a 20S core peptidase and a hexameric ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA+) unfolding ring that unfolds and spools substrates into the peptidase chamber. In archaea, 20S can function with the AAA+ Cdc48 or proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) unfoldases. Both interactions are stabilized by C-terminal tripeptides in AAA+ subunits that dock into pockets on the 20S periphery. Here, we provide evidence that archaeal Cdc48 also uses a distinct set of near-axial interactions to bind 20S and propose that similar dual determinants mediate PAN-20S interactions and Rpt(1-6)-20S interactions in the 26S proteasome. Current dogma holds that the Rpt(1-6) unfolding ring of the 19S regulatory particle is the only AAA+ partner of eukaryotic 20S. By contrast, we show that mammalian Cdc48, a key player in cell-cycle regulation, membrane fusion, and endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation, activates mammalian 20S and find that a mouse Cdc48 variant supports protein degradation in combination with 20S. Our results suggest that eukaryotic Cdc48 orthologs function directly with 20S to maintain intracellular protein quality control.
Project description:Proteasomes are the major energy-dependent proteolytic machines in the eukaryotic and archaeal domains of life. To execute protein degradation, the 20S core peptidase combines with the AAA+ ring of the 19S regulatory particle in eukarya or with the AAA+ proteasome-activating nucleotidase ring in some archaea. Here, we find that Cdc48 and 20S from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum interact to form a functional proteasome. Cdc48 is an abundant and essential double-ring AAA+ molecular machine ubiquitously present in archaea, where its function has been uncertain, and in eukarya where Cdc48 participates by largely unknown mechanisms in diverse cellular processes, including multiple proteolytic pathways. Thus, proteolysis in collaboration with the 20S peptidase may represent an ancestral function of the Cdc48 family.
Project description:The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is a self-compartmentalized protease which degrades unfolded polypeptides and has been purified from eucaryotes, gram-positive actinomycetes, and archaea. Energy-dependent complexes, such as the 19S cap of the eucaryal 26S proteasome, are assumed to be responsible for the recognition and/or unfolding of substrate proteins which are then translocated into the central chamber of the 20S proteasome and hydrolyzed to polypeptide products of 3 to 30 residues. All archaeal genomes which have been sequenced are predicted to encode proteins with up to approximately 50% identity to the six ATPase subunits of the 19S cap. In this study, one of these archaeal homologs which has been named PAN for proteasome-activating nucleotidase was characterized from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii. In addition, the M. jannaschii 20S proteasome was purified as a 700-kDa complex by in vitro assembly of the alpha and beta subunits and has an unusually high rate of peptide and unfolded-polypeptide hydrolysis at 100 degrees C. The 550-kDa PAN complex was required for CTP- or ATP-dependent degradation of beta-casein by archaeal 20S proteasomes. A 500-kDa complex of PAN(Delta1-73), which has a deletion of residues 1 to 73 of the deduced protein and disrupts the predicted N-terminal coiled-coil, also facilitated this energy-dependent proteolysis. However, this deletion increased the types of nucleotides hydrolyzed to include not only ATP and CTP but also ITP, GTP, TTP, and UTP. The temperature optimum for nucleotide (ATP) hydrolysis was reduced from 80 degrees C for the full-length protein to 65 degrees C for PAN(Delta1-73). Both PAN protein complexes were stable in the absence of ATP and were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid. Kinetic analysis reveals that the PAN protein has a relatively high V(max) for ATP and CTP hydrolysis of 3.5 and 5.8 micromol of P(i) per min per mg of protein as well as a relatively low affinity for CTP and ATP with K(m) values of 307 and 497 microM compared to other proteins of the AAA family. Based on electron micrographs, PAN and PAN(Delta1-73) apparently associate with the ends of the 20S proteasome cylinder. These results suggest that the M. jannaschii as well as related archaeal 20S proteasomes require a nucleotidase complex such as PAN to mediate the energy-dependent hydrolysis of folded-substrate proteins and that the N-terminal 73 amino acid residues of PAN are not absolutely required for this reaction.
Project description:The ATP-powered protein degradation machinery plays essential roles in maintaining protein homeostasis in all organisms. Robust proteolytic activities are typically sequestered within protein complexes to avoid the fatal removal of essential proteins. Because the openings of proteolytic chambers are narrow, substrate proteins must undergo unfolding. AAA superfamily proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) are mostly located at these openings and regulate protein degradation appropriately. The 26S proteasome, comprising 20S peptidase and 19S regulatory particles, is the major ATP-powered protein degradation machinery in eukaryotes. The 19S particles are composed of six AAA proteins and 13 regulatory proteins, and bind to both ends of a barrel-shaped proteolytic chamber formed by the 20S peptidase. Several recent studies have reported that another AAA protein, Cdc48, can replace the 19S particles to form an alternative ATP-powered proteasomal complex, i.e., the Cdc48-20S proteasome. This review focuses on our current knowledge of this alternative proteasome and its possible linkage to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Project description:ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) proteases utilize ATP hydrolysis to actively unfold native or misfolded proteins and translocate them into a protease chamber for degradation. This basic mechanism yields diverse cellular consequences, including the removal of misfolded proteins, control of regulatory circuits, and remodeling of protein conformation. Among various bacterial AAA+ proteases, FtsH is only membrane-integrated and plays a key role in membrane protein quality control. Previously, we have shown that FtsH has substantial unfoldase activity for degrading membrane proteins overcoming a dual energetic burden of substrate unfolding and membrane dislocation. Here, we asked how efficiently FtsH utilizes ATP hydrolysis to degrade membrane proteins. To answer this question, we measured degradation rates of the model membrane substrate GlpG at various ATP hydrolysis rates in the lipid bilayers. We find that the dependence of degradation rates on ATP hydrolysis rates is highly nonlinear: (i) FtsH cannot degrade GlpG until it reaches a threshold ATP hydrolysis rate; (ii) after exceeding the threshold, the degradation rates steeply increase and saturate at the ATP hydrolysis rates far below the maxima. During the steep increase, FtsH efficiently utilizes ATP hydrolysis for degradation, consuming only 40-60% of the total ATP cost measured at the maximal ATP hydrolysis rates. This behavior does not fundamentally change against water-soluble substrates as well as upon addition of the macromolecular crowding agent Ficoll 70. The Hill analysis shows that the nonlinearity stems from coupling of three to five ATP hydrolysis events to degradation, which represents unique cooperativity compared to other AAA+ proteases including ClpXP, HslUV, Lon, and proteasomes.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of targeted proteolysis in archaea are poorly understood, yet they may have deep evolutionary roots shared with the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate in archaea that TBP2, a TATA-binding protein (TBP) modified by ubiquitin-like isopeptide bonds, is phosphorylated and targeted for degradation by proteasomes. Rapid turnover of TBP2 required the functions of UbaA (the E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog of archaea), AAA ATPases (Cdc48/p97 and Rpt types), a type 2 JAB1/MPN/MOV34 metalloenzyme (JAMM/MPN+) homolog (JAMM2), and 20S proteasomes. The ubiquitin-like protein modifier small archaeal modifier protein 2 (SAMP2) stimulated the degradation of TBP2, but SAMP2 itself was not degraded. Analysis of the TBP2 fractions that were not modified by ubiquitin-like linkages revealed that TBP2 had multiple N termini, including Met1-Ser2, Ser2, and Met1-Ser2(p) [where (p) represents phosphorylation]. The evidence suggested that the Met1-Ser2(p) form accumulated in cells that were unable to degrade TBP2. We propose a model in archaea in which the attachment of ubiquitin-like tags can target proteins for degradation by proteasomes and be controlled by N-terminal degrons. In support of a proteolytic mechanism that is energy dependent and recycles the ubiquitin-like protein tags, we find that a network of AAA ATPases and a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease are required, in addition to 20S proteasomes, for controlled intracellular proteolysis.This study advances the fundamental knowledge of signal-guided proteolysis in archaea and sheds light on components that are related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system of eukaryotes. In archaea, the ubiquitin-like proteasome system is found to require function of an E1/MoeB/ThiF homolog, a type 2 JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease, and a network of AAA ATPases for the targeted destruction of proteins. We provide evidence that the attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein is controlled by an N-terminal degron and stimulates proteasome-mediated proteolysis.
Project description:Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA+), the hexameric ring-shaped motor complexes located in all ATP-driven proteolytic machines, are involved in many cellular processes. Powered by cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis, conformational changes in AAA+ ATPases can generate mechanical work that unfolds a substrate protein inside the central axial channel of ATPase ring for degradation. Three-dimensional visualizations of several AAA+ ATPase complexes in the act of substrate processing for protein degradation have been resolved at the atomic level thanks to recent technical advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we summarize the resulting advances in structural and biochemical studies of AAA+ proteases in the process of proteolysis reactions, with an emphasis on cryo-EM structural analyses of the 26S proteasome, Cdc48/p97 and FtsH-like mitochondrial proteases. These studies reveal three highly conserved patterns in the structure-function relationship of AAA+ ATPase hexamers that were observed in the human 26S proteasome, thus suggesting common dynamic models of mechanochemical coupling during force generation and substrate translocation.
Project description:The AAA+ Cdc48 ATPase (alias p97 or VCP) is a key player in multiple ubiquitin-dependent cell signaling, degradation, and quality control pathways. Central to these broad biological functions is the ability of Cdc48 to interact with a large number of adaptor proteins and to remodel macromolecular proteins and their complexes. Different models have been proposed to explain how Cdc48 might couple ATP hydrolysis to forcible unfolding, dissociation, or remodeling of cellular clients. In this review, we provide an overview of possible mechanisms for substrate unfolding/remodeling by this conserved and essential AAA+ protein machine and their adaption and possible biological function throughout evolution.
Project description:20S proteasomes are large, multicatalytic proteases that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation. The barrel-like architecture of 20S proteasomes, formed by the stacking of four heptameric protein rings, is highly conserved from archaea to eukaryotes. The outer two rings are composed of alpha-type subunits, and the inner two rings are composed of beta-type subunits. The halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii synthesizes two different alpha-type proteins, alpha1 and alpha2, and one beta-type protein that assemble into at least two 20S proteasome subtypes. In this study, we demonstrate that all three of these 20S proteasomal proteins (alpha1, alpha2, and beta) are modified either post- or cotranslationally. Using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a phosphorylation site of the beta subunit was identified at Ser129 of the deduced protein sequence. In addition, alpha1 and alpha2 contained N-terminal acetyl groups. These findings represent the first evidence of acetylation and phosphorylation of archaeal proteasomes and are one of the limited examples of post- and/or cotranslational modification of proteins in this unusual group of organisms.