Reinitiation and other unconventional posttermination events during eukaryotic translation.
ABSTRACT: During ribosome recycling, posttermination complexes are dissociated by ABCE1 and eRF1 into 60S and tRNA/mRNA-associated 40S subunits, after which tRNA and mRNA are released by eIF1/eIF1A, Ligatin, or MCT-1/DENR. Occasionally, 40S subunits remain associated with mRNA and reinitiate at nearby AUGs. We recapitulated reinitiation using a reconstituted mammalian translation system. The presence of eIF2, eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and Met-tRNAi(Met) was sufficient for recycled 40S subunits to remain on mRNA, scan bidirectionally, and reinitiate at upstream and downstream AUGs if mRNA regions flanking the stop codon were unstructured. Imposition of 3' directionality additionally required eIF4F. Strikingly, posttermination ribosomes were not stably anchored on mRNA and migrated bidirectionally to codons cognate to the P site tRNA. Migration depended on the mode of peptide release (puromycin > eRF1?eRF3) and nature of tRNA and was enhanced by eEF2. The mobility of posttermination ribosomes suggests that some reinitiation events could involve 80S ribosomes rather than 40S subunits.
Project description:After translational termination, mRNA and P site deacylated tRNA remain associated with ribosomes in posttermination complexes (post-TCs), which must therefore be recycled by releasing mRNA and deacylated tRNA and by dissociating ribosomes into subunits. Recycling of bacterial post-TCs requires elongation factor EF-G and a ribosome recycling factor RRF. Eukaryotes do not encode a RRF homolog, and their mechanism of ribosomal recycling is unknown. We investigated eukaryotic recycling using post-TCs assembled on a model mRNA encoding a tetrapeptide followed by a UAA stop codon and report that initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF3j, a loosely associated subunit of eIF3, can promote recycling of eukaryotic post-TCs. eIF3 is the principal factor that promotes splitting of posttermination ribosomes into 60S subunits and tRNA- and mRNA-bound 40S subunits. Its activity is enhanced by eIFs 3j, 1, and 1A. eIF1 also mediates release of P site tRNA, whereas eIF3j ensures subsequent dissociation of mRNA.
Project description:After termination, eukaryotic 80S ribosomes remain associated with mRNA, P-site deacylated tRNA, and release factor eRF1 and must be recycled by dissociating these ligands and separating ribosomes into subunits. Although recycling of eukaryotic posttermination complexes (post-TCs) can be mediated by initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, and eIF1A (Pisarev et al., 2007), this energy-free mechanism can function only in a narrow range of low Mg(2+) concentrations. Here, we report that ABCE1, a conserved and essential member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins, promotes eukaryotic ribosomal recycling over a wide range of Mg(2+) concentrations. ABCE1 dissociates post-TCs into free 60S subunits and mRNA- and tRNA-bound 40S subunits. It can hydrolyze ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP. NTP hydrolysis by ABCE1 is stimulated by post-TCs and is required for its recycling activity. Importantly, ABCE1 dissociates only post-TCs obtained with eRF1/eRF3 (or eRF1 alone), but not post-TCs obtained with puromycin in eRF1's absence.
Project description:Selection of the AUG start codon is a key step in translation initiation requiring hydrolysis of GTP in the eIF2*GTP*Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC) and subsequent P(i) release from eIF2*GDP*P(i). It is thought that eIF1 prevents recognition of non-AUGs by promoting scanning and blocking P(i) release at non-AUG codons. We show that Sui(-) mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF1, which increase initiation at UUG codons, reduce interaction of eIF1 with 40S subunits in vitro and in vivo, and both defects are diminished in cells by overexpressing the mutant proteins. Remarkably, Sui(-) mutation ISQLG(93-97)ASQAA (abbreviated 93-97) accelerates eIF1 dissociation and P(i) release from reconstituted preinitiation complexes (PICs), whereas a hyperaccuracy mutation in eIF1A (that suppresses Sui(-) mutations) decreases the eIF1 off-rate. These findings demonstrate that eIF1 dissociation is a critical step in start codon selection, which is modulated by eIF1A. We also describe Gcd(-) mutations in eIF1 that impair TC loading on 40S subunits or destabilize the multifactor complex containing eIF1, eIF3, eIF5, and TC, showing that eIF1 promotes PIC assembly in vivo beyond its important functions in AUG selection.
Project description:The Simian picornavirus type 9 (SPV9) 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) has been predicted to contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) with structural elements that resemble domains of hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs. In vitro reconstitution of initiation confirmed that this 5' UTR contains an IRES and revealed that it has both functional similarities and differences compared to HP IRESs. Like HP IRESs, the SPV9 IRES bound directly to 40S subunits and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, depended on the conserved domain IIId for ribosomal binding and consequently for function, and additionally required eIF2/initiator tRNA to yield 48S complexes that formed elongation-competent 80S ribosomes in the presence of eIF5, eIF5B, and 60S subunits. Toeprinting analysis revealed that eIF1A stabilized 48S complexes, whereas eIF1 induced conformational changes in the 40S subunit, likely corresponding to partial opening of the entry latch of the mRNA-binding channel, that were exacerbated by eIF3 and suppressed by eIF1A. The SPV9 IRES differed from HP IRESs in that its function was enhanced by eIF4A/eIF4F when the IRES was adjacent to the wild-type coding sequence, but was less affected by these factors or by a dominant negative eIF4A mutant when potentially less structured coding sequences were present. Exceptionally, this IRES promoted binding of initiator tRNA to the initiation codon in the P site of 40S subunits independently of eIF2. Although these 40S/IRES/tRNA complexes could not form active 80S ribosomes, this constitutes a second difference between the SPV9 and HP IRESs. eIF1 destabilized the eIF2-independent ribosomal binding of initiator tRNA.
Project description:The cricket paralysis virus intergenic region internal ribosomal entry site (CrPV IGR IRES) can assemble translation initiation complexes by binding to 40S subunits without Met-tRNA(Met)(i) and initiation factors (eIFs) and then by joining directly with 60S subunits, yielding elongation-competent 80S ribosomes. Here, we report that eIF1, eIF1A and eIF3 do not significantly influence IRES/40S subunit binding but strongly inhibit subunit joining and the first elongation cycle. The IRES can avoid their inhibitory effect by its ability to bind directly to 80S ribosomes. The IRES's ability to bind to 40S subunits simultaneously with eIF1 allowed us to use directed hydroxyl radical cleavage to map its position relative to the known position of eIF1. A connecting loop in the IRES's pseudoknot (PK) III domain, part of PK II and the entire domain containing PK I are solvent-exposed and occupy the E site and regions of the P site that are usually occupied by Met-tRNA(Met)(i).
Project description:Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit.
Project description:During eukaryotic translation initiation, initiator tRNA does not insert fully into the P decoding site on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This conformation (POUT) is compatible with scanning mRNA for the AUG start codon. Base pairing with AUG is thought to promote isomerization to a more stable conformation (PIN) that arrests scanning and promotes dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S subunit. Here, we present a cryoEM reconstruction of a yeast preinitiation complex at 4.0 Å resolution with initiator tRNA in the PIN state, prior to eIF1 release. The structure reveals stabilization of the codon-anticodon duplex by the N-terminal tail of eIF1A, changes in the structure of eIF1 likely instrumental in its subsequent release, and changes in the conformation of eIF2. The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2?, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon.
Project description:Translation initiation factor eIF1A stimulates preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly and scanning, but the molecular mechanisms of its functions are not understood. We show that the F131A,F133A mutation in the C-terminal tail (CTT) of eIF1A impairs recruitment of the eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex to 40S subunits, eliminating functional coupling with eIF1. Mutating residues 17-21 in the N-terminal tail (NTT) of eIF1A also reduces PIC assembly, but in a manner rescued by eIF1. Interestingly, the 131,133 CTT mutation enhances initiation at UUG codons (Sui(-) phenotype) and decreases leaky scanning at AUG, while the NTT mutation 17-21 suppresses the Sui(-) phenotypes of eIF5 and eIF2beta mutations and increases leaky scanning. These findings and the opposite effects of the mutations on eIF1A binding to reconstituted PICs suggest that the NTT mutations promote an open, scanning-conducive conformation of the PIC, whereas the CTT mutations 131,133 have the reverse effect. We conclude that tight binding of eIF1A to the PIC is an important determinant of AUG selection and is modulated in opposite directions by residues in the NTT and CTT of eIF1A.
Project description:The 40S subunit in 48S complexes formed at the initiation codon of mRNA is bound to eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, eIF1, eIF1A, and an eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi(Met) ternary complex and can therefore not join a 60S subunit directly to form an 80S ribosome. We report that eIF5-induced hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP in 48S complexes led to release of eIF2-GDP but not eIF3 or eIF1. eIF5B did not influence factor release in the absence of 60S subunits. Therefore eIF3 and eIF1 dissociate from 40S subunits during, rather than before, the eIF5B-mediated subunit joining event. In the absence of eIF1, eIF5-stimulated hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP occurred at the same rate in 43S pre-initiation and 48S initiation complexes. GTP hydrolysis in 43S complexes assembled with eIF1 was much slower than in 43S or 48S complexes assembled without eIF1. Establishment of codon-anticodon base-pairing in 48S complexes relieved eIF1's inhibition. Thus, in addition to its role in initiation codon selection during 48S complex formation, eIF1 also participates in maintaining the fidelity of the initiation process at a later stage, hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP, by inhibiting premature GTP hydrolysis and by linking establishment of codon-anticodon base-pairing with GTP hydrolysis.
Project description:Recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-GTP-Met-tRNAiMet ternary complex to the 40S ribosome is stimulated by multiple initiation factors in vitro, including eIF3, eIF1, eIF5, and eIF1A. Recruitment of mRNA is thought to require the functions of eIF4F and eIF3, with the latter serving as an adaptor between the ribosome and the 4G subunit of eIF4F. To define the factor requirements for these reactions in vivo, we examined the effects of depleting eIF2, eIF3, eIF5, or eIF4G in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on binding of the ternary complex, other initiation factors, and RPL41A mRNA to native 43S and 48S preinitiation complexes. Depleting eIF2, eIF3, or eIF5 reduced 40S binding of all constituents of the multifactor complex (MFC), comprised of these three factors and eIF1, supporting a mechanism of coupled 40S binding by MFC components. 40S-bound mRNA strongly accumulated in eIF5-depleted cells, even though MFC binding to 40S subunits was reduced by eIF5 depletion. Hence, stimulation of the GTPase activity of the ternary complex, a prerequisite for 60S subunit joining in vitro, is likely the rate-limiting function of eIF5 in vivo. Depleting eIF2 or eIF3 impaired mRNA binding to free 40S subunits, but depleting eIF4G led unexpectedly to accumulation of mRNA on 40S subunits. Thus, it appears that eIF3 and eIF2 are more critically required than eIF4G for stable binding of at least some mRNAs to native preinitiation complexes and that eIF4G has a rate-limiting function at a step downstream of 48S complex assembly in vivo.