Small GTPase Rab14 down-regulates UT-A1 urea transport activity through enhanced clathrin-dependent endocytosis.
ABSTRACT: The UT-A1 urea transporter plays an important role in the urinary concentration mechanism. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding UT-A1 trafficking, endocytosis, and degradation are still unclear. In this study, we identified the small GTPase Rab14 as a binding partner to the C terminus of UT-A1 in a yeast 2-hybrid assay. Interestingly, UT-A1 binding is preferential for the GDP-bound inactive form of Rab14. Coinjection of Rab14 in Xenopus oocytes results in a decrease of UT-A1 urea transport activity, suggesting that Rab14 acts as a negative regulator of UT-A1. We subsequently found that Rab14 reduces the cell membrane expression of UT-A1, as evidenced by cell surface biotinylation. This effect is blocked by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, but not by filipin, an inhibitor of the caveolin-mediated endocytic pathway. In kidney, Rab14 is mainly expressed in IMCD epithelial cells with a pattern identical to UT-A1 expression. Consistent with its role in participating in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Rab14 localizes in nonlipid raft microdomains and codistributes with Rab5, a marker of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that Rab14, as a novel UT-A1 partner, may have an important regulatory function for UT-A1 urea transport activity in the kidney inner medulla.
Project description:The urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) is a glycosylated protein with two glycoforms: 117 and 97 kD. In diabetes, the increased abundance of the heavily glycosylated 117-kD UT-A1 corresponds to an increase of kidney tubule urea permeability. We previously reported that diabetes not only causes an increase of UT-A1 protein abundance but also, results in UT-A1 glycan changes, including an increase of sialic acid content. Because activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is elevated in diabetes and PKC-? regulates UT-A1 urea transport activity, we explored the role of PKC in UT-A1 glycan sialylation. We found that activation of PKC specifically promotes UT-A1 glycan sialylation in both UT-A1-MDCK cells and rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct suspensions, and inhibition of PKC activity blocks high glucose-induced UT-A1 sialylation. Overexpression of PKC-? promoted UT-A1 sialylation and membrane surface expression. Conversely, PKC-?-deficient mice had significantly less sialylated UT-A1 compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, the effect of PKC-?-induced UT-A1 sialylation was mainly mediated by Src kinase but not Raf-1 kinase. Functionally, increased UT-A1 sialylation corresponded with enhanced urea transport activity. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which PKC regulates UT-A1 function by increasing glycan sialylation through Src kinase pathways, which may have an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria under diabetic conditions.
Project description:The actin cytoskeleton is believed to contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated pits, although the specific components that connect actin filaments with the endocytic machinery are unclear. Cortactin is an F-actin-associated protein, localizes within membrane ruffles in cultured cells, and is a direct binding partner of the large GTPase dynamin. This direct interaction with a component of the endocytic machinery suggests that cortactin may participate in one or several endocytic processes. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test whether cortactin associates with clathrin-coated pits and participates in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Morphological experiments with either anti-cortactin antibodies or expressed red fluorescence protein-tagged cortactin revealed a striking colocalization of cortactin and clathrin puncta at the ventral plasma membrane. Consistent with these observations, cells microinjected with these antibodies exhibited a marked decrease in the uptake of labeled transferrin and low-density lipoprotein while internalization of the fluid marker dextran was unchanged. Cells expressing the cortactin Src homology three domain also exhibited markedly reduced endocytosis. These findings suggest that cortactin is an important component of the receptor-mediated endocytic machinery, where, together with actin and dynamin, it regulates the scission of clathrin pits from the plasma membrane. Thus, cortactin provides a direct link between the dynamic actin cytoskeleton and the membrane pinchase dynamin that supports vesicle formation during receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Project description:Urea transporter (UT)-A1 in the kidney inner medulla plays a critical role in the urinary concentrating mechanism and thereby in the regulation of water balance. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of seven isoforms. They are multifunctional regulatory proteins that mainly bind to phosphorylated serine/threonine residues in target proteins. In the present study, we found that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in the kidney inner medulla. However, only the 14-3-3 ?-isoform was specifically and highly associated with UT-A1, as demonstrated by a glutathione-S-transferase-14-3-3 pulldown assay. The cAMP/adenylyl cyclase stimulator forskolin significantly enhanced their binding. Coinjection of 14-3-3? cRNA into oocytes resulted in a decrease of UT-A1 function. In addition, 14-3-3? increased UT-A1 ubiquitination and protein degradation. 14-3-3? can interact with both UT-A1 and mouse double minute 2, the E3 ubiquitin ligase for UT-A1. Thus, activation of cAMP/PKA increases 14-3-3? interactions with UT-A1 and stimulates mouse double minute 2-mediated UT-A1 ubiquitination and degradation, thereby forming a novel regulatory mechanism of urea transport activity.
Project description:Of the three major protein variants produced by the UT-A gene (UT-A1, UT-A2, and UT-A3) UT-A1 is the largest. It contains UT-A3 as its NH(2)-terminal half and UT-A2 as its COOH-terminal half. When being part of UT-A1, UT-A3 and UT-A2 are joined by a segment, Lp, whose central part, Lc, is not part of UT-A3 or UT-A2 but is present only in UT-A1. Lc contains the phosphorylation sites S486 and S499 that are involved in protein kinase A-dependent activation, as well as the binding site for snapin, a protein involved in soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated vesicle trafficking and fusion to the plasma membrane. We attached Lc to UT-A2 and UT-A3 to test how these phosphorylation sites influenced their urea transport activity. Adding Lc to UT-A2 conferred stimulation by cAMP to the cAMP-unresponsive UT-A2, and adding Lc to UT-A3 did not further enhance its already existing cAMP response. These findings suggest that the responsiveness to vasopressin that is observed with UT-A1 can be introduced into the unresponsive UT-A2 variant through the Lc segment that is unique to UT-A1. In UT-A3, however, the Lc segment plays no significant role in its activation by cAMP. In addition, the Lc segment also gave UT-A2 the ability to bind snapin and, in Xenopus oocytes, to be stimulated in its urea transport activity by snapin and syntaxins 3 and 4, in the same way as UT-A1.
Project description:Urea transporter (UT) proteins, including UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta microvessels, facilitate urinary concentrating function. A screen for UT-A inhibitors was developed in MDCK cells expressing UT-A1, water channel aquaporin-1, and YFP-H148Q/V163S. An inwardly directed urea gradient produces cell shrinking followed by UT-A1-dependent swelling, which was monitored by YFP-H148Q/V163S fluorescence. Screening of ~90,000 synthetic small molecules yielded four classes of UT-A1 inhibitors with low micromolar half-maximal inhibitory concentration that fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport by a noncompetitive mechanism. Structure-activity analysis of >400 analogs revealed UT-A1-selective and UT-A1/UT-B nonselective inhibitors. Docking computations based on homology models of UT-A1 suggested inhibitor binding sites. UT-A inhibitors may be useful as diuretics ("urearetics") with a mechanism of action that may be effective in fluid-retaining conditions in which conventional salt transport-blocking diuretics have limited efficacy.
Project description:To investigate the role of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporters in the renal concentrating mechanism, we deleted 3 kb of the UT-A urea transporter gene containing a single 140-bp exon (exon 10). Deletion of this segment selectively disrupted expression of the two known IMCD isoforms of UT-A, namely UT-A1 and UT-A3, producing UT-A1/3(-/-) mice. In isolated perfused IMCDs from UT-A1/3(-/-) mice, there was a complete absence of phloretin-sensitive or vasopressin-stimulated urea transport. On a normal protein intake (20% protein diet), UT-A1/3(-/-) mice had significantly greater fluid consumption and urine flow and a reduced maximal urinary osmolality relative to wild-type controls. These differences in urinary concentrating capacity were nearly eliminated when urea excretion was decreased by dietary protein restriction (4% by weight), consistent with the 1958 Berliner hypothesis stating that the chief role of IMCD urea transport in the concentrating mechanism is the prevention of urea-induced osmotic diuresis. Analysis of inner medullary tissue after water restriction revealed marked depletion of urea in UT-A1/3(-/-) mice, confirming the concept that phloretin-sensitive IMCD urea transporters play a central role in medullary urea accumulation. However, there were no significant differences in mean inner medullary Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations between UT-A1/3(-/-) mice and wild-type controls, indicating that the processes that concentrate NaCl were intact. Thus, these results do not corroborate the predictions of passive medullary concentrating models stating that NaCl accumulation in the inner medulla depends on rapid vasopressin-regulated urea transport across the IMCD epithelium.
Project description:Ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) operate with high rates of neurotransmission, yet, the molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at these synapses remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of endophilins-A1-3, endocytic adaptors with curvature-sensing and -generating properties, in mouse IHCs. Single-cell RT-PCR indicated the expression of endophilins-A1-3 in IHCs and immunoblotting confirmed the presence of endophilins-A1 and -A2 in the cochlea. Patch-clamp recordings from endophilin-A-deficient IHCs revealed a reduction of Ca2+-influx and exocytosis, which we attribute to decreased abundance of presynaptic Ca2+-channels and impaired SV replenishment. Slow endocytic membrane retrieval, thought to reflect clathrin-mediated endocytosis, was impaired. Otoferlin, essential for IHC exocytosis, co-immunoprecipitated with purified endophilin-A1 protein, suggestive of a molecular interaction that might aid exocytosis-endocytosis coupling. Electron microscopy revealed lower SV numbers, but increased occurrence of coated structures and endosome-like vacuoles at IHC active zones. In summary, endophilins regulate Ca2+-influx and promote synaptic vesicle recycling in IHCs, likely via coupling exocytosis to endocytosis, and contributing to membrane retrieval and SV-reformation.
Project description:Ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) operate with high rates of neurotransmission; yet, the molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at these synapses remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of endophilins-A1-3, endocytic adaptors with curvature-sensing and curvature-generating properties, in mouse IHCs. Single-cell RT-PCR indicated the expression of endophilins-A1-3 in IHCs, and immunoblotting confirmed the presence of endophilin-A1 and endophilin-A2 in the cochlea. Patch-clamp recordings from endophilin-A-deficient IHCs revealed a reduction of Ca2+ influx and exocytosis, which we attribute to a decreased abundance of presynaptic Ca2+ channels and impaired SV replenishment. Slow endocytic membrane retrieval, thought to reflect clathrin-mediated endocytosis, was impaired. Otoferlin, essential for IHC exocytosis, co-immunoprecipitated with purified endophilin-A1 protein, suggestive of a molecular interaction that might aid exocytosis-endocytosis coupling. Electron microscopy revealed lower SV numbers, but an increased occurrence of coated structures and endosome-like vacuoles at IHC active zones. In summary, endophilins regulate Ca2+ influx and promote SV recycling in IHCs, likely via coupling exocytosis to endocytosis, and contributing to membrane retrieval and SV reformation.
Project description:Endocytosis is a ubiquitous eukaryotic membrane budding, vesiculation and internalization process fulfilling numerous roles including compensation of membrane area increase after bursts of exocytosis. The mechanism of the coupling between these two processes to enable homeostasis is not well understood. Recently, an ultrafast endocytosis (UFE) pathway was revealed with a speed significantly exceeding classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Membrane tension reduction is a potential mechanism by which endocytosis can be rapidly activated at remote sites. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a mechanism whereby membrane tension reduction initiates membrane budding and tubulation mediated by endocytic proteins, such as endophilin A1. We find that shape instabilities occur at well-defined membrane tensions and surface densities of endophilin. From our data, we obtain a membrane shape stability diagram that shows remarkable consistency with a quantitative model. This model applies to all laterally diffusive curvature-coupling proteins and therefore a wide range of endocytic proteins.
Project description:Kidney urea transporters are targets for development of small-molecule inhibitors with action as salt-sparing diuretics. A cell-based, functional high-throughput screen identified 2,7-bisacetamido fluorenone 3 as a novel inhibitor of urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-B. Here, we synthesized twenty-two 2,7-disubstituted fluorenone analogs by acylation. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed: (a) the carbonyl moiety at C9 is required for UT inhibition; (b) steric limitation on C2, 7-substituents; and (c) the importance of a crescent-shape structure. The most potent fluorenones inhibited UT-A1 and UT-B urea transport with IC50 ~ 1 ?M. Analysis of in vitro metabolic stability in hepatic microsomes indicated metabolism of 2,7-disubstituted fluorenones by reductase and subsequent elimination. Computational docking to a homology model of UT-A1 suggested UT inhibitor binding to the UT cytoplasmic domain at a site that does not overlap with the putative urea binding site.