Clinical demographics and outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients in Korean intensive care units.
ABSTRACT: Knowledge of clinical demographics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients is important but there are few prospectively collected data in Korea. The objective of the present study was to describe the current status of mechanically ventilated patients in Korea as of 2010. We analyzed the data of Korean patients (275 patients in 12 Korean intensive care units [ICU]) participating in a multinational prospective cohort study on mechanical ventilation. The most common indication for mechanical ventilation was pneumonia (23%). Pressure-limited ventilation modes were preferred over volume-cycled ventilation modes. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation was used in only seven (2%) patients as the initial ventilatory support. Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 7 days and ICU mortality was 36%. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) score at ICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.036; P=0.033), peak pressure (OR, 1.054; 95% CI, 1.016-1.095; P=0.006), and the number of failed organs (OR, 2.132; 95% CI, 1.634-2.781; P<0.001) were independently associated with ICU mortality. This study provides a snapshot of current practice of mechanical ventilation in Korea.
Project description:Studies indicate that mechanically ventilated patients develop significant diaphragm muscle weakness, but the etiology of weakness and its clinical impact remain incompletely understood. We assessed diaphragm strength in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients, correlated the development of diaphragm weakness with multiple clinical parameters, and examined the relationship between the level of diaphragm weakness and patient outcomes.Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressure (PdiTw) in response to bilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves was measured. Diaphragm weakness was correlated with the presence of infection, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, and glucose levels. The relationship of diaphragm strength to patient outcomes, including mortality and the duration of mechanical ventilation for successfully weaned patients, was also assessed.We found that infection is a major risk factor for diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients. Outcomes for patients with severe diaphragm weakness (PdiTw<10 cmH2O) were poor, with a markedly increased mortality (49%) compared to patients with PdiTw?10 cmH2O (7% mortality, P=0.022). In addition, survivors with PdiTw<10 cmH2O required a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.3±1.7 days) than those with PdiTw?10 cmH2O (5.5±2.0 days, P=0.016).Infection is a major cause of severe diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated patients. Moreover, diaphragm weakness is an important determinant of poor outcomes in this patient population.
Project description:This research aims to investigate the impact of fever on total mechanical ventilation time (TVT) in critically ill patients. Subgroup analysis was conducted using a previous prospective, multicenter observational study. We included mechanically ventilated patients for more than 24 hours from 10 Korean and 15 Japanese intensive care units (ICU), and recorded maximal body temperature under the support of mechanical ventilation (MAX(MV)). To assess the independent association of MAX(MV) with TVT, we used propensity-matched analysis in a total of 769 survived patients with medical or surgical admission, separately. Together with multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between the severity of fever and TVT, the effect of MAX(MV) on ventilator-free days was also observed by quantile regression analysis in all subjects including non-survivors. After propensity score matching, a MAX(MV) ? 37.5°C was significantly associated with longer mean TVT by 5.4 days in medical admission, and by 1.2 days in surgical admission, compared to those with MAX(MV) of 36.5°C to 37.4°C. In multivariate linear regression analysis, patients with three categories of fever (MAX(MV) of 37.5°C to 38.4°C, 38.5°C to 39.4°C, and ? 39.5°C) sustained a significantly longer duration of TVT than those with normal range of MAX(MV) in both categories of ICU admission. A significant association between MAX(MV) and mechanical ventilator-free days was also observed in all enrolled subjects. Fever may be a detrimental factor to prolong TVT in mechanically ventilated patients. These findings suggest that fever in mechanically ventilated patients might be associated with worse mechanical ventilation outcome.
Project description:Due to hospital crowding, mechanically ventilated patients are increasingly spending hours boarding in emergency departments (ED) before intensive care unit (ICU) admission. This study aims to evaluate the association between time ventilated in the ED and in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS).This was a multi-center, prospective, observational study of patients ventilated in the ED, conducted at three academic Level I Trauma Centers from July 2011 to March 2013. All consecutive adult patients on invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible for enrollment. We performed a Cox regression to assess for a mortality effect for mechanically ventilated patients with each hour of increasing LOS in the ED and multivariable regression analyses to assess for independently significant contributors to in-hospital mortality. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, with secondary outcomes of ventilator days, ICU LOS and hospital LOS. We further commented on use of lung protective ventilation and frequency of ventilator changes made in this cohort.We enrolled 535 patients, of whom 525 met all inclusion criteria. Altered mental status without respiratory pathology was the most common reason for intubation, followed by trauma and respiratory failure. Using iterated Cox regression, a mortality effect occurred at ED time of mechanical ventilation > 7 hours, and the longer ED stay was also associated with a longer total duration of intubation. However, adjusted multivariable regression analysis demonstrated only older age and admission to the neurosciences ICU as independently associated with increased mortality. Of interest, only 23.8% of patients ventilated in the ED for over seven hours had changes made to their ventilator.In a prospective observational study of patients mechanically ventilated in the ED, there was a significant mortality benefit to expedited transfer of patients into an appropriate ICU setting.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate current mobilization practice, strength at ICU discharge and functional recovery at 6 months among mechanically ventilated ICU patients.This was a prospective, multi-centre, cohort study conducted in twelve ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Patients were previously functionally independent and expected to be ventilated for >48 hours. We measured mobilization during invasive ventilation, sedation depth using the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS), co-interventions, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) at ICU discharge, mortality at day 90, and 6-month functional recovery including return to work.We studied 192 patients (mean age 58.1?±?15.8 years; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) (IQR) II score, 18.0 (14 to 24)). Mortality at day 90 was 26.6% (51/192). Over 1,351 study days, we collected information during 1,288 planned early mobilization episodes in patients on mechanical ventilation for the first 14 days or until extubation (whichever occurred first). We recorded the highest level of early mobilization. Despite the presence of dedicated physical therapy staff, no mobilization occurred in 1,079 (84%) of these episodes. Where mobilization occurred, the maximum levels of mobilization were exercises in bed (N?=?94, 7%), standing at the bed side (N?=?11, 0.9%) or walking (N?=?26, 2%). On day three, all patients who were mobilized were mechanically ventilated via an endotracheal tube (N?=?10), whereas by day five 50% of the patients mobilized were mechanically ventilated via a tracheostomy tube (N?=?18).Early mobilization of patients receiving mechanical ventilation was uncommon. More than 50% of patients discharged from the ICU had developed ICU-acquired weakness, which was associated with death between ICU discharge and day-90.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01674608. Registered 14 August 2012.
Project description:BackgroundDiaphragm atrophy is observed in mechanically ventilated patients. However, the atrophy is not investigated in other respiratory muscles. Therefore, we conducted a two-center prospective observational study to evaluate changes in diaphragm and intercostal muscle thickness in mechanically ventilated patients.MethodsConsecutive adult patients who were expected to be mechanically ventilated longer than 48?h in the ICU were enrolled. Diaphragm and intercostal muscle thickness were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 with ultrasonography. The primary outcome was the direction of change in muscle thickness, and the secondary outcomes were the relationship of changes in muscle thickness with patient characteristics.ResultsEighty patients (54 males and 26 females; mean age, 68 ± 14?years) were enrolled. Diaphragm muscle thickness decreased, increased, and remained unchanged in 50 (63%), 15 (19%), and 15 (19%) patients, respectively. Intercostal muscle thickness decreased, increased, and remained unchanged in 48 (60%), 15 (19%), and 17 (21%) patients, respectively. Decreased diaphragm or intercostal muscle thickness was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (median difference (MD), 3?days; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1–7 and MD, 3?days; 95% CI, 1–7, respectively) and length of ICU stay (MD, 3?days; 95% CI, 1–7 and MD, 3?days; 95% CI, 1–7, respectively) compared with the unchanged group. After adjusting for sex, age, and APACHE II score, they were still associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio (HR), 4.19; 95% CI, 2.14–7.93 and HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.53–5.21, respectively) and length of ICU stay (HR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.77–6.45 and HR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.39–4.63, respectively) compared with the unchanged group.ConclusionsDecreased diaphragm and intercostal muscle thickness were frequently seen in patients under mechanical ventilation. They were associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay.Trial registrationUMIN000031316. Registered on 15 February 2018
Project description:Providing supplemental oxygen is fundamental in the management of mechanically ventilated patients. Increasing amounts of data show worse clinical outcomes associated with hyperoxia. However, these previous data in the critically ill have not focused on outcomes associated with brief hyperoxia exposure immediately after endotracheal intubation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of isolated early hyperoxia exposure in the emergency department (ED) on clinical outcomes among mechanically ventilated patients with subsequent normoxia in the intensive care unit (ICU).This was an observational cohort study conducted in the ED and ICUs of an academic center in the USA. Mechanically ventilated normoxic (partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) 60-120 mm Hg) ICU patients with mechanical ventilation initiated in the ED were studied. The cohort was categorized into three oxygen exposure groups based on PaO2 values obtained after ED intubation: hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (defined as PaO2?<?60 mmHg, PaO2 60-120 mm Hg, and PaO2?>?120 mm Hg, respectively, based on previous literature).A total of 688 patients were included. ED normoxia occurred in 350 (50.9%) patients, and 300 (43.6%) had exposure to ED hyperoxia. The ED hyperoxia group had a median (IQR) ED PaO2 of 189 mm Hg (146-249), compared to an ED PaO2 of 88 mm Hg (76-101) in the normoxia group, P?<?0.001. Patients with ED hyperoxia had greater hospital mortality (29.7%), when compared to those with normoxia (19.4%) and hypoxia (13.2%). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, ED hyperoxia was an independent predictor of hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.95 (1.34-2.85)).ED exposure to hyperoxia is common and associated with increased mortality in mechanically ventilated patients achieving normoxia after admission. This suggests that hyperoxia in the immediate post-intubation period could be particularly injurious, and targeting normoxia from initiation of mechanical ventilation may improve outcome.
Project description:Aims:Physical restraints are often used for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation to protect important medical equipment. However, they have adverse physical and psychological effects and could pose ethical hazards. Physical restraint use varies by country, but so far there is little understanding of the frequency of physical restraint use among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in Japan. The present study aims to describe the frequency of physical restraint use among Japanese patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Additionally, it attempts to verify the hypothesis that insufficient human resources have increased the frequency of physical restraints. Methods:We undertook a cross-sectional online open anonymous survey of ICU nurses using a self-administered questionnaire to examine the use of physical restraints for patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation in Japan. Results:We obtained 175 responses, of which 46 were excluded. Of the respondents, 43% reported that physical restraints were used for more than 75% of mechanically ventilated patients. Intensive care units with a higher frequency of physical restraint use had a significantly greater number of beds per nurse compared to those with a lower frequency; however, after adjusting for the number of beds in the ICU and hospital type in a logistic regression analysis, the number of beds per nurse was no longer significantly related to the use of physical restraints. Conclusions:Physical restraints are commonly used among patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in Japan. A systematic approach to reducing physical restraint use among mechanically ventilated patients is needed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone in the management of critically ill patients worldwide; however, less is known about the clinical management of mechanically ventilated patients in low and middle income countries where limitation of resources including equipment, staff and access to medical information may play an important role in defining patient-centred outcomes. We present the design of a prospective, longitudinal study of mechanically ventilated patients in Peru that aims to describe a large cohort of mechanically ventilated patients and identify practices that, if modified, could result in improved patient-centred outcomes and lower costs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Five Peruvian intensive care units (ICUs) and the Medical ICU at the Johns Hopkins Hospital were selected for this study. Eligible patients were those who underwent at least 24?h of invasive mechanical ventilation within the first 48?h of admission into the ICU. Information on ventilator settings, clinical management and treatment were collected daily for up to 28?days or until the patient was discharged from the unit. Vital status was assessed at 90?days post enrolment. A subset of participants who survived until hospital discharge were asked to participate in an ancillary study to assess vital status, and physical and mental health at 6, 12, 24 and 60?months after hospitalisation, Primary outcomes include 90-day mortality, time on mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, and prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In subsequent analyses, we aim to identify interventions and standardised care strategies that can be tailored to resource-limited settings and that result in improved patient-centred outcomes and lower costs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:We obtained ethics approval from each of the four participating hospitals in Lima, Peru, and at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. Results will be disseminated as several separate publications in different international journals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mobilization of critically ill patients is safe and may improve functional outcomes. However, the prevalence of mobilization activities of ICU patients in Brazil is unknown. METHODS:A one-day point prevalence prospective study with a 24-hour follow-up period was conducted in Brazil. Demographic data, ICU characteristics, prevalence of mobilization activities, level of patients' mobilization, and main reasons for not mobilizing patients were collected for all adult patients with more than 24hs of ICU stay in the 26 participating ICUs. Mobilization activity was defined as any exercise performed during ICU stay. RESULTS:In total, 358 patients were included in this study. Mobilization activities were performed in 87.4% of patients. Patients received mobilization activities while under invasive mechanical ventilation (44.1%), noninvasive ventilation (11.7%), or without any ventilatory support (44.2%). Passive exercises were more frequently performed [46.5% in all patients; 82.3% in mechanically ventilated patients]. Mobilization activities included in-bed exercise regimen (72.2%). Out-of-bed mobility was reported in 39.9% of mobilized patients, and in 16.3% of patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. The presence of an institutional early mobility protocol was associated with early mobilization (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.23 to 8.22; p = 0.016), and with out-of-bed exercise (OR, 5.80; 95% CI, 1.33 to 25.30; p = 0.02). CONCLUSION:Mobilization activities in critically ill patients in Brazil was highly prevalent, although there was almost no active mobilization in the mechanically ventilated patients. Moreover, the presence of an institutional early mobility protocol was associated with a threefold higher chance of ICU mobilization during that day.
Project description:Early mobilization has been proven to be an effective and safe intervention for preventing complications in mechanically ventilated patients; however, there is currently no unified definition of the optimal mobilization initiation time, hindering widespread clinical implementation. As clinicians are increasingly aware of the benefits of early mobilization, the definition of early mobilization is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different early mobilization initiation times on mechanically ventilated patients and rank these times for practical consideration. The Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase databases, along with grey literature and reference lists, were searched for randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of early mobilization for improving patient outcomes; databases were searched from inception to October 2018. Two authors extracted data independently, using a predesigned Excel form, and assessed the quality of included RCTs according to the Cochrane Handbook (v5.1.0). Data were analyzed using Stata (v13.0) and Review Manager (v5.3.0). A total of 15 RCTs involving 1726 patients and seven mobilization initiation times (which were all compared to usual care) were included in our analysis. Network meta-analysis showed that mechanical ventilation for 48-72 h may be optimal to improve intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICU-AW) and reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation; however, there were no significant differences in length of ICU stay according to mobilization initiation time. The results of this study indicate that initiation of mobilization within 48-72 h of mechanical ventilation may be optimal for improving clinical outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients.