Silencing of protein kinase D2 induces glioma cell senescence via p53-dependent and -independent pathways.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive tumor of the central nervous system with a dismal prognosis for affected patients. Aberrant protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been implicated in gliomagenesis, and a member of the PKC-activated protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was identified as mediator of GBM growth in vitro and in vivo.The outcome of PRKD2 silencing and pharmacological inhibition on glioma cell proliferation was established with different glioma cell lines. Western blotting, senescence assays, co-immunoprecipitation, fluorescence activated cell sorting, quantitative PCR, and immunofluorescence microscopy were utilized to analyze downstream signaling.RNA-interference (21-mer siRNA) and pharmacological inhibition (CRT0066101) of PRKD2 profoundly inhibited proliferation of p53(wt) (U87MG, A172, and primary GBM2), and p53(mut) (GM133, T98G, U251, and primary Gli25) glioma cells. In a xenograft experiment, PRKD2 silencing significantly delayed tumor growth of U87MG cells. PRKD2 silencing in p53(wt) and p53(mut) cells was associated with typical hallmarks of senescence and cell cycle arrest in G1. Attenuated AKT/PKB phosphorylation in response to PRKD2 silencing was a common observation made in p53(wt) and p53(mut) GBM cells. PRKD2 knockdown in p53(wt) cells induced upregulation of p53, p21, and p27 expression, decreased phosphorylation of CDK2 and/or CDK4, hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and reduced transcription of E2F1. In p53(mut) GM133 and primary Gli25 cells, PRKD2 silencing increased p27 and p15 and reduced E2F1 transcription but did not affect pRb phosphorylation.PRKD2 silencing induces glioma cell senescence via p53-dependent and -independent pathways.
Project description:Alterations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene occur in ~30% of primary glioblastoma (GBM) with a high frequency of missense mutations associated with the acquisition of oncogenic "gain-of-function" (GOF) mutant (mut)p53 activities. PRIMA-1MET/APR-246, emerged as a promising compound to rescue wild-type (wt)p53 function in different cancer types. Previous studies suggested the role of wtp53 in the negative regulation of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a major determinant in resistance to therapy in GBM treatment. The potential role of MGMT in expression of p53 and the efficacy of PRIMA-1MET with respect to TP53 status and expression of MGMT in GBM remain unknown. We investigated response to PRIMA-1MET of wtp53/MGMT-negative (U87MG, A172), mutp53/MGMT-positive U138, LN-18, T98/Empty vector (T98/EV) and its isogenic MGMT/shRNA gene knockdown counterpart (T98/shRNA). We show that MGMT silencing decreased expression of mutp53/GOF in T98/shRNA. PRIMA-1MET further cleared T98/shRNA cells of mutp53, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential, abrogated the G2 checkpoint control, increased susceptibility to apoptotic cell death, expression of GADD45A and sustained expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2. PRIMA-1MET increased expression of p21 protein in U87MG and A172 and promoted senescence in U87MG cell line. Importantly, PRIMA-1MET decreased relative cell numbers, disrupted the structure of neurospheres of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and enabled activation of wtp53 with decreased expression of MGMT in MGMT-positive GSCs or decreased expression of mutp53. Our findings highlight the cell-context dependent effects of PRIMA-1MET irrespective of p53 status and suggest the role of MGMT as a potential molecular target of PRIMA-1MET in MGMT-positive GSCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Increasing evidence has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important prognostic biomarkers and epigenetic regulators with critical roles in cancer initiation and progression. However, the expression and clinical prognostic value of antisense lncRNAs in diffuse glioma patients remain unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Here, we profiled differentially expressed antisense lncRNAs in glioma using RNA sequencing data from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Cox regression was performed to evaluate the prognostic value. Gene oncology (GO) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used for functional analysis of antisense LncRNAs.<h4>Results</h4>Expression profiling identified 169 aberrantly expressed antisense lncRNAs between lower grade glioma (LGG) (grade II and III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 113 antisense lncRNAs between LGG IDH-wt and IDH-mut samples, and 70 antisense lncRNAs between GBM IDH-wt and IDH-mut samples, respectively. Among them, three antisense lncRNAs (WDFY3-AS2, MCM3AP-AS1 and LBX2-AS1) were significantly associated with prognosis and malignant progression of patients. WDFY3-AS2, the top one of downregulated antisense lncRNAs in GBM with fold change of 0.441 (<i>P?</i><?0.001), showed specific decreased expression in classical, mesenchymal, LGG IDH-wt, GBM IDH-wt or MGMT promoter unmethylated stratified patients. Chi square test found that WDFY3-AS2 was significantly associated with the clinical and molecular features of glioma. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that WDFY3-AS2 was independently correlated with overall survival (OS) of patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis found that patients with high WDFY3-AS2 expression had longer OS than the low expression ones in the stratified cohorts. Additionally, GO and GSEA showed that gene sets correlated with WDFY3-AS2 expression were involved in regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamate receptor and TNF signaling pathway.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings provided convincing evidence that WDFY3-AS2 is a novel valuable prognostic biomarker for diffuse glioma.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:Resistance to chemotherapy substantially hinders successful glioblastoma (GBM) treatment, contributing to an almost 100% mortality rate. Resistance to the frontline chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ), arises from numerous signaling pathways that are deregulated in GBM, including Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Here, we investigate suppression of Hh signaling as an adjuvant to TMZ using U87-MG and T98G cell lines as in vitro models of GBM. We found that silencing GLI1 with siRNA reduces cell metabolic activity by up to 30% in combination with TMZ and reduces multidrug efflux activity by 2.5-fold. Additionally, pharmacological GLI inhibition modulates nuclear p53 levels and decreases MGMT expression in combination with TMZ. While we surprisingly found that silencing GLI1 does not induce apoptosis in the absence of TMZ co-treatment, we discovered silencing GLI1 without TMZ co-treatment induces senescence as evidenced by a significant 2.3-fold increase in senescence associated ?-galactosidase staining, and this occurs in a loss of PTEN-dependent manner. Finally, we show that GLI inhibition increases apoptosis in glioma stem-like cells by up to 6.8-fold in combination with TMZ, and this reduces the size and number of neurospheres grown from glioma stem-like cells. In aggregate, our data warrant the continued investigation of Hh pathway inhibitors as adjuvants to TMZ chemotherapy and highlight the importance of identifying signaling pathways that determine whether co-treatment will be successful.
Project description:In this study, we investigate whether arsenite-induced DNA damage leads to p53-dependent premature senescence using human glioblastoma cells with p53-wild type (U87MG-neo) and p53 deficient (U87MG-E6). A dose dependent relationship between arsenite and reduced cell growth is demonstrated, as well as induced γH2AX foci formation in both U87MG-neo and U87MG-E6 cells at low concentrations of arsenite. Senescence was induced by arsenite with senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Dimethyl- and trimethyl-lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3DMK9 and H3TMK9) foci formation was accompanied by p21 accumulation only in U87MG-neo but not in U87MG-E6 cells. This suggests that arsenite induces premature senescence as a result of DNA damage with heterochromatin forming through a p53/p21 dependent pathway. p21 and p53 siRNA consistently decreased H3TMK9 foci formation in U87M G-neo but not in U87MG-E6 cells after arsenite treatment. Taken together, arsenite reduces cell growth independently of p53 and induces premature senescence via p53/p21-dependent pathway following DNA damage.
Project description:Background:The plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein 14 (PHF14) is a vital member of PHD finger protein families. Abnormal expression of PHF14 has been identified in various cancers and is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of tumors. This study investigates the role and the underlying mechanisms of PHF14 in GBM (glioblastoma multiforme). Methods:Tissue microarrays and public databases interrogation were used to explore the relationship between the expression of PHF14 and GBM. Three stable PHF14-silenced cell lines (U251, U87MG and A172) were constructed to assess the biological functions changes of GBM cells in vitro. In addition, tumorigenicity in vivo was also performed using U87MG cell line. To understand the mechanism of action of PHF14, RNA-Seq, qRT-PCR, Western blot, IC50 assay and subsequent pathway analysis were performed. Results:Our results showed that the expression of PHF14 was upregulated in glioma, especially in GBM. Overexpression of PHF14 translated to poor prognosis in glioma patients. In vitro assays revealed that silencing expression of PHF14 in glioma cells inhibited migration, invasiveness and proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Animal assay further confirmed that over-expression of PHF14 was a dismal prognostic factor. Analysis based on RNA-Seq suggested a PHF14-dependent regulation of Wnt signaling networks, which was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and IC50 analysis. In addition, the mRNA expression of several key markers of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and angiogenesis was found to change upon PHF14 silencing. Conclusions:Our data provide a new insight into the biological significance of PHF14 in glioma and its potential application in therapy and diagnosis.
Project description:Although BRCA1 function is essential for maintaining genomic integrity in all cell types, it is unclear why increased risk of cancer in individuals harbouring deleterious mutations in BRCA1 is restricted to only a select few tissues. Here we show that human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) from BRCA1-mutation carriers (BRCA1(mut/+)) exhibit increased genomic instability and rapid telomere erosion in the absence of tumour-suppressor loss. Furthermore, we uncover a novel form of haploinsufficiency-induced senescence (HIS) specific to epithelial cells, which is triggered by pRb pathway activation rather than p53 induction. HIS and telomere erosion in HMECs correlate with misregulation of SIRT1 leading to increased levels of acetylated pRb as well as acetylated H4K16 both globally and at telomeric regions. These results identify a novel form of cellular senescence and provide a potential molecular basis for the rapid cell- and tissue- specific predisposition of breast cancer development associated with BRCA1 haploinsufficiency.
Project description:Oncogene-induced senescence acts as a barrier against tumour formation and has been implicated as the mechanism preventing the transformation of benign melanocytic lesions that frequently harbour oncogenic B-RAF or N-RAS mutations. In the present study we systematically assessed the relative importance of the tumour suppressor proteins p53, p21(Waf1), pRb and p16(INK4a) in mediating oncogene-induced senescence in human melanocytes. We now show that oncogenic N-RAS induced senescence in melanocytes is associated with DNA damage, a potent DNA damage response and the activation of both the p16(INK4a)/pRb and p53/p21(Waf1) tumour suppressor pathways. Surprisingly neither the pharmacological inhibition of the DNA damage response pathway nor silencing of p53 expression had any detectable impact on oncogene-induced senescence in human melanocytes. Our data indicate that the pRb pathway is the dominant effector of senescence in these cells, as its specific inactivation delays the onset of senescence and weakens oncogene-induced proliferative arrest. Furthermore, we show that although both p16(INK4a) and p21(Waf1) are upregulated in response to N-RAS(Q61K), the activities of these CDK inhibitors are clearly distinct and only the loss of p16(INK4a) weakens senescence. We propose that the ability of p16(INK4a) to inhibit the cyclin D-dependent kinases and DNA replication, functions not shared by p21(Waf1), contribute to its role in senescence. Thus, in melanocytes with oncogenic signalling only p16(INK4a) can fully engage the pRb pathway to alter chromatin structure and silence the genes that are required for proliferation.
Project description:Restoration of the p53 pathway, namely by reactivation of mutant (mut) p53, represents a valuable anticancer strategy. Herein, we report the identification of the enantiopure tryptophanol-derived oxazoloisoindolinone SLMP53-1 as a novel reactivator of wild-type (wt) and mut p53, using a yeast-based screening strategy. SLMP53-1 has a p53-dependent anti-proliferative activity in human wt and mut p53R280K-expressing tumor cells. Additionally, SLMP53-1 enhances p53 transcriptional activity and restores wt-like DNA binding ability to mut p53R280K. In wt/mut p53-expressing tumor cells, SLMP53-1 triggers p53 transcription-dependent and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways involving BAX, and wt/mut p53 mitochondrial translocation. SLMP53-1 inhibits the migration of wt/mut p53-expressing tumor cells, and it shows promising p53-dependent synergistic effects with conventional chemotherapeutics. In xenograft mice models, SLMP53-1 inhibits the growth of wt/mut p53-expressing tumors, but not of p53-null tumors, without apparent toxicity. Collectively, besides the potential use of SLMP53-1 as anticancer drug, the tryptophanol-derived oxazoloisoindolinone scaffold represents a promissing starting point for the development of effective p53-reactivating drugs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cellular senescence is an irreversible cell cycle arrest that normal cells undergo in response to progressive shortening of telomeres, changes in telomeric structure, oncogene activation or oxidative stress and acts as an important tumour suppressor mechanism. RESULTS:To identify the downstream effectors of the p53-p21 and p16-pRB tumour suppressor pathways crucial for mediating entry into senescence, we have carried out a loss-of-function RNA interference screen in conditionally immortalised human fibroblasts that can be induced to rapidly undergo senescence, whereas in primary cultures senescence is stochastic and occurs asynchronously. These cells are immortal but undergo a rapid irreversible arrest upon activation of the p53-p21 and p16-pRB pathways that can be readily bypassed upon their inactivation. The primary screen identified 112 known genes including p53 and another 29 shRNAmirs targetting as yet unidentified loci. Comparison of these known targets with genes known to be up-regulated upon senescence in these cells, by micro-array expression profiling, identified 4 common genes TMEM9B, ATXN10, LAYN and LTBP2/3. Direct silencing of these common genes, using lentiviral shRNAmirs, bypassed senescence in the conditionally immortalised cells. CONCLUSION:The senescence bypass screen identified TMEM9B, ATXN10, LAYN and LTBP2/3 as novel downstream effectors of the p53-p21 and p16-pRB tumour suppressor pathways. Although none of them has previously been linked to cellular senescence, TMEM9B has been suggested to be an upstream activator of NF-?B signalling which has been found to have a causal role in promoting senescence. Future studies will focus on determining on how many of the other primary hits also have a casual role in senescence and what is the mechanism of action.