Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) from Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T) promotes growth and resuscitates non-dividing cells.
ABSTRACT: Functional variation of Rpf, a growth factor found exclusively in Actinobacteria, is differentiated by its source and amino acid sequences. Only purified Rpf proteins from three species have been studied so far. To seek new Rpfs for use in future studies to understand their role in Actinobacteria, the objective of this study was to identify rpf gene homologs in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T), a novel Actinobacteria isolated from permafrost ice wedge. Amplification using degenerate primers targeting the essential Rpf domain led to the discovery of a new rpf gene in T. biformata. Gene structure and the deduced Rpf domain amino acid sequence indicated that this rpf gene was not identical to previously studied Rpf. Phylogenetic analysis placed T. biformata Rpf in a monophyletic branch in the RpfB subfamily. The deduced amino acid sequence was 44.9% identical to RpfB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the closest functionally tested Rpf. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli; the recombinant Rpf protein (rRpf) promoted the growth of dividing cells and resuscitated non-dividing cells of T. biformata. Compared to other studies, this Rpf was required at higher concentrations to promote its growth and to resuscitate itself from a non-dividing state. The resuscitation function was likely due to the highly conserved Rpf domain. This study provides evidence that a genetically unique but functional Rpf can be found in novel members of Actinobacteria and can lead to a better understanding of bacterial cytokines in this phylum.
Project description:Resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) is a protein that has been found in a number of different Actinobacteria species and has been shown to promote the growth of active cells and resuscitate dormant (non-dividing) cells. We previously reported the biological activity of an Rpf protein in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T), an Actinobacteria isolated from a permafrost ice wedge. This protein is excreted outside the cell; however, few studies have investigated its contribution in environmental samples to the growth or resuscitation of bacteria other than the original host. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether Rpf from T. biformata impacted the cultivation of other bacteria from the permafrost ice wedge from which it was originally isolated. All experiments used recombinant Rpf proteins produced using a Rhodococcus erythropolis expression system. Dilutions of melted surface sterilized ice wedge samples mixed with different doses of the purified recombinant Rpf (rRpf) protein indicated that the highest concentration tested, 1250 pM, had a significantly (p <0.05) higher number of CFUs on agar plates after 8 d, approximately 14-fold higher than that on control plates without rRpf. 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that all the colonies on plates were mainly related to Brevibacterium antiquum strain VKM Ac-2118 (AY243344), with 98-99% sequence identity. This species is also a member of the phylum Actinobacteria and was originally isolated from Siberian permafrost sediments. The results of the present study demonstrated that rRpf not only promoted the growth of T. biformata from which it was isolated, but also enhanced colony formation by another Actinobacteria in an environmental sample.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In Micrococcus luteus growth and resuscitation from starvation-induced dormancy is controlled by the production of a secreted growth factor. This autocrine resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) is the founder member of a family of proteins found throughout and confined to the actinobacteria (high G + C Gram-positive bacteria). The aim of this work was to search for and characterise a cognate gene family in the firmicutes (low G + C Gram-positive bacteria) and obtain information about how they may control bacterial growth and resuscitation. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the accessory domains of the Rpf proteins permitted their classification into several subfamilies. The RpfB subfamily is related to a group of firmicute proteins of unknown function, represented by YabE of Bacillus subtilis. The actinobacterial RpfB and firmicute YabE proteins have very similar domain structures and genomic contexts, except that in YabE, the actinobacterial Rpf domain is replaced by another domain, which we have called Sps. Although totally unrelated in both sequence and secondary structure, the Rpf and Sps domains fulfil the same function. We propose that these proteins have undergone "non-orthologous domain displacement", a phenomenon akin to "non-orthologous gene displacement" that has been described previously. Proteins containing the Sps domain are widely distributed throughout the firmicutes and they too fall into a number of distinct subfamilies. Comparative analysis of the accessory domains in the Rpf and Sps proteins, together with their weak similarity to lytic transglycosylases, provide clear evidence that they are muralytic enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the firmicute Sps proteins and the actinobacterial Rpf proteins are cognate and that they control bacterial culturability via enzymatic modification of the bacterial cell envelope.
Project description:Bacterial cell growth and division require coordinated cell wall hydrolysis and synthesis, allowing for the removal and expansion of cell wall material. Without proper coordination, unchecked hydrolysis can result in cell lysis. How these opposing activities are simultaneously regulated is poorly understood. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the resuscitation-promoting factor B (RpfB), a lytic transglycosylase, interacts and synergizes with Rpf-interacting protein A (RipA), an endopeptidase, to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. However, it remains unclear what governs this synergy and how it is coordinated with cell wall synthesis. Here we identify the bifunctional peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzyme, penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1), as a RipA-interacting protein. PBP1, like RipA, localizes both at the poles and septa of dividing cells. Depletion of the ponA1 gene, encoding PBP1 in M. smegmatis, results in a severe growth defect and abnormally shaped cells, indicating that PBP1 is necessary for viability and cell wall stability. Finally, PBP1 inhibits the synergistic hydrolysis of peptidoglycan by the RipA-RpfB complex in vitro. These data reveal a post-translational mechanism for regulating cell wall hydrolysis and synthesis through protein-protein interactions between enzymes with antagonistic functions.
Project description:Resuscitation of Mtb is crucial to the etiology of Tuberculosis, because latent tuberculosis is estimated to affect one-third of the world population. The resuscitation-promoting factor RpfB is mainly responsible for Mtb resuscitation from dormancy. Given the impact of latent Tuberculosis, RpfB represents an interesting target for tuberculosis drug discovery. However, no molecular models of substrate binding and catalysis are hitherto available for this enzyme. Here, we identified key interactions involved in substrate binding to RpfB by combining x-ray diffraction studies and computational approaches. The crystal structure of RpfB catalytic domain in complex with N,N',N"-triacetyl-chitotriose, as described here, provides the first, to our knowledge, atomic representation of ligand recognition by RpfB and demonstrates that the strongest interactions are established by the N-acetylglucosamine moiety in the central region of the enzyme binding cleft. Molecular dynamics analyses provided information on the dynamic behavior of protein-substrate interactions and on the role played by the solvent in RpfB function. These data combined with sequence conservation analysis suggest that Glu-292 is the sole residue crucial for catalysis, implying that RpfB acts via the formation of an oxocarbenium ion rather than a covalent intermediate. Present data represent a solid base for the design of effective drug inhibitors of RpfB. Moreover, homology models were generated for the catalytic domains of all members of the Mtb Rpf family (RpfA-E). The analysis of these models unveiled analogies and differences among the different members of the Rpf protein family.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains five resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf)-like proteins, RpfA-E, that are implicated in resuscitation of this organism from dormancy via a mechanism involving hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan by Rpfs and partnering proteins. In this study, the rpfA-E genes were shown to be collectively dispensable for growth of M. tuberculosis in broth culture. The defect in resuscitation of multiple mutants from a 'non-culturable' state induced by starvation under anoxia was reversed by genetic complementation or addition of culture filtrate from wild-type organisms confirming that the phenotype was associated with rpf-like gene loss and that the 'non-culturable' cells of the mutant strains were viable. Other phenotypes uncovered by sequential deletion mutagenesis revealed a functional differentiation within this protein family. The quintuple mutant and its parent that retained only rpfD displayed delayed colony formation and hypersensitivity to detergent, effects not observed for mutants retaining only rpfE or rpfB. Furthermore, mutants retaining rpfD or rpfE were highly attenuated for growth in mice with the latter persisting better than the former in late-stage infection. In conjunction, these results are indicative of a hierarchy in terms of function and/or potency with the Rpf family, with RpfB and RpfE ranking above RpfD.
Project description:In Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11, RpfB1 and RpfB2 were predicted to encode acyl coenzyme A (CoA) ligases. RpfB1 is located in the Rpf gene cluster. Interestingly, we found an RpfB1 homolog (RpfB2) outside this canonical gene cluster, and nothing is known about its functionality or mechanism. Here, we report that rpfB1 and rpfB2 can functionally replace EcFadD in the Escherichia coli fadD mutant JW1794. RpfB activates long-chain fatty acids (n-C16:0 and n-C18:0) for the corresponding fatty acyl-CoA ligase (FCL) activity in vitro, and Glu-361 plays critical roles in the catalytic mechanism of RpfB1 and RpfB2. Deletion of rpfB1 and rpfB2 resulted in significantly increased heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) production, and overexpression of rpfB1 or rpfB2 completely suppressed HSAF production. Deletion of rpfB1 and rpfB2 resulted in increased L. enzymogenes diffusible signaling factor 3 (LeDSF3) synthesis in L. enzymogenes Overall, our results showed that changes in intracellular free fatty acid levels significantly altered HSAF production. Our report shows that intracellular free fatty acids are required for HSAF production and that RpfB affects HSAF production via FCL activity. The global transcriptional regulator Clp directly regulated the expression of rpfB1 and rpfB2 In conclusion, these findings reveal new roles of RpfB in antibiotic biosynthesis in L. enzymogenes IMPORTANCE Understanding the biosynthetic and regulatory mechanisms of heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) could improve the yield in Lysobacter enzymogenes Here, we report that RpfB1 and RpfB2 encode acyl coenzyme A (CoA) ligases. Our research shows that RpfB1 and RpfB2 affect free fatty acid metabolism via fatty acyl-CoA ligase (FCL) activity to reduce the substrate for HSAF synthesis and, thereby, block HSAF production in L. enzymogenes Furthermore, these findings reveal new roles for the fatty acyl-CoA ligases RpfB1 and RpfB2 in antibiotic biosynthesis in L. enzymogenes Importantly, the novelty of this work is the finding that RpfB2 lies outside the Rpf gene cluster and plays a key role in HSAF production, which has not been reported in other diffusible signaling factor (DSF)/Rpf-producing bacteria.
Project description:In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the proteins encoded by the rpf (regulator of pathogenicity factor) gene cluster produce and sense a fatty acid signal molecule called diffusible signalling factor (DSF, 2(Z)-11-methyldodecenoic acid). RpfB was reported to be involved in DSF processing and was predicted to encode an acyl-CoA ligase. We report that RpfB activates a wide range of fatty acids to their CoA esters in vitro. Moreover, RpfB can functionally replace the paradigm bacterial acyl-CoA ligase, Escherichia coli?FadD, in the E. coli ß-oxidation pathway and deletion of RpfB from the Xcc genome results in a strain unable to utilize fatty acids as carbon sources. An essential RpfB function in the pathogenicity factor pathway was demonstrated by the properties of a strain deleted for both the rpfB and rpfC genes. The ?rpfB ?rpfC strain grew poorly and lysed upon entering stationary phase. Deletion of rpfF, the gene encoding the DSF synthetic enzyme, restored normal growth to this strain. RpfF is a dual function enzyme that synthesizes DSF by dehydration of a 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) fatty acid synthetic intermediate and also cleaves the thioester bond linking DSF to ACP. However, the RpfF thioesterase activity is of broad specificity and upon elimination of its RpfC inhibitor RpfF attains maximal activity and its thioesterase activity proceeds to block membrane lipid synthesis by cleavage of acyl-ACP intermediates. This resulted in release of the nascent acyl chains to the medium as free fatty acids. This lack of acyl chains for phospholipid synthesis results in cell lysis unless RpfB is present to counteract the RpfF thioesterase activity by catalysing uptake and activation of the free fatty acids to give acyl-CoAs that can be utilized to restore membrane lipid synthesis. Heterologous expression of a different fatty acid activating enzyme, the Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase, replaced RpfB in counteracting the effects of high level RpfF thioesterase activity indicating that the essential role of RpfB is uptake and activation of free fatty acids.
Project description:RPF-1, a transcription factors encoded by POU6F2 gene, appears to be expressed in the developing nervous system and embryonic kidney. We generated a stable HEK/RPF-1 transfectant expressing the protein in a tetracycline (Tet)-dependent induction and addressed the whole transcriptome regulated by RPF-1. We detected a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with its occupancy at proximal promoters, and gel retardation assay and promoter-reporter activity, addressing a few target genes, indicated a dependence by RPF-1 of transcriptional response. GO analysis supports a role for this factor in the genetic programs guiding early differentiation of embryonic kidney and neuronal fate. RPF-1, a transcription factors encoded by POU6F2 gene, appears to be expressed in the developing nervous system and embryonic kidney. We generated a stable HEK/RPF-1 transfectant expressing the protein in a tetracycline (Tet)-dependent induction and addressed the whole transcriptome regulated by RPF-1. We detected a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with its occupancy at proximal promoters, and gel retardation assay and promoter-reporter activity, addressing a few target genes, indicated a dependence by RPF-1 of transcriptional response. GO analysis supports a role for this factor in the genetic programs guiding early differentiation of embryonic kidney and neuronal fate. Gene array analysis shows that RPF-1 transcription factor modify the transcriptome of HEK293 cells by regulating a genetic program endowed with developmental programs Comparison of HEK293 cells induced for RPF-1 expression (Tet-) over uninduced control (Tet+) and Mock cells. RPF-1 cDNA was inserted into the pTRE2puro vector to generate stable Tet-inducible KEK293 transfectants. Upon Tet removal from the medium, HEK/RPF-1 transfectants expressed the transcription factor RPF-1. Cells were then seeded in 10 cm dishes, cultured for 48 h either in complete medium supplemented with Tet (+) or in Tet-depleted medium (-), harvested, and spun down before RNA isolation. Comparative analysis between HEK/RPF-1 induced (Tet-) and uninduced (Tet+) transfectants allowed us to identify genes transcriptionally regulated by RPF-1. Residual effects on gene expression due to Tet supplementation into culture media was ruled out by comparison with the Mock transfectant.
Project description:Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) proteins, which hydrolyze the sugar chains in cell-wall peptidoglycan (PG), play key roles in prokaryotic cell elongation, division, and escape from dormancy to vegetative growth. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) expresses multiple Rpfs, none of which is individually essential. This redundancy has left unclear the distinct functions of the different Rpfs. To explore the distinguishing characteristics of the five Mtb Rpfs, we determined the crystal structure of the RpfE catalytic domain. The protein adopts the characteristic Rpf fold, but the catalytic cleft is narrower compared to Mtb RpfB. Also in contrast to RpfB, in which the substrate-binding surfaces are negatively charged, the corresponding RpfE catalytic pocket and predicted peptide-binding sites are more positively charged at neutral pH. The complete reversal of the electrostatic potential of the substrate-binding site suggests that the different Rpfs function optimally at different pHs or most efficiently hydrolyze different micro-domains of PG. These studies provide insights into the molecular determinants of the evolution of functional specialization in Rpfs.
Project description:RPF-1 binds promoters of genes modulated by its induction in HEK/RPF-1 transfectant Chromatin IP (ChIP) combined to chromatin array analysis (ChIP-chip) shows that RPF-1 transcription factor bind to promoter elements of genes repressed or activated by RPF-1 expression Comparison of cells induced for RPF-1 expression (Tet-) over uninduced control cells (Tet+)