Epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans species of Candida in 2,496 patients: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) registry 2004-2008.
ABSTRACT: This analysis describes the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in patients enrolled in the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH Alliance) registry from 2004 to 2008. A total of 2,496 patients with non-albicans species of Candida isolates were identified. The identified species were C. glabrata (46.4%), C. parapsilosis (24.7%), C. tropicalis (13.9%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. lusitaniae (1.6%), C. dubliniensis (1.5%) and C. guilliermondii (0.4%); 111 infections involved two or more species of Candida (4.4%). Non-albicans species accounted for more than 50% of all cases of invasive candidiasis in 15 of the 24 sites (62.5%) that contributed more than one case to the survey. Among solid organ transplant recipients, patients with non-transplant surgery, and patients with solid tumors, the most prevalent non-albicans species was C. glabrata at 63.7%, 48.0%, and 53.8%, respectively. In 1,883 patients receiving antifungal therapy on day 3, fluconazole (30.5%) and echinocandins (47.5%) were the most frequently administered monotherapies. Among the 15 reported species, 90-day survival was highest for patients infected with either C. parapsilosis (70.7%) or C. lusitaniae (74.5%) and lowest for patients infected with an unknown species (46.7%) or two or more species (53.2%). In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge of the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in North America. The variability in species distribution in these centers underscores the importance of local epidemiology in guiding the selection of antifungal therapy.
Project description:Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is an affordable alternative to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing. In this study, the MICs of yeast isolates from 1,214 bloodstream infection episodes, generated by SYO during hospital laboratory activity (January 2005 to December 2013), were reanalyzed using current CLSI clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility (or the wild-type [WT] phenotype) to systemic antifungal agents. Excluding Candida albicans (57.4% of all isolates [n = 1,250]), the most predominant species were Candida parapsilosis complex (20.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.2%), Candida glabrata (6.4%), Candida guilliermondii (1.6%), and Candida krusei (1.3%). Among the non-Candida species (1.9%), 7 were Cryptococcus neoformans and 17 were other species, mainly Rhodotorula species. Over 97% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Rates of susceptibility (WT phenotype) to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 98.7% in C. albicans, 92.3% in the C. parapsilosis complex, 96.1% in C. tropicalis, 92.5% in C. glabrata, 100% in C. guilliermondii, and 100% (excluding fluconazole) in C. krusei. The fluconazole-resistant isolates consisted of 6 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 3 C. glabrata isolates, 2 C. albicans isolates, 2 C. tropicalis isolates, and 1 Candida lusitaniae isolate. Of the non-Candida isolates, 2 C. neoformans isolates had the non-WT phenotype for susceptibility to fluconazole, whereas Rhodotorula isolates had elevated azole MICs. Overall, 99.7% to 99.8% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to echinocandins, but 3 isolates were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to caspofungin (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei), anidulafungin (C. albicans and C. guilliermondii), and micafungin (C. albicans). However, when the intrinsically resistant non-Candida isolates were included, the rate of echinocandin nonsusceptibility reached 1.8%. In summary, the SYO method proved to be able to detect yeast species showing antifungal resistance or reduced susceptibility.
Project description:Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida that ranges in severity from debilitating mucosal infections to disseminated disease with high mortality rates. C. albicans is the most common cause of infection, but non-albicans species collectively represent a significant disease burden. Disseminated disease rarely affects immunocompetent individuals, largely due to the action of innate immune cells, including macrophages, in controlling infection. The interaction of C. albicans with macrophages has been subject to extensive study, but there has been little investigation of the macrophage response to non-albicans Candida species. Here, we used RNA-seq to investigate global transcriptional changes within primary murine macrophages after one hour in response to four species: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Clavispora lusitaniae. We identified a strong pro-inflammatory response to C. albicans that was largely independent of fungal variability and found that this was highly correlated with the response to C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. In contrast, C. lusitaniae elicited a broadly weaker response, including reduced induction of cytokine genes. Several chemokine genes also showed weaker induction in response to both C. lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis than to C. albicans, although significantly reduced secretion of CCL3 protein was only evident in response to C. lusitaniae. These data indicate a high degree of similarity in early macrophage recognition of multiple important Candida pathogens, but also suggest that weaker recognition of C. lusitaniae by immune cells may aid immune evasion by this species. Overall design: Macrophages were differentiated from murine bone marrows using 10 ng/ml macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) for seven days, before being distributed into 12-well plates and incubated overnight. Macrophages were then stimulated with medium only, live Candida (C. albicans, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis) or UV-killed C. albicans (all in a 3:1 Candida:macrophage ratio). For the LPS/IFN-gamma condition, macrophages were treated overnight with 100 U/ml IFN-gamma, then during the experiment were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS. After 1 hr treatment, macrophage RNA was isolated using the Qiagen RNeasy Micro kit. RNA samples were obtained from macrophages derived from three individual mice. Sequencing and library preparation was performed by Macrogen, Inc.
Project description:Background:Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an important health problem caused by Candida spp. The aim of this study was molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis, and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans Candida isolates from VVC. Methods:Vaginal secretion samples were collected from 550 vaginitis patients at Sayyad Shirazi Medical and Educational Center of Gorgan (Golestan Province, Iran) from May to October 2015. Samples were analyzed using conventional mycological and molecular approaches. Clinical isolates were analyzed with specific PCR using CGL primers, and the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and clotrimazole was determined by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Results:In total, 35 non-albicans Candida isolates were identified from VVC patients. The isolates included 27 strains of Candida glabrata (77.1%), 5 Candida krusei (Pichia kudriavzevii; 14.3%), 2 Candida kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus; 5.7%), and 1 Candida lusitaniae (Clavispora lusitaniae; 2.9%). The fungicides itraconazole and amphotericin B were effective against all species. One isolate of C. glabrata showed resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole, and 26 isolates of C. glabrata indicated dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. C. lusitaniae was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to fluconazole and resistant to clotrimazole. Conclusion:Non-albicans Candida spp. are common agents of vulvovaginitis, and C. glabrata is the most common species in the tested patients.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> <i>Candida</i> species are a major cause of hospital infections, including ocular candidiasis, but few studies have examined the propensities of specific species to invade the eye or the unique immunological responses induced. This study examined the frequency and characteristics of species-specific <i>Candida</i> eye infections by epidemiology and experiments using a mouse ocular candidiasis model. <b>Methods:</b> We reviewed medical records of candidemia patients from January 2012 to March 2017. We also evaluated ocular fungal burden, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles, and inflammatory cell profiles in mice infected with <i>Candida albicans</i>, <i>Candida glabrata</i>, or <i>Candida parapsilosis.</i> <b>Results:</b> During the study period, 20 ocular candidiasis cases were diagnosed among 99 candidemia patients examined by ophthalmologists. Although <i>C</i>. <i>parapsilosis</i> was the most frequent candidemia pathogen, only <i>C</i>. <i>albicans</i> infection was significantly associated with ocular candidiasis by multivariate analysis. In mice, ocular fungal burden and inflammatory mediators were significantly higher during <i>C</i>. <i>albicans</i> infection, and histopathological analysis revealed invading <i>C</i>. <i>albicans</i> surrounded by inflammatory cells. Ocular neutrophil and inflammatory monocyte numbers were significantly greater during <i>C</i>. <i>albicans</i> infection. <b>Conclusion:</b> <i>Candida albicans</i> is strongly associated with ocular candidiasis due to greater capacity for invasion, induction of inflammatory mediators, and recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes.
Project description:Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise antifungal therapy.
Project description:Objectives: Invasive Candida infections pose a major public health problem worldwide and is a major cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Our aim was to assess dynamics in incidence, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of candidemia episodes in Jerusalem, to better understand the epidemiology of invasive isolates and to better direct therapy. Methods: We analyzed the incidence dynamics, species distribution and susceptibility pattern of 899 candidemia episodes during 2005-2016 in Jerusalem. Results: The overall incidence of candidemia was relatively low of 0.62 per 1,000 admissions. Candida albicans was the leading pathogen (39.4%); however, there was a shift toward non-albicans species, with Candida glabrata predominating among them (40%). As expected, more than one-third of candidemias occurred in intensive care units. However, the distribution between species varied and Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen in hematology-oncology patients. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungals remained stable throughout the years. Only a minority of Candida albicans isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole (3.3%), however, an unexpectedly high resistance rate (37.8%) was observed in Candida parapsilosis isolates. We found an alarming rate of caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata (33.6%) and Candida krusei (67%); this may reflect misclassification of resistance by the E-test method. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive candidemia analysis in the Jerusalem area that should serve as a basis for decision-making regarding appropriate antifungal treatment in the hospital setting. The exceptional high resistance rate amongst Candida parapsilosis emphasizes the importance of antifungal susceptibility monitoring in medical centers serving large urban areas to better direct appropriate treatment.
Project description:We sequenced a 396-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the most common clinically important Candida species: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. lusitaniae. The recently described species of Candida, C. dubliniensis, associated with mucosal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, was also included. Two to five strains of each species were examined. Some species represented intraspecies variation, which was not more than 1.8% (DNA). However, interspecies variations were more than 10 and 7%, respectively, for DNA and amino acid sequences. Multiple alignments of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed species-specific nucleotides and amino acids. Nucleotide- and amino acid-based phylogenetic trees were constructed and are discussed. Using the database, it is possible to identify presumptive Candida species within a working day.
Project description:The number of invasive infections caused by Candida species is increasing worldwide. The incidence of candidiasis cases caused by non-albicans Candida species, such as Candida parapsilosis, is also increasing, and non-albicans Candida species are currently responsible for more invasive infections than C. albicans Additionally, while the development of azole resistance during invasive disease with C. albicans remains uncommon, azole-resistant C. parapsilosis strains are frequently isolated in the hospital setting. In this study, we applied direct selection to generate azole-adapted and azole-evolved C. parapsilosis strains in order to examine the effect of azole resistance development on fungal viability and pathogenesis progression. Depending on the drug applied, the different evolved strains developed distinct cross-resistance patterns: the fluconazole-evolved (FLUEVO) and voriconazole-evolved (VOREVO) strains gained resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole only, while posaconazole evolution resulted in cross-resistance to all azoles and the posaconazole-evolved (POSEVO) strains showed higher echinocandin MIC values than the FLUEVO and VOREVO strains. Whole-genome sequencing results identified the development of different resistance mechanisms in the evolved strains: the FLUEVO and VOREVO strains harbored amino acid substitutions in Mrr1p (A808T and N394Y, respectively), and the POSEVO strain harbored an amino acid change in Erg3p (D14Y). By revealing increased efflux pump activity in both the FLUEVO and the VOREVO strains, along with the altered sterol composition of the POSEVO strain, we now highlight the impact of the above-mentioned amino acid changes in C. parapsilosis azole resistance development. We further revealed that the virulence of this species was only slightly or partially affected by fluconazole and voriconazole adaptation, while it significantly decreased after posaconazole adaptation. Our results suggest that triazole adaptation can result in azole cross-resistance and that this process may also result in virulence alterations in C. parapsilosis, depending on the applied drug.IMPORTANCE Candida parapsilosis causes life-threatening fungal infections. In the last 2 decades, the increasing number of azole-resistant C. parapsilosis clinical isolates has been attributable to the overuse and misuse of fluconazole, the first-line antifungal agent most commonly used in several countries. To date, the range of applicable antifungal drugs is limited. As a consequence, it is essential to understand the possible mechanisms of antifungal resistance development and their effect on virulence in order to optimize antifungal treatment strategies in the clinical setting. Our results revealed that the prolonged exposure to azoles resulted not only in azole resistance but also in cross-resistance development. Our data further indicate that resistance development may occur through different mechanisms that can also alter the virulence of C. parapsilosis These results highlight the consequences of prolonged drug usage and suggest the need for developing alternative antifungal treatment strategies in clinical practice.
Project description:Invasive candidiasis is among the most life-threatening infections in patients in intensive care units. Although Candida albicans is the leading cause of candidaemia, the incidence of Candida parapsilosis infections is also rising, particularly among the neonates. Due to differences in their biology, these species employ different antifungal resistance and virulence mechanisms and also induce dissimilar immune responses. Previously, it has been suggested that core virulence effecting transcription regulators could be attractive ligands for future antifungal drugs. Although the virulence regulatory mechanisms of C. albicans are well studied, less is known about similar mechanisms in C. parapsilosis. In order to search for potential targets for future antifungal drugs against this species, we analyzed the fungal transcriptome during host-pathogen interaction using an in vitro infection model. Selected genes with high expression levels were further examined through their respective null mutant strains, under conditions that mimic the host environment or influence pathogenicity. As a result, we identified several mutants with relevant pathogenicity affecting phenotypes. During the study we highlight three potentially tractable signaling regulators that influence C. parapsilosis pathogenicity in distinct mechanisms. During infection, CPAR2_100540 is responsible for nutrient acquisition, CPAR2_200390 for cell wall assembly and morphology switching and CPAR2_303700 for fungal viability.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis in a large dataset, including patients with deep-seated tissue candidiasis, neutropenia and infection due to non- albicans Candida species.Data were pooled from six prospective, multicentre, multinational studies: four open-label, non-comparative studies of anidulafungin and two double-blind, double-dummy, randomized studies of anidulafungin versus caspofungin (clinical trial registrations: NCT00496197, NCT00548262, NCT00537329, NCT00689338, NCT00806351 and NCT00805740; ClinicalTrials.gov). In all studies, patients with culture-confirmed invasive candidiasis received a single intravenous (iv) loading dose of anidulafungin 200 mg on day 1, followed by 100 mg once-daily. Switch to oral fluconazole or voriconazole was permitted after 5-10 days of iv treatment in all studies except one. Antifungal treatment (iv plus oral therapy if applicable) was maintained for ≥14 days after the last positive Candida culture. The primary endpoint was successful global response at end of iv therapy (EOivT) in the modified ITT (mITT) population.In total, 539 patients were included (mITT population). The most common baseline Candida species were Candida albicans (47.9%), Candida glabrata (21.0%), Candida tropicalis (13.7%), Candida parapsilosis (13.2%) and Candida krusei (3.5%). Median duration of anidulafungin iv treatment was 10.0 days. The global response success rate at EOivT was 76.4% (95% CI 72.9%-80.0%). All-cause mortality was 13.0% on day 14 and 19.1% on day 28. Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with the known AE profile for anidulafungin.These data demonstrate that anidulafungin is effective for treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis in a broad patient population.