Tobramycin inhalation powder manufactured by improved process in cystic fibrosis: the randomized EDIT trial.
ABSTRACT: Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) was reported to be effective in two Phase III studies in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa). The EDIT study evaluated the efficacy and safety of TIP manufactured by an improved process in CF subjects aged 6-21 years.CF patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV?) ?25% to ?80% predicted, positive Pa cultures and inhaled antipseudomonal therapy naïve (or at least for past 4 months) were enrolled into this double-blind, multicenter trial. Patients were randomized to receive TIP or placebo (1:1) twice daily for one treatment cycle (28.5 days on drug, 28 days off drug). The primary endpoint was relative change in FEV? percentage predicted from baseline to day 29. A pre-specified sensitivity analysis evaluated absolute change in FEV?% predicted. Other endpoints included Pa sputum density and safety.A total of 62 patients out of a target of 100 (mean age 12.9 years, baseline FEV? 59.2% predicted, Pa sputum density 7.4 log?? colony forming units [CFU] per gram) were randomized. Mean treatment differences (TIP - placebo) were 5.9% (p=0.148) and 4.4% (p<0.05) for relative and absolute change in FEV?% predicted respectively. TIP significantly reduced Pa sputum density by -1.2 log10 CFU (p=0.002). Treatment with TIP was well tolerated.Relative change in FEV?% predicted with TIP treatment was in the expected range based on the literature, but did not reach statistical significance versus placebo. Placebo control and use of treatment naïve patients led to significant recruitment challenges and an underpowered study with consequent impact on the generated data. However, significant improvements in other outcomes including absolute change in FEV?% predicted and reduction in Pa sputum density indicate that TIP is efficacious and well tolerated in CF patients. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00918957.
Project description:We assessed the short-term efficacy and safety of aztreonam lysine for inhalation (AZLI [an aerosolized monobactam antibiotic]) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) airway infection.In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international study (AIR-CF1 trial; June 2005 to April 2007), patients (n = 164; >or= 6 years of age) with FEV(1) >or= 25% and <or= 75% predicted values, and no recent use of antipseudomonal antibiotics or azithromycin were treated with 75 mg of AZLI (three times daily for 28 days) or placebo (1:1 randomization), then were monitored for 14 days after study drug completion. The primary efficacy end point was change in patient-reported respiratory symptoms (CF-Questionnaire-Revised [CFQ-R] Respiratory Scale). Secondary end points included changes in pulmonary function (FEV(1)), sputum PA density, and nonrespiratory CFQ-R scales. Adverse events and minimum inhibitory concentrations of aztreonam for PA were monitored.After 28 days of treatment, AZLI improved the mean CFQ-R respiratory score (9.7 points; p < 0.001), FEV(1) (10.3% predicted; p < 0.001), and sputum PA density (- 1.453 log(10) cfu/g; p < 0.001), compared with placebo. Significant improvements in Eating, Emotional Functioning, Health Perceptions, Physical Functioning, Role Limitation/School Performance, and Vitality CFQ-R scales were observed. Adverse events were consistent with symptoms of CF lung disease and were comparable for AZLI and placebo except the incidence of "productive cough" was reduced by half in AZLI-treated patients. PA aztreonam susceptibility at baseline and end of therapy were similar.In patients with CF, PA airway infection, moderate-to-severe lung disease, and no recent use of antipseudomonal antibiotics or azithromycin, 28-day treatment with AZLI significantly improved respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function, and was well tolerated.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00112359.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Fosfomycin/tobramycin for inhalation (FTI), a unique, broad-spectrum antibiotic combination, may have therapeutic potential for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate safety and efficacy of FTI (160/40 mg or 80/20 mg), administered twice daily for 28 days versus placebo, in patients greater than or equal to 18 years of age, with CF, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) airway infection, and FEV(1) greater than or equal to 25% and less than or equal to 75% predicted.<h4>Methods</h4>This double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study assessed whether FTI/placebo maintained FEV(1) % predicted improvements achieved following a 28-day, open-label, run-in course of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI).<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>A total of 119 patients were randomized to FTI (160/40 mg: n = 41; 80/20 mg: n = 38) or placebo (n = 40). Mean age was 32 years and mean FEV(1) was 49% predicted at screening. Relative improvements in FEV(1) % predicted achieved by the AZLI run-in were maintained in FTI groups compared with placebo (160/40 mg vs. placebo: 6.2% treatment difference favoring FTI, P = 0.002 [primary endpoint]; 80/20 mg vs. placebo: 7.5% treatment difference favoring FTI, P < 0.001). The treatment effect on mean PA sputum density was statistically significant for the FTI 80/20 mg group versus placebo (-1.04 log(10) PA colony-forming units/g sputum difference, favoring FTI; P = 0.01). Adverse events, primarily cough, were consistent with CF disease. Respiratory events, including dyspnea and wheezing, were less common with FTI 80/20 mg than FTI 160/40 mg. No clinically significant differences between groups were reported for laboratory values.<h4>Conclusions</h4>FTI maintained the substantial improvements in FEV(1) % predicted achieved during the AZLI run-in and was well tolerated. FTI is a promising antipseudomonal therapy for patients with CF.
Project description:The effectiveness and safety of aztreonam lysine for inhalation (AZLI) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) on maintenance treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) airway infection was evaluated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.To evaluate the safety and efficacy of inhaled aztreonam lysine in controlling PA infection in patients with CF.After randomization and a 28-day course of tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), patients (n = 211; > or =6 yr; > or =3 TIS courses within previous year; FEV(1) > or = 25% and < or =75% predicted values) were treated with 75 mg AZLI or placebo, twice or three times daily for 28 days, then monitored for 56 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to need for additional inhaled or intravenous antipseudomonal antibiotics. Secondary endpoints included changes in respiratory symptoms (CF Questionnaire-Revised [CFQ-R] Respiratory Scale), pulmonary function (FEV(1)), and sputum PA density. Adverse events and minimum inhibitory concentrations of aztreonam for PA were monitored.AZLI treatment increased median time to need for additional antipseudomonal antibiotics for symptoms of pulmonary exacerbation by 21 days, compared with placebo (AZLI, 92 d; placebo, 71 d; P = 0.007). AZLI improved mean CFQ-R respiratory scores (5.01 points, P = 0.02), FEV(1) (6.3%, P = 0.001), and sputum PA density (-0.66 log(10) cfu/g, P = 0.006) compared with placebo; no AZLI dose-response was observed. Adverse events reported for AZLI and placebo were comparable and consistent with CF lung disease. Susceptibility of PA to aztreonam at baseline and end of therapy were similar.AZLI was effective in patients with CF using frequent TIS therapy. AZLI delayed time to need for inhaled or intravenous antipseudomonal antibiotics, improved respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function, and was well tolerated. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00104520).
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) airway infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The type III secretion system is one of the factors responsible for the increased virulence and pro-inflammatory effects of Pa. KB001 is a PEGylated, recombinant, anti-Pseudomonas-PcrV antibody Fab' fragment that blocks the function of Pa TTSS. We studied the safety, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic properties of KB001 in CF subjects with chronic Pa infection. Twenty-seven eligible CF subjects (?12 years of age, FEV1 ?40% of predicted, and sputum Pa density >10(5) ?CFU/g) received a single intravenous dose of KB001 (3?mg/kg or 10?mg/kg) or placebo. Safety, PK, Pa density, clinical outcomes, and inflammatory markers were assessed. KB001 had an acceptable safety profile and a mean serum half-life of 11.9 days. All subjects had Pa TTSS expression in sputum. There were no significant differences between KB001 and placebo for changes in Pa density, symptoms, or spirometry after a single dose. However, compared to baseline, at Day 28 there was a trend towards a dose-dependent reduction in sputum myeloperoxidase, IL-1, and IL-8, and there were significant overall differences in change in sputum neutrophil elastase and neutrophil counts favoring the KB001 10?mg/kg group versus placebo (-0.61?log(10) and -0.63?log(10) , respectively; P?<?0.05). These results support targeting Pa TTSS with KB001 as a nonantibiotic strategy to reduce airway inflammation and damage in CF patients with chronic Pa infection. Repeat-dosing studies are necessary to evaluate the durability of the anti-inflammatory effects and how that may translate into clinical benefit. (NCT00638365).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx), frequently associated with airway infection and inflammation, are the leading cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). Molecular microbiologic approaches detect complex microbiota from CF airway samples taken during PEx. The relationship between airway microbiota, inflammation, and lung function during CF PEx is not well understood.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the relationships between airway microbiota, inflammation, and lung function in CF subjects treated for PEx.<h4>Methods</h4>Expectorated sputum and blood were collected and lung function testing performed in CF subjects during early (0-3d.) and late treatment (>7d.) for PEx. Sputum was analyzed by culture, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and quantitative PCR for total and specific bacteria. Sputum IL-8 and neutrophil elastase (NE); and circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-seven sputum samples were collected from 21 CF subjects. At early treatment, lower diversity was associated with high relative abundance (RA) of Pseudomonas (r?=?-0.67, p<0.001), decreased FEV(1%) predicted (r?=?0.49, p?=?0.03) and increased CRP (r?=?-0.58, p?=?0.01). In contrast to Pseudomonas, obligate and facultative anaerobic genera were associated with less inflammation and higher FEV?. With treatment, Pseudomonas RA and P. aeruginosa by qPCR decreased while anaerobic genera showed marked variability in response. Change in RA of Prevotella was associated with more variability in FEV? response to treatment than Pseudomonas or Staphylococcus.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Anaerobes identified from sputum by sequencing are associated with less inflammation and higher lung function compared to Pseudomonas at early exacerbation. CF PEx treatment results in variable changes of anaerobic genera suggesting the need for larger studies particularly of patients without traditional CF pathogens.
Project description:A light-porous-particle, dry-powder formulation of tobramycin was developed, using PulmoSphere® technology, to improve airway delivery efficiency, substantially reduce delivery time, and improve patient convenience and satisfaction. We evaluated the safety, efficacy and convenience of tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP™) versus tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS, TOBI®) for treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients aged ?6 years.In this open-label study, 553 patients were randomized 3:2 to TIP (total 112mg tobramycin) via the Novartis T-326 Inhaler or TIS 300mg/5mL via PARI LC® PLUS nebulizer twice daily for three treatment cycles (28 days on-drug, 28 days off-drug). Safety, efficacy, and treatment satisfaction outcomes were evaluated.TIP was generally well-tolerated; adverse events were similar in both groups. The rate of cough suspected to be study drug related was higher in TIP-treated patients (TIP: 25.3%; TIS: 4.3%), as was the overall discontinuation rate (TIP: 26.9%; TIS: 18.2%). Increases in FEV(1)% predicted from baseline to Day 28 of Cycle 3 were similar between groups; the mean reduction in sputum P. aeruginosa density (log(10) CFU/g) on Day 28 of Cycle 3 was also comparable between groups. Administration time was significantly less for TIP (mean: 5.6 versus 19.7min, p<0.0001). Treatment satisfaction was significantly higher for TIP for effectiveness, convenience, and global satisfaction.TIP has a safety and efficacy profile comparable with TIS, and offers a far more convenient treatment option for pseudomonas lung infection in CF.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine the association of multiple antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MARPA) acquisition with lung function decline in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).Using data from Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF), we identified patients with spirometry data and MARPA, defined as PA (1) resistant to gentamicin and either tobramycin or amikacin, and (2) resistant to ?1 antipseudomonal beta lactam. MARPA had to be detected in a respiratory culture after ?2 years of PA-positive but MARPA-negative respiratory cultures. Multivariable piecewise linear regression was performed to model the annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) % predicted 2 calendar years before and after the index year of MARPA detection, adjusting for patient characteristics and CF therapies.In total, 4349 patients with chronic PA and adequate PFT data were identified; 1111 subsequently developed MARPA, while 3238 patients were PA positive but MARPA negative. Compared with patients who did not acquire MARPA, MARPA-positive patients had lower FEV(1) and received more oral (p<0.013) and inhaled (p<0.001) antibiotic therapy. Mean FEV(1) decline did not change significantly after MARPA detection (-2.22% predicted/year before detection and -2.43 after, p=0.45). There was no relationship between persistent infection or FEV(1) quartile and FEV(1) decline.Newly detected MARPA was not associated with a significant change in the rate of FEV(1) decline. These results suggest that MARPA is more likely to be a marker of more severe disease and more intensive therapy, and less likely to be contributing independently to more rapid lung function decline.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Sputum biomarkers of infection and inflammation are noninvasive measures that enable quantification of the complex pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Validation of these biomarkers as correlates of disease severity is a key step for their application.<h4>Objectives</h4>We constructed a large database from four multicenter studies to quantify the strength of association between expectorated sputum biomarkers and FEV(1.)<h4>Methods</h4>FEV(1) (range, 25-120% predicted) and quantitative data on expectorated sputum biomarkers including free neutrophil elastase, IL-8, neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from 269 participants (ages, 9-54 years) from 33 centers. Cross-sectional and longitudinal statistical analyses were performed to estimate associations between the markers and FEV(1), including the use of multivariable analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Elastase was negatively correlated with FEV(1) (correlation [r] = -0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.46, -0.22). On average, patients with CF who differed in their elastase measurements by 0.5 log differed in their FEV(1) values by -7.3% (95% CI: -9.7, -4.6). Neutrophil counts and IL-8 were also each negatively correlated. In a multivariable regression, elastase and neutrophil counts were able to explain the majority of variation in FEV(1). Elastase was further shown to have a significant longitudinal association with FEV(1), specifically a -2.9% decline in FEV(1) (95% CI: -5.0, -0.9) per 1-log increase in elastase. Although correlated with FEV(1), bacterial densities were unable to explain clinically meaningful differences in FEV(1) within and across patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data support the role of sputum biomarkers as correlates of disease severity in a diverse CF population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common commensal capable of causing severe invasive infections. Most GBS infections occur in neonates (often as pneumonia). GBS can also cause infection in adults with diabetes and other immunological impairments but rarely leads to pneumonia in adults. GBS has occasionally been found in the sputum of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, an inherited condition known for progressive lung disease. However, the epidemiology and clinical significance of GBS in CF are not understood.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed a large single-centre adult CF population with an associated comprehensive, prospectively collected bacterial biobank beginning in 1978. We identified all individuals with GBS isolated from their sputum on at least one occasion. The primary outcome was risk of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) at the time of the first GBS isolate compared to the preceding visit. Secondary outcomes included determining: prevalence of GBS infection in a CF population, whether GBS infections where transient or persistent, whether GBS strains were shared among patients, change in % predicted FEV<sub>1</sub> at the time of GBS isolate compared to the preceding visit, PEx frequency after the first GBS isolate, change in % predicted FEV<sub>1</sub> after the first GBS isolate, and complications of GBS infection.<h4>Results</h4>GBS was uncommon, infecting 3.5% (11/318) adults within our cohort. Only three individuals developed persistent GBS infection, all lasting > 12 months. There were no shared GBS strains among patients. PEx risk was not increased at initial GBS isolation (RR 5.0, CI 0.69-36.1, p=0.10). In the two years preceding initial GBS isolation compared to the two following years, there was no difference in PEx frequency (median 2, range 0-4 vs 1, range 0 to 5, respectively, p=0.42) or lung function decline, as measured by % predicted FEV<sub>1</sub>, (median -1.0%, range -19 to 7% vs median -6.0%, range -18 to 22%, p=0.86). There were no invasive GBS infections.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In adults with CF, GBS is uncommon and is generally a transient colonizer of the lower airways. Despite the presence of structural lung disease and impaired innate immunity in CF, incident GBS infection did not increase PEx risk, PEx frequency, rate of lung function decline, or other adverse clinical outcomes.
Project description:Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) causes morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Additional anti-PA therapies are needed to improve health status and health-related quality of life. AIR-CF3 was an international 18-month, open-label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of repeated courses of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI, now marketed as Cayston®) in patients aged ? 6 years with CF and PA infection who previously participated in one of two Phase 3 studies: AIR-CF1 or AIR-CF2. Patients received up to nine courses (28 days on/28 days off) of 75 mg AZLI two (BID) or three times daily (TID) based on randomization in the previous trials. 274 patients, mean age 28.5 years (range: 8-74 years), participated. Mean treatment adherence was high (92.0% BID group, 88.0% TID group). Hospitalization rates were low and adverse events were consistent with CF. With each course of AZLI, FEV(1) and scores on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptom scale improved and bacterial density in sputum was reduced. Benefits waned in the 28 days off therapy, but weight gain was sustained over the 18 months. There were no sustained decreases in PA susceptibility. A dose response was observed; AZLI TID-treated patients demonstrated greater improvements in lung function and respiratory symptoms over 18 months. Repeated intermittent 28-day courses of AZLI treatment were well tolerated. Clinical benefits in pulmonary function, health-related quality of life, and weight were observed with each course of therapy. AZLI is a safe and effective new therapy in patients with CF and PA airway infection.