Use of imipenem to detect KPC, NDM, OXA, IMP, and VIM carbapenemase activity from gram-negative rods in 75 minutes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Resistance to extended-spectrum ?-lactam antibiotics has led to a greater reliance upon carbapenems, but the expression of carbapenemases threatens to limit the utility of these drugs. Current methods to detect carbapenemase activity are suboptimal, requiring prolonged incubations during which ineffective therapy may be prescribed. We previously described a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of carbapenemase activity using ertapenem and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, we assessed 402 Gram-negative rods, including both Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae expressing IMP, VIM, KPC, NDM, and/or OXA carbapenemases, by using imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem with LC-MS/MS assays. LC-MS/MS methods for the detection of intact and hydrolyzed carbapenems from an enrichment broth were developed. No ion suppression was observed, and the limits of detection for all three drugs were below 0.04 ?g/ml. The sensitivity and specificity of meropenem and ertapenem for carbapenemase activity among non-Enterobacteriaceae were low, but imipenem demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 95%, respectively, among all Gram-negative rods (GNR) tested, including both Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae. LC-MS/MS allows for the analysis of more complex matrices, and this LC-MS/MS assay could easily be adapted for use with primary specimens requiring growth enrichment.
Project description:The synergy of carbapenem combinations regarding Enterobacteriaceae producing different types of carbapenemases was study through different approaches: flow cytometry and computational analysis. Ten well characterized Enterobacteriaceae (KPC, verona integron-encoded metallo-?-lactamases -VIM and OXA-48-like enzymes) were selected for the study. The cells were incubated with a combination of ertapenem with imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem and killing kinetic curves performed with and without reinforcements of the drugs. A cephalosporin was also used in combination with ertapenem. A flow cytometric assay with DiBAC4-(3), a membrane potential dye, was developed in order to evaluate the cellular lesion after 2 h incubation. A chemical computational study was performed to understand the affinity of the different drugs to the different types of enzymes. Flow cytometric analysis and time-kill assays showed a synergic effect against KPC and OXA-48 producing-bacteria with all combinations; only ertapenem with imipenem was synergic against VIM producing-bacteria. A bactericidal effect was observed in OXA-48-like enzymes. Ceftazidime plus ertapenem was synergic against ESBL-negative KPC producing-bacteria. Ertapenem had the highest affinity for those enzymes according to chemical computational study. The synergic effect between ertapenem and others carbapenems against different carbapenemase-producing bacteria, representing a therapeutic choice, was described for the first time. Easier and faster laboratorial methods for carbapenemase characterization are urgently needed. The design of an ertapenem derivative with similar affinity to carbapenemases but exhibiting more stable bonds was demonstrated as highly desirable.
Project description:Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, biapenem, ertapenem, and doripenem) are ?-lactam antimicrobial agents. Because carbapenems have the broadest spectra among all ?-lactams and are primarily used to treat infections by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, the emergence and spread of carbapenemases became a major public health concern. Carbapenemases are the most versatile family of ?-lactamases that are able to hydrolyze carbapenems and many other ?-lactams. According to the dependency of divalent cations for enzyme activation, carbapenemases can be divided into metallo-carbapenemases (zinc-dependent class B) and non-metallo-carbapenemases (zinc-independent classes A, C, and D). Many studies have provided various carbapenemase structures. Here we present a comprehensive and systematic review of three-dimensional structures of carbapenemase-carbapenem complexes as well as those of carbapenemases. We update recent studies in understanding the enzymatic mechanism of each class of carbapenemase, and summarize structural insights about regions and residues that are important in acquiring the carbapenemase activity.
Project description:Resistance to carbapenems has been documented by the production of carbapenemase or the loss of porins combined with extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or AmpC ?-lactamases. However, no complete comparisons have been made regarding the contributions of each resistance mechanism towards carbapenem resistance. In this study, we genetically engineered mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae with individual and combined resistance mechanisms, and then compared each resistance mechanism in response to ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and other antibiotics. Among the four studied carbapenems, ertapenem was the least active against the loss of porins, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases. In addition to the production of KPC-2 or NDM-1 alone, resistance to all four carbapenems could also be conferred by the loss of two major porins, OmpK35 and OmpK36, combined with CTX-M-15 or DHA-1 with its regulator AmpR. Because the loss of OmpK35/36 alone or the loss of a single porin combined with bla CTX-M-15 or bla DHA-1-ampR expression was only sufficient for ertapenem resistance, our results suggest that carbapenems other than ertapenem should still be effective against these strains and laboratory testing for non-susceptibility to other carbapenems should improve the accurate identification of these isolates.
Project description:Carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D carbapenemases (CHDLs) are enzymes that produce resistance to the last-resort carbapenem antibiotics, severely compromising the available therapeutic options for the treatment of life-threatening infections. A broad variety of CHDLs, including OXA-23, OXA-24/40, and OXA-58, circulate in Acinetobacter baumannii, while the OXA-48 CHDL is predominant in Enterobacteriaceae Extensive structural studies of A. baumannii enzymes have provided important information regarding their interactions with carbapenems and significantly contributed to the understanding of the mechanism of their carbapenemase activity. However, the interactions between carbapenems and OXA-48 have not yet been elucidated. We determined the X-ray crystal structures of the acyl-enzyme complexes of OXA-48 with four carbapenems, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, and doripenem, and compared them with those of known carbapenem complexes of A. baumannii CHDLs. In the A. baumannii enzymes, acylation by carbapenems triggers significant displacement of one of two conserved hydrophobic surface residues, resulting in the formation of a channel for entry of the deacylating water into the active site. We show that such a channel preexists in apo-OXA-48 and that only minor displacement of the conserved hydrophobic surface residues occurs upon the formation of OXA-48 acyl-enzyme intermediates. We also demonstrate that the extensive hydrophobic interactions that occur between a conserved hydrophobic bridge of the A. baumannii CHDLs and the carbapenem tails are lost in OXA-48 in the absence of an equivalent bridge structure. These data highlight significant differences between the interactions of carbapenems with OXA-48 and those with A. baumannii enzymes and provide important insights into the mechanism of carbapenemase activity of the major Enterobacteriaceae CHDL, OXA-48.
Project description:For the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), immunochromatographic lateral flow tests (ICT) have recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the new multiplex ICT Resist-3 O.K.N. and to investigate if it can be performed directly from susceptibility testing plates. Additionally, the impact of the inoculum and carbapenem disks on sensitivity and specificity was evaluated. The new ICT was challenged using 63 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates, including 51 carbapenemase producers. It was assessed under five different conditions directly from Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA): 1 ?l or 10 ?l of inoculum harvested in the absence of antibiotic pressure or 1 ?l taken from the inhibition zone of either an ertapenem, imipenem, or meropenem disk. The sensitivity of the ICT was 100% for OXA-48-like and KPC carbapenemases and 94.4% for the NDM carbapenemase with the 1-?l inoculum. When harvested adjacent to a carbapenem disk, the sensitivity increased to 100%. Additionally, with zinc-supplemented MHA, both the sensitivity increased and the NDM band became visible faster (mean time, 8 ± 3.9 min for MHA compared to 1.9 ± 1.5 min for MHA plus zinc; P = 0.0016). The specificity of the ICT was 100%. The Resist-3 O.K.N. ICT is a sensitive and rapid test for the detection of three highly prevalent carbapenemases. However, false-negative results for NDM can occur. We recommend an inoculum of 1 ?l that is harvested adjacent to an ertapenem or meropenem disk and the use of agars with sufficient zinc content to achieve the best performance.
Project description:Bacteria are increasingly resistant to antibiotics used to treat life-threatening infections in critically ill patients. The carbapenems represent the last line of defense against Gram-negative rods that are increasingly resistant to all other classes of ?-lactam antibiotics used to treat life-threatening infections in critically ill patients. Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative rods is most commonly caused by expression of carbapenemases, enzymes that hydrolyze the ?-lactam ring of carbapenem antibiotics rendering them inactive. All of the available diagnostic tests rely on bacterial growth rendering them time consuming; therefore, rapid diagnostic tests are needed to identify multidrug (including carbapenem)-resistant bacteria.We report the development of a novel LC-MS/MS method that detects carbapenemase activity from bacterial isolates. Incubation of a bacterial suspension with physiological levels of ertapenem leads to carbapenemase-mediated drug hydrolysis that produces a specific metabolite with an 18 Da increase in m/z within 1 h. Using the ratio of metabolite:parent, detected by LC-MS/MS from the culture, the sensitivity, specificity and a threshold cutoff for carbapenemase production (interpretive criteria) have been determined.A 100% correlation of our LC-MS/MS assay with the modified Hodge test (functional test for carbapenemase production) and PCR emphasizes the robust nature of this assay. The assay requires minimal hands-on time and a straightforward protocol allowing convenient implementation into clinical laboratories. Inclusion of stable isotope-labeled standard will further increase the robustness of the assay. This assay offers several advantages over other similar assays that use MALDI-TOF MS analysis.
Project description:The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of four phenotypic methods in the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in China. We evaluated the performance of four carbapenemase detection methods, the modified Hodge test (MHT), the Carba NP test, the meropenem hydrolysis assay (MHA) with 1- and 2-h incubation, and the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) with meropenem, imipenem, and ertapenem, on 342 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (CRE) in China. PCR was used as the gold standard. The 2-h-incubation MHA performed the best in carbapenemase detection (overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value all 100%). Second was the Carba NP test, with a sensitivity of 99.6%. The 1-h-incubation MHA performed poorly in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) detection (sensitivity, 71.3%). For mCIM, the best performance was observed with the meropenem disk. The MHT exhibited the worst performance, with a specificity of 88.8%. All assays except 1-h-incubation MHA, which failed to identify 68 KPC-2s, had a sensitivity of >98% in the detection of 172 KPCs. Likewise, all assays had a sensitivity of >95% in the detection of 70 class B carbapenemases, except for MHT (82.9%). The 2-h-incubation MHA significantly improved the accuracy in CPE detection compared with that for 1-h incubation and performed the best in the detection of class A and B carbapenemases. Our findings suggest that the MHA is the most practical assay for carbapenemase detection. For those who cannot afford the associated equipment, both the Carba NP test and mCIM are good alternatives with regard to the practical requirements of time and cost.
Project description:The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC ?-lactamase and metallo-?-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other ?-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8%) were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3%) harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9), blaOXA-48 (n = 5), blaNDM (n = 3), and blaNMC (n = 1) genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile), 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.
Project description:During the last decade, carbapenem resistance has emerged among clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This has been increasingly attributed to the production of ?-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems. Among these enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are the most frequently and clinically significant class-A carbapenemases. In this report, we describe the first nosocomial KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca isolated from a pediatric patient with pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit at The Andes University Hospital, Mérida, Venezuela. This strain was resistant to several antibiotics including imipenem, ertapenem, and meropenem but remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin, colistin, and tigecycline. Conjugation assays demonstrated the transferability of all resistance determinants, except aminoglycosides. The isolate LMM-SA26 carried a ~21?kb conjugative plasmid that harbored the bla KPC-2, bla CTX-M-8, and bla TEM-15 genes. Although carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is still unusual in Venezuela, KPCs have a great potential to spread due to their localization on mobile genetic elements. Therefore, rapid detection of KPC-carrying bacteria with phenotypic and confirmatory molecular tests is essential to establish therapeutic options and effective control measures.
Project description:The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC (n = 794), OXA-48-like (n = 300), and NDM (n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1,127), Escherichia coli (n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study.