Genetic testing in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer using massive parallel sequencing.
ABSTRACT: High throughput methods such as next generation sequencing are increasingly used in molecular diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop a workflow for the detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using massive parallel sequencing in a 454 GS Junior bench top sequencer. Our approach was first validated in a panel of 23 patients containing 62 unique variants that had been previously Sanger sequenced. Subsequently, 101 patients with familial breast and ovarian cancer were studied. BRCA1 and BRCA2 exon enrichment has been performed by PCR amplification using the BRCA MASTR kit (Multiplicom). Bioinformatic analysis of reads is performed with the AVA software v2.7 (Roche). In total, all 62 variants were detected resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. 71 false positives were called resulting in a specificity of 97.35%. All of them correspond to deletions located in homopolymeric stretches. The analysis of the homopolymers stretches of 6?bp or longer using the BRCA HP kit (Multiplicom) increased the specificity of the detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to 99.99%. We show here that massive parallel pyrosequencing can be used as a diagnostic strategy to test for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations meeting very stringent sensitivity and specificity parameters replacing traditional Sanger sequencing with a lower cost.
Project description:BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is changing genetic diagnosis due to its huge sequencing capacity and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an NGS-based workflow for routine diagnostics for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOCS), to improve genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. A NGS-based workflow was designed using BRCA MASTR kit amplicon libraries followed by GS Junior pyrosequencing. Data analysis combined Variant Identification Pipeline freely available software and ad hoc R scripts, including a cascade of filters to generate coverage and variant calling reports. A BRCA homopolymer assay was performed in parallel. A research scheme was designed in two parts. A Training Set of 28 DNA samples containing 23 unique pathogenic mutations and 213 other variants (33 unique) was used. The workflow was validated in a set of 14 samples from HBOCS families in parallel with the current diagnostic workflow (Validation Set). The NGS-based workflow developed permitted the identification of all pathogenic mutations and genetic variants, including those located in or close to homopolymers. The use of NGS for detecting copy-number alterations was also investigated. The workflow meets the sensitivity and specificity requirements for the genetic diagnosis of HBOCS and improves on the cost-effectiveness of current approaches.
Project description:BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are predisposed to develop breast and ovarian cancers, but the reasons for this tissue specificity are unknown. Breast epithelial cells are known to contain elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage, triggered by hormonally driven growth and its effect on cell metabolism. BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient cells were found to be more sensitive to oxidative stress, modeled by treatment with patho-physiologic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide exposure leads to oxidative DNA damage induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in BRCA-deficient cells causing them to accumulate in S-phase. In addition, after hydrogen peroxide treatment, BRCA deficient cells showed impaired Rad51 foci which are dependent on an intact BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway. These DSB resulted in an increase in chromatid-type aberrations, which are characteristic for BRCA1 and BRCA2-deficient cells. The most common result of oxidative DNA damage induced processing of S-phase DSB is an interstitial chromatid deletion, but insertions and exchanges were also seen in BRCA deficient cells. Thus, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are essential for the repair of oxidative DNA damage repair intermediates that persist into S-phase and produce DSB. The implication is that oxidative stress plays a role in the etiology of hereditary breast cancer.
Project description:Attempts to determine the clinical significance of BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer have produced conflicting results.To determine the relationships between BRCA1/2 deficiency (ie, mutation and promoter hypermethylation) and overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), chemotherapy response, and whole-exome mutation rate in ovarian cancer.Observational study of multidimensional genomics and clinical data on 316 high-grade serous ovarian cancer cases that were made public between 2009 and 2010 via The Cancer Genome Atlas project.OS and PFS rates (primary outcomes) and chemotherapy response (secondary outcome).BRCA2 mutations (29 cases) were associated with significantly better OS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16-0.69; P = .003 and 5-year OS, 61% for BRCA2-mutated vs 25% for BRCA wild-type cases) and PFS (adjusted HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.22-0.74; P = .004 and 3-year PFS, 44% for BRCA2-mutated vs 16% for BRCA wild-type cases), whereas neither BRCA1 mutations (37 cases) nor BRCA1 methylation (33 cases) was associated with prognosis. Moreover, BRCA2 mutations were associated with a significantly higher primary chemotherapy sensitivity rate (100% for BRCA2-mutated vs 82% [P = .02] and 80% [P = .05] for BRCA wild-type and BRCA1-mutated cases, respectively) and longer platinum-free duration (median platinum-free duration, 18.0 months for BRCA2-mutated vs 11.7 [P = .02] and 12.5 [P = .04] months for BRCA wild-type and BRCA1-mutated cases, respectively). BRCA2-mutated, but not BRCA1-mutated cases, exhibited a "mutator phenotype" by containing significantly more mutations than BRCA wild-type cases across the whole exome (median mutation number per sample, 84 for BRCA2-mutated vs 52 for BRCA wild-type cases, false discovery rate <0.1).Among women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, BRCA2 mutation, but not BRCA1 deficiency, was associated with improved survival, improved chemotherapy response, and genome instability compared with BRCA wild-type.
Project description:Objective:BRCA mutational status is important in the management of ovarian cancer, but there is a lack of evidence supporting genetic testing in Asian populations. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic outcomes of BRCA1/2 mutation and variant of unknown significance (VUS) in Korean patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods:Among patients newly diagnosed with EOC between January 2007 and January 2017, those tested for germline BRCA1/2 mutation were studied, regardless of family history. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between the patients with and without BRCA1/2 mutation and VUS. Results:A total of 313 patients underwent BRCA testing: 88 patients had a BRCA1/2 mutation and 48 patients had a BRCA1/2 VUS (28.1% and 15.3%, respectively). There were no significant associations between BRCA1/2 mutation, BRCA1/2 wild-type, or BRCA1/2 VUS with age at diagnosis, histologic distribution, or residual disease status after primary cytoreductive surgery. BRCA1 mutation, including BRCA1 VUS, showed no difference in PFS or OS compared to BRCA1 wild-type. In contrast, BRCA2 mutation showed longer PFS than that of BRCA2 wild-type (P=0.04) or BRCA2 VUS (P=0.02). BRCA2 mutation, including BRCA2 VUS, did not show any difference in OS compared to BRCA2 wild-type. Conclusion:BRCA mutation and BRCA VUS had similar clinical characteristics and survival outcomes, except that BRCA2 mutation showed better PFS. The results of this study will help to understand the prognostic significance of BRCA mutation and VUS in Korean patients.
Project description:Recent studies have revealed that BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation-related breast cancers show frequent overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), the key regulator of the hypoxia response. However, the question remained whether hypoxia is a late stage bystander or a true carcinogenetic event in patients with hereditary predisposition. We therefore studied HIF-1? overexpression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), an established precursor of invasive breast cancer.We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of the hypoxia markers HIF-1?, CAIX and Glut-1 in DCIS and available invasive carcinoma lesions of 32 BRCA1, 16 BRCA2 and 77 non-BRCA mutation-related cases. HIF-1? expression was detected in 63% of BRCA1 and 62% of BRCA2 as compared to 34% of non-BRCA mutation-related DCIS cases (p?=?0.005). CAIX overexpression was present in 56% of BRCA1 and 44% of BRCA2 as compared to 6% of non-BRCA mutation-related DCIS cases (p?=?0.000). Glut-1 overexpression was observed in 59% of BRCA1, 75% of BRCA2 and 67% of non-BRCA mutation-related DCIS cases (p?=?0.527). Overall, HIF-1?, CAIX and Glut-1 expression in BRCA mutation-related DCIS matched the expression in the accompanying invasive cancers in 60% or more of cases. In non-BRCA mutation-related cases the expression of the hypoxia markers in DCIS matched the expression in the invasive part in 46% or more of the cases.Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation-related invasive breast cancers are different in many ways, the hypoxia-related proteins HIF-1?, CAIX and Glut-1 are expressed in both DCIS and invasive lesions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. This suggests that hypoxia may already play a role in the DCIS stage of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation related breast carcinogenesis, and may also drive cancer progression. Hypoxia-related proteins are therefore putative targets for therapy and molecular imaging for early detection and monitoring therapy response in BRCA mutation patients.
Project description:BRCA1/BRCA2 genes play a central role in DNA repair and their mutations increase sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. There are conflicting data regarding the prognostic value of BRCA germline mutations in breast cancer (BC) patients. We collected clinical, pathological and genetic data of a cohort 925 BC patients preselected for genetic screening and treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, of whom 266 were BRCA carriers. Overall, 171 women carried a BRCA1 mutation, 95 carried a BRCA2 mutation, and 659 were non-carriers. In the entire cohort, there was a prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) for BRCA carriers (hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-0.90 for BRCA1; HR?=?0.72; 95%CI, 0.47-1.1 for BRCA2; p?=?0.020) and a trend toward prolonged disease-specific survival (DSS; HR?=?0.65; 95%CI, 0.40-1.1 for BRCA1; HR?=?0.78; 95%CI, 0.44-1.38 for BRCA2; p?=?0.19) though not statistically significant. In the TNBC group, BRCA carriers had prolonged DFS (adjusted HR?=?0.50; 95%CI, 0.28-0.89 for BRCA1; adjusted HR?=?0.37; 95%CI, 0.11-1.25, for BRCA2; p?=?0.034) and DSS (adjusted HR?=?0.42; 95%CI, 0.21-0.82 for BRCA1; adjusted HR?=?0.45; 95%CI, 0.11-1.9 for BRCA2; p?=?0.023). In the non-TNBC group, the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations did not have any impact on survival. These results suggest that BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations are associated with prolonged survival only if women were diagnosed with TNBC.
Project description:The presence of germline and somatic deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has important clinical consequences for breast cancer (BC) patients. Analysis of the mutational status in BRCA genes is not yet common in public Latin American institutions; thus, our objective was to implement high-performance technology with highly reliable results with the possibility of analyzing several patients simultaneously, therefore reducing cost and work time. A prospective cohort of 252 unrelated sporadic breast cancer patients from the Mexican-mestizo population were analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS) based on ion semiconductor sequencing. We found 28 pathogenic mutations (25 in BRCA1 and 13 in BRCA2), 11 of which had not been reported previously in Hispanic or Latin American populations. A total of 38 patients were positive for a pathogenic mutation representing 15% of our Mexican women cohort with breast cancer; 25 for BRCA1; and 13 for BRCA2. Our results revealed that there are mutations not analyzed by mutations panels, and our findings support the suitability of massive sequencing approaches in the public institutions of developing countries. Hence, BRCA screening should be offered to patients with breast cancer regardless of their family history of cancer in order to identify unaffected family carriers.
Project description:Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has led to the identification of many unique variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Multifactorial likelihood models that predict the odds ratio for VUS in favor or against cancer causality, have been developed, but their use is conditioned by the amount of necessary data, which are difficult to obtain if a variant is rare. As an alternative, variants mapping to the coding regions can be examined using in vitro functional assays. BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins promote genome protection by interacting with different proteins. In this study, we assessed the functional effect of two sets of variants in BRCA genes by exploiting the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reassembly in vitro assay, which was set-up to test the BRCA1/BARD1, BRCA1/UbcH5a, and BRCA2/DSS1 interactions. Based on the findings observed for the validation panels of previously classified variants, BRCA1/UbcH5a and BRCA2/DSS1 binding assays showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in identifying pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants. While the actual efficiency of these assays in assessing the clinical significance of BRCA VUS has to be verified using larger validation panels, our results suggest that the GFP-reassembly assay is a robust method to identify variants affecting normal protein functioning and contributes to the classification of VUS.
Project description:Breast cancer (BC) in patients with germline mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 are associated with benefit from drugs targeting DNA damage response (DDR), but they account for only 5-7% of overall breast cancer. To define the characteristics of these tumors and also to identify tumors without BRCA mutation but with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) is clinically relevant. To define characteristic features of HRD tumors and analyze the correlations between BRCA1/BRCA2 and BC subtypes, we analyzed 981 breast tumors from the TCGA database using the signature analyzer. The BRCA signature was strongly associated with the HRD score top 10% (score???57) population. This population showed a high level of mutations in DDR genes, including BRCA1/BRCA2. HRD tumors were associated with high expression levels of BARD1 and BRIP1. Besides, BRCA1/2 mutations were dominantly observed in basal and luminal subtypes, respectively. A comparison of HRD features in BC revealed that BRCA1 exerts a stronger influence inducing HRD features than BRCA2 does. It reveals genetic differences between BRCA1 and BRCA2 and provides a basis for the identification of HRD and other BRCA-associated tumors.