Vanadate influence on metabolism of sugar phosphates in fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.
ABSTRACT: The biological and chemical basis of vanadium action in fungi is relatively poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the influence of vanadate (V5+) on phosphate metabolism of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Addition of V5+ caused increase of sugar phosphates signal intensities in 31P NMR spectra in vivo. HPLC analysis of mycelial phosphate extracts demonstrated increased concentrations of glucose 6 phosphate, fructose 6 phosphate, fructose 1, 6 phosphate and glucose 1 phosphate after V5+ treatment. Influence of V5+ on the levels of fructose 2, 6 phosphate, glucosamine 6 phosphate and glucose 1, 6 phosphate (HPLC), and polyphosphates, UDPG and ATP (31P NMR) was also established. Increase of sugar phosphates content was not observed after addition of vanadyl (V4+), indicating that only vanadate influences its metabolism. Obtained results from in vivo experiments indicate catalytic/inhibitory vanadate action on enzymes involved in reactions of glycolysis and glycogenesis i.e., phosphoglucomutase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase in filamentous fungi.
Project description:31P-NMR spectroscopy was used to identify reaction intermediates during catalytic turn-over of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain (Fru-2,6-P2ase) of the bifunctional enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. When fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) was added to the enzyme, the 31P-NMR spectrum showed three resonances in addition to those of free substrate: the phosphohistidine (His-P) intermediate, the C-6 phosphoryl group of fructose-6-phosphate bound to the phosphoenzyme, and phosphate generated by the hydrolysis of substrate. Direct analysis of the alkali-denatured phospho-enzyme intermediate by 1H-31P heteronuclear multiple quantum-filtered coherence spectroscopy confirmed the formation of 3-N-phosphohistidine. Binding of fructose 6-phosphate to the bisphosphatase was detected by a down-field shift and broadening of the C-6 phosphoryl resonance. The down-field shift was greater in the presence of the phosphoenzyme intermediate. Inhibition of Fru-2,6-P2 hydrolysis by fructose 6-phosphate and Fru-2,6-P2 was shown to involve binding of the sugar phosphates to the phosphoenzyme. This study provides new experimental evidence in support of the reaction mechanism of Fru-2,6-P2ase and suggests that the steady-state His-P intermediate exists primarily in the E-P.fructose 6-phosphate complex. These results lay a solid foundation for the use of 31P-NMR magnetization transfer studies to provide an in-depth analysis of the bisphosphatase reaction mechanism.
Project description:1. The dissimilation of a number of externally added hexose phosphates and 5'-nucleotides by the perfused rat heart is described, and non-specific esterase and 5'-nucleotidase activity associated with the superficial cell membrane or vascular system has been demonstrated. 2. The rate of production of (14)CO(2) from [U-(14)C]glucose 6-phosphate suggests that oxidation occurred after hydrolysis to glucose. The incorporation of isotope from [U-(14)C]glucose 6-phosphate into glycogen was small, and similar to that obtained with [U-(14)C]glucose as substrate. 3. Glucose 6-phosphate was also partially isomerized to fructose 6-phosphate. Similarly, fructose 6-phosphate was converted mainly into glucose 6-phosphate, but also into glucose and inorganic phosphate. When fructose 1,6-diphosphate was added to the perfusate, a mixture of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and triose phosphates accumulated in the medium approximately in the equilibrium proportions of the phosphohexose-isomerase and triose phosphate-isomerase reactions, together with inorganic phosphate and some glucose. Glucose 1-phosphate was hydrolysed to glucose, but was not converted into glucose 6-phosphate. Leakage of enzymes out into the perfusion fluid did not occur. 4. This demonstration that phosphohexose isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and aldolase may react with extracellular substrates at an appreciable rate suggests that these enzymes are attached to the cell membrane.
Project description:The study by two-dimensional phase-sensitive 31P exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) n.m.r. of hexose 6-phosphates interconversion in the reaction catalysed by yeast phosphoglucoisomerase reveals that the enzyme displays anomeric selectivity, rather than specificity, towards alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate. Indeed, beta-D-glucose 6-phosphate participates for about 20% to the total and direct conversion of the aldohexose into oxohexose ester.
Project description:1. An NAD-specific L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) from the mycelium of Phycomyces blakesleeanus N.R.R.L. 1555 (-) was purified approximately 700-fold. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 135,000-140,000. The purified enzyme gave a single, catalytically active, protein band after polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. It shows optimum activity between pH 6.7 and 7.5. 2. The Phycomyces blakesleeanus lactate dehydrogenase exhibits homotropic interactions with its substrate, pyruvate, and its coenzyme, NADH, at pH 7.5, indicating the existence of multiple binding sites in the enzyme for these ligands. 3. At pH 6.0, the enzyme shows high substrate inhibition by pyruvate. 3-hydroxypyruvate and 2-oxovalerate exhibit an analogous effect, whereas glyoxylate does not, when tested as substrates at the same pH. 4. At pH 7.5, ATP, which inhibits the enzyme, acts competitively with NADH and pyruvate, whereas at pH 6.0 and low concentrations of ATP it behaves in a allosteric manner as inhibitor with respect to NADH, GTP, however, has no effect under the same experimental conditions. 5. Partially purified enzyme from sporangiophores behaves in entirely similar kinetic manner as the one exhibited by the enzyme from mycelium.
Project description:Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes from fasted rats with 0-6 mM-glucose caused an increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] (0.2 to about 5 nmol/g) without net lactate production. A release of 3H2O from [3-3H]glucose was, however, detectable, indicating that phosphofructokinase was active and that cycling occurred between fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A relationship between [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] and lactate production was observed when hepatocytes were incubated with [glucose] greater than 6 mM. Incubation with glucose caused a dose-dependent increase in [hexose 6-phosphates]. The maximal capacity of liver cytosolic proteins to bind fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was 15 nmol/g, with affinity constants of 5 X 10(6) and 0.5 X 10(6) M-1. One can calculate that, at 5 microM, more than 90% of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is bound to cytosolic proteins. In livers of non-anaesthetized fasted mice, the activation of glycogen synthase was more sensitive to glucose injection than was the increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate], whereas the opposite situation was observed in livers of fed mice. Glucose injection caused no change in the activity of liver phosphofructokinase-2 and decreased the [hexose 6-phosphates] in livers of fed mice.
Project description:The parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) is a Class B G-protein-coupled receptor that is a target for osteoporosis therapeutics. Activated PTH1R couples through Gs to the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. As well, ?-arrestin is recruited to PTH1R leading to receptor internalization and MAPK/ERK signaling. Previously, we reported that the agonist potency of PTH1R is increased in the presence of extracellular ATP, which acts as a positive allosteric modulator of PTH signaling. Another nucleotide, cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP), also enhances PTH1R signaling, suggesting that ATP and CMP share a moiety responsible for positive allostery, possibly ribose-5-phosphate. Therefore, we examined the effect of extracellular sugar phosphates on PTH1R signaling. cAMP levels and ?-arrestin recruitment were monitored using luminescence-based assays. Alone, ribose-5-phosphate had no detectable effect on adenylyl cyclase activity in UMR-106 rat osteoblastic cells, which endogenously express PTH1R. However, ribose-5-phosphate markedly enhanced the activation of adenylyl cyclase induced by PTH. Other sugar phosphates, including glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, also potentiated PTH-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. As well, some sugar phosphates enhanced PTH-induced ?-arrestin recruitment to human PTH1R heterologously expressed in HEK293H cells. Interestingly, the effects of glucose-1-phosphate were greater than those of its isomer glucose-6-phosphate. Our results suggest that phosphorylated monosaccharides such as ribose-5-phosphate contain the pharmacophore for positive allosteric modulation of PTH1R. At least in some cases, the extent of modulation depends on the position of the phosphate group. Knowledge of the pharmacophore may permit future development of positive allosteric modulators to increase the therapeutic efficacy of PTH1R agonists.
Project description:Hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of fed rats and incubated with a mixture of glucose (10 mM), ribose (1 mM), mannose (4 mM), glycerol (3 mM), acetate (1.25 mM), and ethanol (5 mM) with one substrate labelled with 14C in any given incubation. Incorporation of label into CO2, glucose, glycogen, lipid glycerol and fatty acids, acetate and C-1 of glucose was measured at 20 and 40 min after the start of the incubation. The data (about 48 measurements for each interval) were used in conjunction with a single-compartment model of the reactions of the gluconeogenic, glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways and a simplified model of the relevant mitochondrial reactions. An improved method of computer analysis of the equations describing the flow of label through each carbon atom of each metabolite under steady-state conditions was used to compute values for the 34 independent flux parameters in this model. A good fit to the data was obtained, thereby permitting good estimates of most of the fluxes in the pathways under consideration. The data show that: net flux above the level of the triose phosphates is gluconeogenic; label in the hexose phosphates is fully equilibrated by the second 20 min interval; the triose phosphate isomerase step does not equilibrate label between the triose phosphates; substrate cycles are operating at the glucose-glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate-pyruvate-oxaloacetate cycles; and, although net flux through the enzymes catalysing the non-oxidative steps of the pentose phosphate pathway is small, bidirectional fluxes are large.
Project description:In rat hepatocytes, molybdate and tungstate inactivate glycogen synthase by a mechanism independent of Ca2+ and activate glycogen phosphorylase by a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. On the other hand, both molybdate and tungstate increase fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels and counteract the decrease in this metabolite induced by glucagon. These effectors do not directly modify 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, even though they partially counteract the inactivation of this enzyme induced by glucagon. These effects are related to an increase on the glycolytic flux, as indicated by the increase in L-lactate and CO2 production and the decrease in glucose 6-phosphate levels in the presence of glucose. All these effects are similar to those previously reported for vanadate, although molybdate and tungstate are less effective than vanadate. These results could indicate that molybdate, tungstate and vanadate act on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes by a similar mechanism of action.
Project description:The dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization technology had previously enabled nuclear magnetic resonance detection of various nuclei in a hyperpolarized state. Here, we show the hyperpolarization of 31P nuclei in important biological phosphates (inorganic phosphate and phosphocreatine) in aqueous solutions. The hyperpolarized inorganic phosphate showed an enhancement factor >11,000 (at 5.8?T, 9.3% polarization) in D2O (T1 29.4?s). Deuteration and the solution composition and pH all affected the lifetime of the hyperpolarized state. This capability opens up avenues for real-time monitoring of phosphate metabolism, distribution, and pH sensing in the live body without ionizing radiation. Immediate changes in the microenvironment pH have been detected here in a cell-free system via the chemical shift of hyperpolarized inorganic phosphate. Because the 31P nucleus is 100% naturally abundant, future studies on hyperpolarized phosphates will not require expensive isotope labeling as is usually required for hyperpolarization of other substrates.Real-time monitoring of phosphate metabolism and distribution in the live body without ionizing radiation is highly desirable. Here, the authors show dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization technology can enable nuclear magnetic resonance detection of hyperpolarized 31P of important biological phosphates in aqueous solutions.
Project description:1. The deoxyfluoro-d-glucopyranose 6-phosphates were prepared from the corresponding deoxyfluoro-d-glucoses and ATP by using hexokinase. 2. 3-Deoxy-3-fluoro- and 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-d-glucose 6-phosphate were substrates for glucose phosphate isomerase, and in addition the products of this reaction, 3-deoxy-3-fluoro- and 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-d-fructose 6-phosphate respectively, were good substrates for phosphofructokinase. 3. Some C-2-substituted derivatives of d-glucose 6-phosphate were found to be competitive inhibitors of glucose phosphate isomerase. 4. The possible role of the hydroxyl groups in the binding of d-glucose 6-phopshate to glucose phosphate isomerase is discussed.