The effect of supination and pronation on wrist range of motion.
ABSTRACT: Wrist range of motion (ROM) is a combination of complex osseous articulations and intricate soft tissue constraints. It has been proposed that forearm rotation contributes significantly to carpal kinematics. However, no studies have investigated whether supination or pronation influence this course of motion. The purpose of this study is to examine whether supination and pronation affect the mechanical axis of the wrist. After being screened for gross anatomic abnormalities, six upper extremity cadaver specimens (three matched pairs) were fixed to a custom-designed jig that allows 24 different directions of wrist motion. Each specimen was tested in three separate forearm positions: neutral, full supination, and full pronation. Moments of ± 2 Nm were applied, and the applied moment versus wrist rotation data were recorded. Forearm position did not significantly (p > 0.31) affect the ROM values of the wrist. In forearm neutral, supination, and pronation positions the envelope of wrist ROM values was ellipsoidal in shape, consistent with prior neutral forearm biomechanical testing. The major axis of the ellipse was oriented in a radial extension to ulnar flexion direction, with the largest ROM in ulnar flexion. We hypothesized that forearm position would influence wrist ROM. However, our biomechanical testing showed no statistically significant difference in the orientation of the mechanical axis nor the passive ROM of the wrist. The primary passive mechanical axis in all three forearm positions tested (neutral, supination, and pronation) was aligned with radial extension and ulnar flexion. Although it has been shown that forearm position affects various radioulnar, radiocarpal, and ulnocarpal ligamentous tensions and lengths, it appears that wrist ROM is independent of forearm position. Consequently we feel our biomechanical testing illustrates that wrist ROM is primarily dependent on the osseous articulations of the carpus. Additionally, given that no change is observed in wrist ROM relative to forearm position, the significance of the contribution of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) to wrist kinematics is debatable.
Project description:A dysfunctional distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) can significantly compromise an individual's forearm rotation, grip, and weight bearing at the hand and wrist. This retrospective study reports surgeon- and therapist-collected objective wrist function and subjective pain scores of 10 patients who received the Scheker total DRUJ prosthesis. A review of these patients' medical records was performed to collect preoperative measurements of wrist range of motion (ROM), grip strength, and pain scores (0-10 scale). The degree of pronation, supination, flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation were the outcome measures used to evaluate wrist ROM. Postoperative measurements were collected at a follow up of 5 ± 1.1 years in our clinic (minimum follow-up of 2yrs). Mean final wrist flexion and extension were 32.1 ± 22.8° and 44.8 ± 13.9°, respectively. Mean final supination and pronation were 72.5 ± 14.4° and 69.5 ± 14.6°, respectively. Average grip strength was 54.9 ± 23.7 lbs. The mean pain score was 3.6 ± 3.1. Although there were no statistically significant changes in any of these outcome measures, the Scheker prosthesis improved wrist ROM (with the exception of wrist flexion) and decreased pain. Grip strength decreased by less than 1 lb but was still higher than the postoperative grip strength measurements in the literature for this prosthesis. Because of the self-stabilizing nature of this prosthesis and the satisfactory functional outcomes from this study and other studies, the Scheker prosthesis is still a viable option for DRUJ pathology that is refractory to nonimplant arthroplasties. This is a therapeutic level IV study.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The sparing of ulnar nerve often leads to the failure of the upper limb blockade. It has been claimed that local anesthetic injection at the site of stimulator evoked finger flexion response is associated with highest success rate of a successful block. The lower trunk stimulation of plexus should yield similar results as this trunk contributes significantly for median and ulnar nerves of hand and forearm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients with intact anatomical upper limb structures underwent (a) combined ultrasound (USG) assisted nerve stimulator evoked motor response evaluation or in (b) open brachial plexus trunk stimulation evaluations. The individual patient's lower trunk stimulation motor responses were documented. RESULTS: When combined the results of both USG and open plexus groups, wrist flexion was seen in 52%, finger flexion in 61% and forearm pronation or twitches of anterior compartment in 48% of total subjects studied. These responses were noted either separately or in combinations. CONCLUSION: We conclude other than finger flexion, the wrist flexion the forearm twitches, pronation and wrist adduction may be used for lower trunk blockade and thus for higher accuracy.
Project description:Accurately assessing the dynamic kinematics of the skeletal wrist could advance our understanding of the normal and pathological wrist. Biplane videoradiography (BVR) has allowed investigators to study dynamic activities in the knee, hip, and shoulder joint; however, currently, BVR has not been utilized for the wrist joint because of the challenges associated with imaging multiple overlapping bones. Therefore, our aim was to develop a BVR procedure and to quantify its accuracy for evaluation of wrist kinematics. BVR was performed on six cadaveric forearms for one neutral static and six dynamic tasks, including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, circumduction, pronation, supination, and hammering. Optical motion capture (OMC) served as the gold standard for assessing accuracy. We propose a feedforward tracking methodology, which uses a combined model of metacarpals (second and third) for initialization of the third metacarpal (MC3). BVR-calculated kinematic parameters were found to be consistent with the OMC-calculated parameters, and the BVR/OMC agreement had submillimeter and sub-degree biases in tracking individual bones as well as the overall joint's rotation and translation. All dynamic tasks (except pronation task) showed a limit of agreement within 1.5° for overall rotation, and within 1.3?mm for overall translations. Pronation task had a 2.1° and 1.4?mm limit of agreement for rotation and translation measurement. The poorest precision was achieved in calculating the pronation-supination angle, and radial-ulnar and volar-dorsal translational components, although they were sub-degree and submillimeter. The methodology described herein may assist those interested in examining the complexities of skeletal wrist function during dynamic tasks.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Elbow and wrist chronic conditions are very common among musculoskeletal problems. These painful conditions affect muscle function, which ultimately leads to a decrease in the joint's Range Of Motion (ROM). Due to their portability and ease of use, goniometers are still the most widespread tool for measuring ROM. Inertial sensors are emerging as a digital, low-cost and accurate alternative. However, whereas inertial sensors are commonly used in research studies, due to the lack of information about their validity and reliability, they are not widely used in the clinical practice. The goal of this study is to assess the validity and intra-inter-rater reliability of inertial sensors for measuring active ROM of the elbow and wrist.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Measures were taken simultaneously with inertial sensors (Werium<sup>™</sup> system) and a universal goniometer. The process involved two physiotherapists ("rater A" and "rater B") and an engineer responsible for the technical issues. Twenty-nine asymptomatic subjects were assessed individually in two sessions separated by 48 h. The procedure was repeated by rater A followed by rater B with random order. Three repetitions of each active movement (elbow flexion, pronation, and supination; and wrist flexion, extension, radial deviation and ulnar deviation) were executed starting from the neutral position until the ROM end-feel; that is, until ROM reached its maximum due to be stopped by the anatomy. The coefficient of determination (<i>r</i> <sup>2</sup>) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. The Standard Error of the Measurement and the Minimum Detectable Change and a Bland-Altman plots were also calculated.<h4>Results</h4>Similar ROM values when measured with both instruments were obtained for the elbow (maximum difference of 3° for all the movements) and wrist (maximum difference of 1° for all the movements). These values were within the normal range when compared to literature studies. The concurrent validity analysis for all the movements yielded ICC values ?0.78 for the elbow and ?0.95 for the wrist. Concerning reliability, the ICC values denoted a high reliability of inertial sensors for all the different movements. In the case of the elbow, intra-rater and inter-rater reliability ICC values range from 0.83 to 0.96 and from 0.94 to 0.97, respectively. Intra-rater analysis of the wrist yielded ICC values between 0.81 and 0.93, while the ICC values for the inter-rater analysis range from 0.93 to 0.99.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Inertial sensors are a valid and reliable tool for measuring elbow and wrist active ROM. Particularly noteworthy is their high inter-rater reliability, often questioned in measurement tools. The lowest reliability is observed in elbow prono-supination, probably due to skin artifacts. Based on these results and their advantages, inertial sensors can be considered a valid assessment tool for wrist and elbow ROM.
Project description:Non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide the ability to evaluate the complex anatomy of bone and soft tissues of the wrist without the use of ionizing radiation. Dynamic instability of wrist--occurring during joint motion--is a complex condition that has assumed increased importance in musculoskeletal medicine. The objective of this study was to develop an MRI protocol for evaluating the wrist during continuous active motion, to show that dynamic imaging of the wrist is realizable, and to demonstrate that the resulting anatomical images enable the measurement of metrics commonly evaluated for dynamic wrist instability.A 3-Tesla "active-MRI" protocol was developed using a bSSFP sequence with 475 ms temporal resolution for continuous imaging of the moving wrist. Fifteen wrists of 10 asymptomatic volunteers were scanned during active supination/pronation, radial/ulnar deviation, "clenched-fist", and volarflexion/dorsiflexion maneuvers. Two physicians evaluated distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity, extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon translation, the scapholunate (SL) interval, and the SL, radiolunate (RL) and capitolunate (CL) angles from the resulting images.The mean DRUJ subluxation ratio was 0.04 in supination, 0.10 in neutral, and 0.14 in pronation. The ECU tendon was subluxated or translated out of its groove in 3 wrists in pronation, 9 wrists in neutral, and 11 wrists in supination. The mean SL interval was 1.43 mm for neutral, ulnar deviation, radial deviation positions, and increased to 1.64 mm during the clenched-fist maneuver. Measurement of SL, RL and CL angles in neutral and dorsiflexion was also accomplished.This study demonstrates the initial performance of active-MRI, which may be useful in the investigation of dynamic wrist instability in vivo.
Project description:The aim of this study was to define the outcome and complications following open reduction and internal fixed-angle plating of distal radius fractures for patients on chronic immunosuppression medications. A retrospective study identified 11 patients with distal radius fractures that had been on chronic immunosuppressive medication. The mean patient age was 59.9 years (40-82 years). According to the Orthopedic Trauma Association classification, there was one 23A3, one 23B3, and nine 23C type fractures. There were two open fractures. All patients received preoperative antibiotics and underwent reduction and fixation with a volar, fixed-angle plate. Postoperative measurements included postoperative and final radiographic indices, wrist flexion and extension, forearm rotation, and grip strength. Clinical follow-up averaged 13 months, and radiographic follow-up averaged 14.9 months. Statistical analysis was performed comparing means of various parameters with a two-sided t test with an alpha value < or = 0.05. All fractures healed, and there were no infections. The final mean ulnar variance, volar tilt, and radial inclination were -0.1 mm (ulnar negative; -2.0 to +2.5 mm), 13 degrees (5-23 degrees), and 21 degrees (15-27 degrees), respectively. The mean articular gap or step was 0.4 mm. There was a small but significant decrease between the final and postoperative mean ulnar variance (p = 0.03). Mean wrist flexion was 47 degrees, extension 47 degrees , pronation 77 degrees, and supination was 76 degrees. Grip strength averaged 16.3 kg versus 25.1 kg for the opposite extremity. The one major complication included a postoperative carpal tunnel syndrome. Fixed-angle volar plate fixation for distal radius fractures in patients with chronic immunosuppression was associated with union (with acceptable radiographic alignment), no wound-healing problems or infections, and with functional wrist and forearm motion and grip strength.
Project description:The dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) is at risk in setting the 6U wrist arthroscopy portal. Although surgeons know the risk and are careful when they set the 6U portal, DSBUN injuries still occur. The purpose of the present anatomical study was to evaluate the possibility that DSBUN undergoes dynamic anatomical variations in its location during wrist arthroscopy. The goal of the study was to clarify (1) whether the nerve-to-portal (NTP) distance changes with flexion/extension wrist and/or hand/forearm rotation, and (2) whether there is any particular combination of flexion-extension/hand-forearm rotation where the NTP distance is maximal. Six fresh cadaver arms were suspended in a traction tower with forearm rotation locked, the skin and subcutaneous tissue around the ulnar head was removed, and the NTP distance measured in three predetermined loading/positional conditions. Of all options, the one that consistently showed the longest and safest NTP distance involved wrist flexion and radiocarpal supination when forearm rotation is limited. In conclusion, when an arthroscopic traction device restricts the forearm rotation, the 6U portal should not be set under traction with the hand passively pronated. Failure to observe this precaution can result in serious neuropathic pain.
Project description:Biomechanical models are useful to assess the effect of muscular forces on bone structure. Using skeletal remains, we analyze pronator teres rotational efficiency and its force components throughout the entire flexion-extension and pronation-supination ranges by means of a new biomechanical model and 3D imaging techniques, and we explore the relationship between these parameters and skeletal structure. The results show that maximal efficiency is the highest in full elbow flexion and is close to forearm neutral position for each elbow angle. The vertical component of pronator teres force is the highest among all components and is greater in pronation and elbow extension. The radial component becomes negative in pronation and reaches lower values as the elbow flexes. Both components could enhance radial curvature, especially in pronation. The model also enables to calculate efficiency and force components simulating changes in osteometric parameters. An increase of radial curvature improves efficiency and displaces the position where the radial component becomes negative towards the end of pronation. A more proximal location of pronator teres radial enthesis and a larger humeral medial epicondyle increase efficiency and displace the position where this component becomes negative towards forearm neutral position, which enhances radial curvature. Efficiency is also affected by medial epicondylar orientation and carrying angle. Moreover, reaching an object and bringing it close to the face in a close-to-neutral position improve efficiency and entail an equilibrium between the forces affecting the elbow joint stability. When the upper-limb skeleton is used in positions of low efficiency, implying unbalanced force components, it undergoes plastic changes, which improve these parameters. These findings are useful for studies on ergonomics and orthopaedics, and the model could also be applied to fossil primates in order to infer their locomotor form. Moreover, activity patterns in human ancient populations could be deduced from parameters reported here.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Simultaneous dislocation of the radial head and distal radio-ulnar joint without fracture (Criss-Cross Injury) in an adult patient is rarely reported in previous studies. The pathological changes and injury patterns have not been clearly demonstrated. CASE PRESENTATION:A 26-year-old woman presented with acute pain of the right wrist and elbow after a fall from cycling. Physical examination revealed an unstable elbow and wrist joint. Plain radiographs showed volar dislocation of the radial head and dorsal dislocation of the distal radius without associated fracture, forming a criss-cross appearance of the ulna and radius on the lateral radiograph. MRI images confirmed partial rupture of the proximal interosseous membrane from its dorsal attachment on the radius, as well as partial rupture of the medial collateral ligament. Conservative treatment failed because the radiocapitellar joint and distal radio-ulnar joint could not be simultaneously reduced. Surgical exploration revealed a highly unstable radial head, but the annular ligament was found to be intact. Manual force was applied to reduce the radial head and a percutaneous K-wire was used to stabilize the proximal radioulnar joint with the forearm in full supination. After surgery, the elbow was immobilized in 90° flexion by a long arm cast for 4?weeks. The K-wire was removed at 6?weeks postoperatively. At 18?months postoperatively, the patient had regained a full range of flexion and extension, with normal supination and a slight limitation in pronation. CONCLUSIONS:The proximal IOM, especially the dorsal band, was injured in Criss-Cross injuries, while the central part of the IOM remained intact. This injury pattern distinguished itself from Essex-Lopresti injury, which mainly involves rupture of the central band of the IOM.
Project description:Arthrodesis is the most reliable and durable surgical procedure for the treatment of a joint disorder, and its only disadvantage is the loss of motion of the fused joint. The distal radioulnar joint can be arthrodesed, while forearm pronation and supination are maintained or even improved by creating a pseudoarthrosis of the ulna just proximal to the arthrodesis. This is known as the Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure. The Sauvé-Kapandji differs from the Darrach procedure in that it preserves ulnar support of the wrist, as the distal radioulnar ligaments and ulnocarpal ligaments are maintained. Aesthetic appearance is also superior after the S-K procedure, as the normal prominence of the ulnar head, most noticeable when the forearm is in pronation, is maintained. However, the S-K is not free of possible complications, such as nonunion or delayed union of the arthrodesis, fibrous or osseous union at the pseudoarthrosis, and painful instability at the proximal ulna stump. All of these complications can be prevented if a careful surgical technique is used.