Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial Qri7 in complex with AMP.
ABSTRACT: N(6)-Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) is a modified tRNA base required for accuracy in translation. Qri7 is localized in yeast mitochondria and is involved in t(6)A biosynthesis. In t(6)A biosynthesis, threonylcarbamoyl-adenylate (TCA) is synthesized from threonine, bicarbonate and ATP, and the threonyl-carbamoyl group is transferred to adenine 37 of tRNA by Qri7. Qri7 alone is sufficient to catalyze the second step of the reaction, whereas the Qri7 homologues YgjD (in bacteria) and Kae1 (in archaea and eukaryotes) function as parts of multi-protein complexes. In this study, the crystal structure of Qri7 complexed with AMP (a part of TCA) has been determined at 2.94?Å resolution in a new crystal form. The manner of AMP recognition is similar, with some minor variations, among the Qri7/Kae1/YgjD family proteins. The previously reported dimer formation was also observed in this new crystal form. Furthermore, a comparison with the structure of TobZ, which catalyzes a similar reaction to t(6)A biosynthesis, revealed the presence of a flexible loop that may be involved in tRNA binding.
Project description:The essential and universal N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) modification at position 37 of ANN-decoding tRNAs plays a pivotal role in translational fidelity through enhancement of the cognate codon recognition and stabilization of the codon-anticodon interaction. In Escherichia coli, the YgjD (TsaD), YeaZ (TsaB), YjeE (TsaE) and YrdC (TsaC) proteins are necessary and sufficient for the in vitro biosynthesis of t(6)A, using tRNA, ATP, L-threonine and bicarbonate as substrates. YrdC synthesizes the short-lived L-threonylcarbamoyladenylate (TCA), and YgjD, YeaZ and YjeE cooperate to transfer the L-threonylcarbamoyl-moiety from TCA onto adenosine at position 37 of substrate tRNA. We determined the crystal structure of the heterodimer YgjD-YeaZ at 2.3 Å, revealing the presence of an unexpected molecule of ADP bound at an atypical site situated at the YgjD-YeaZ interface. We further showed that the ATPase activity of YjeE is strongly activated by the YgjD-YeaZ heterodimer. We established by binding experiments and SAXS data analysis that YgjD-YeaZ and YjeE form a compact ternary complex only in presence of ATP. The formation of the ternary YgjD-YeaZ-YjeE complex is required for the in vitro biosynthesis of t(6)A but not its ATPase activity.
Project description:N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) is a universal tRNA modification essential for normal cell growth and accurate translation. In Archaea and Eukarya, the universal protein Sua5 and the conserved KEOPS/EKC complex together catalyze t(6)A biosynthesis. The KEOPS/EKC complex is composed of Kae1, a universal metalloprotein belonging to the ASHKA superfamily of ATPases; Bud32, an atypical protein kinase and two small proteins, Cgi121 and Pcc1. In this study, we investigated the requirement and functional role of KEOPS/EKC subunits for biosynthesis of t(6)A. We demonstrated that Pcc1, Kae1 and Bud32 form a minimal functional unit, whereas Cgi121 acts as an allosteric regulator. We confirmed that Pcc1 promotes dimerization of the KEOPS/EKC complex and uncovered that together with Kae1, it forms the tRNA binding core of the complex. Kae1 binds l-threonyl-carbamoyl-AMP intermediate in a metal-dependent fashion and transfers the l-threonyl-carbamoyl moiety to substrate tRNA. Surprisingly, we found that Bud32 is regulated by Kae1 and does not function as a protein kinase but as a P-loop ATPase possibly involved in tRNA dissociation. Overall, our data support a mechanistic model in which the final step in the biosynthesis of t(6)A relies on a strictly catalytic component, Kae1, and three partner proteins necessary for dimerization, tRNA binding and regulation.
Project description:The universally conserved N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) modification of tRNA is essential for translational fidelity. In bacteria, t6A biosynthesis starts with the TsaC/TsaC2-catalyzed synthesis of the intermediate threonylcarbamoyl adenylate (TC-AMP), followed by transfer of the threonylcarbamoyl (TC) moiety to adenine-37 of tRNA by the TC-transfer complex comprised of TsaB, TsaD and TsaE subunits and possessing an ATPase activity required for multi-turnover of the t6A cycle. We report a 2.5-Å crystal structure of the T. maritima TC-transfer complex (TmTsaB2D2E2) bound to Mg2+-ATP in the ATPase site, and substrate analog carboxy-AMP in the TC-transfer site. Site directed mutagenesis results show that residues in the conserved Switch I and Switch II motifs of TsaE mediate the ATP hydrolysis-driven reactivation/reset step of the t6A cycle. Further, SAXS analysis of the TmTsaB2D2-tRNA complex in solution reveals bound tRNA lodged in the TsaE binding cavity, confirming our previous biochemical data. Based on the crystal structure and molecular docking of TC-AMP and adenine-37 in the TC-transfer site, we propose a model for the mechanism of TC transfer by this universal biosynthetic system.
Project description:The universally conserved Kae1/Qri7/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC protein families have been implicated in growth, telomere homeostasis, transcription and the N6-threonylcarbamoylation (t(6)A) of tRNA, an essential modification required for translational fidelity by the ribosome. In bacteria, YgjD orthologues operate in concert with the bacterial-specific proteins YeaZ and YjeE, whereas in archaeal and eukaryotic systems, Kae1 operates as part of a larger macromolecular assembly called KEOPS with Bud32, Cgi121, Gon7 and Pcc1 subunits. Qri7 orthologues function in the mitochondria and may represent the most primitive member of the Kae1/Qri7/YgjD protein family. In accordance with previous findings, we confirm that Qri7 complements Kae1 function and uncover that Qri7 complements the function of all KEOPS subunits in growth, t(6)A biosynthesis and, to a partial degree, telomere maintenance. These observations suggest that Kae1 provides a core essential function that other subunits within KEOPS have evolved to support. Consistent with this inference, Qri7 alone is sufficient for t(6)A biosynthesis with Sua5 in vitro. In addition, the 2.9 Å crystal structure of Qri7 reveals a simple homodimer arrangement that is supplanted by the heterodimerization of YgjD with YeaZ in bacteria and heterodimerization of Kae1 with Pcc1 in KEOPS. The partial complementation of telomere maintenance by Qri7 hints that KEOPS has evolved novel functions in higher organisms.
Project description:The YgjD/Kae1 family (COG0533) has been on the top-10 list of universally conserved proteins of unknown function for over 5 years. It has been linked to DNA maintenance in bacteria and mitochondria and transcription regulation and telomere homeostasis in eukaryotes, but its actual function has never been found. Based on a comparative genomic and structural analysis, we predicted this family was involved in the biosynthesis of N(6)-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine, a universal modification found at position 37 of tRNAs decoding ANN codons. This was confirmed as a yeast mutant lacking Kae1 is devoid of t(6)A. t(6)A(-) strains were also used to reveal that t(6)A has a critical role in initiation codon restriction to AUG and in restricting frameshifting at tandem ANN codons. We also showed that YaeZ, a YgjD paralog, is required for YgjD function in vivo in bacteria. This work lays the foundation for understanding the pleiotropic role of this universal protein family.
Project description:KEOPS is an ancient protein complex required for the biosynthesis of N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A), a universally conserved tRNA modification found on all ANN-codon recognizing tRNAs. KEOPS consist minimally of four essential subunits, namely the proteins Kae1, Bud32, Cgi121 and Pcc1, with yeast possessing the fifth essential subunit Gon7. Bud32, Cgi121, Pcc1 and Gon7 appear to have evolved to regulate the central t(6)A biosynthesis function of Kae1, but their precise function and mechanism of action remains unclear. Pcc1, in particular, binds directly to Kae1 and by virtue of its ability to form dimers in solution and in crystals, Pcc1 was inferred to function as a dimerization module for Kae1 and therefore KEOPS. We now present a 3.4 Å crystal structure of a dimeric Kae1-Pcc1 complex providing direct evidence that Pcc1 can bind and dimerize Kae1. Further biophysical analysis of a complete archaeal KEOPS complex reveals that Pcc1 facilitates KEOPS dimerization in vitro Interestingly, while Pcc1-mediated dimerization of KEOPS is required to support the growth of yeast, it is dispensable for t(6)A biosynthesis by archaeal KEOPS in vitro, raising the question of how precisely Pcc1-mediated dimerization impacts cellular biology.
Project description:N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) is a modified nucleotide found in all transfer RNAs (tRNAs) decoding codons starting with adenosine. Its role is to facilitate codon-anticodon pairing and to prevent frameshifting during protein synthesis. Genetic studies demonstrated that two universal proteins, Kae1/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC, are necessary for t(6)A synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. In Archaea and Eukarya, Kae1 is part of a conserved protein complex named kinase, endopeptidase and other proteins of small size (KEOPS), together with three proteins that have no bacterial homologues. Here, we reconstituted for the first time an in vitro system for t(6)A modification in Archaea and Eukarya, using purified KEOPS and Sua5. We demonstrated binding of tRNAs to archaeal KEOPS and detected two distinct adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent steps occurring in the course of the synthesis. Our data, together with recent reconstitution of an in vitro bacterial system, indicated that t(6)A cannot be catalysed by Sua5/YrdC and Kae1/YgjD alone but requires accessory proteins that are not universal. Remarkably, we observed interdomain complementation when bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic proteins were combined in vitro, suggesting a conserved catalytic mechanism for the biosynthesis of t(6)A in nature. These findings shed light on the reaction mechanism of t(6)A synthesis and evolution of molecular systems that promote translation fidelity in present-day cells.
Project description:The highly conserved Kinase, Endopeptidase and Other Proteins of small Size (KEOPS)/Endopeptidase-like and Kinase associated to transcribed Chromatin (EKC) protein complex has been implicated in transcription, telomere maintenance and chromosome segregation, but its exact function remains unknown. The complex consists of five proteins, Kinase-Associated Endopeptidase (Kae1), a highly conserved protein present in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, a kinase (Bud32) and three additional small polypeptides. We showed that the complex is required for a universal tRNA modification, threonyl carbamoyl adenosine (t6A), found in all tRNAs that pair with ANN codons in mRNA. We also showed that the bacterial ortholog of Kae1, YgjD, is required for t6A modification of Escherichia coli tRNAs. The ATPase activity of Kae1 and the kinase activity of Bud32 are required for the modification. The yeast protein Sua5 has been reported previously to be required for t6A synthesis. Using yeast extracts, we established an in vitro system for the synthesis of t6A that requires Sua5, Kae1, threonine, bicarbonate and ATP. It remains to be determined whether all reported defects of KEOPS/EKC mutants can be attributed to the lack of t6A, or whether the complex has multiple functions.
Project description:The hypermodified nucleoside N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A37) is present in many distinct tRNA species and has been found in organisms in all domains of life. This post-transcriptional modification enhances translation fidelity by stabilizing the anticodon/codon interaction in the ribosomal decoding site. The biosynthetic pathway of t(6)A37 is complex and not well understood. In bacteria, the following four proteins have been discovered to be both required and sufficient for t(6)A37 modification: TsaC, TsaD, TsaB, and TsaE. Of these, TsaC and TsaD are members of universally conserved protein families. Although TsaC has been shown to catalyze the formation of L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of t(6)A37, the details of the enzymatic mechanism remain unsolved. Therefore, the solution structure of Escherichia coli TsaC was characterized by NMR to further study the interactions with ATP and L-threonine, both substrates of TsaC in the biosynthesis of L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP. Several conserved amino acids were identified that create a hydrophobic binding pocket for the adenine of ATP. Additionally, two residues were found to interact with L-threonine. Both binding sites are located in a deep cavity at the center of the protein. Models derived from the NMR data and molecular modeling reveal several sites with considerable conformational flexibility in TsaC that may be important for L-threonine recognition, ATP activation, and/or protein/protein interactions. These observations further the understanding of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by TsaC, a threonylcarbamoyl-AMP synthase, and provide structure-based insight into the mechanism of t(6)A37 biosynthesis.
Project description:The universal N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) modification at position A37 of ANN-decoding tRNAs is essential for translational fidelity. In bacteria the TsaC enzyme first synthesizes an l-threonylcarbamoyladenylate (TC-AMP) intermediate. In cooperation with TsaB and TsaE, TsaD then transfers the l-threonylcarbamoyl-moiety from TC-AMP onto tRNA. We determined the crystal structure of the TsaB-TsaE-TsaD (TsaBDE) complex of Thermotoga maritima in presence of a non-hydrolysable AMPCPP. TsaE is positioned at the entrance of the active site pocket of TsaD, contacting both the TsaB and TsaD subunits and prohibiting simultaneous tRNA binding. AMPCPP occupies the ATP binding site of TsaE and is sandwiched between TsaE and TsaD. Unexpectedly, the binding of TsaE partially denatures the active site of TsaD causing loss of its essential metal binding sites. TsaE interferes in a pre- or post-catalytic step and its binding to TsaBD is regulated by ATP hydrolysis. This novel binding mode and activation mechanism of TsaE offers good opportunities for antimicrobial drug development.