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Neuronal production of lipocalin-2 as a help-me signal for glial activation.

ABSTRACT: We explored the hypothesis that injured neurons release lipocalin-2 as a help me signal.In vivo lipocalin-2 responses were assessed in rat focal cerebral ischemia and human stroke brain samples using a combination of ELISA and immunostaining. In vitro, microglia and astrocytes were exposed to lipocalin-2, and various markers and assays of glial activation were quantified. Functional relevance of neuron-to-glia lipocalin-2 signaling was examined by transferring conditioned media from lipocalin-2-activated microglia and astrocytes onto neurons to see whether activated glia could protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation and promote neuroplasticity.In human stroke samples and rat cerebral ischemia, neuronal expression of lipocalin-2 was significantly increased. In primary cell cultures, exposing microglia and astrocytes to lipocalin-2 resulted in glial activation. In microglia, lipocalin-2 converted resting ramified shapes into a long-rod morphology with reduced branching, increased interleukin-10 release, and enhanced phagocytosis. In astrocytes, lipocalin-2 upregulated glial fibrillary acid protein, brain-derived neurotropic factor, and thrombospondin-1. Conditioned media from lipocalin-2-treated astrocytes upregulated synaptotagmin, and conditioned media from lipocalin-2-treated microglia upregulated synaptophysin and post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) and protected neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation.These findings provide proof of concept that lipocalin-2 is released by injured neurons as a help me distress signal that activates microglia and astrocytes into potentially prorecovery phenotypes.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC4122238 | BioStudies | 2014-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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