Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses.
ABSTRACT: Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+?hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages.
Project description:Nucleic acid-dependent ATPases are involved in nearly all aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism. Previous studies have described a number of mitochondrial helicases. However, double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPases, including translocases or enzymes remodeling DNA-protein complexes, have not been identified in mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Here, we demonstrate that Irc3p is a mitochondrial double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase of the Superfamily II. In contrast to the other mitochondrial Superfamily II enzymes Mss116p, Suv3p and Mrh4p, which are RNA helicases, Irc3p has a direct role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Specific Irc3p-dependent mtDNA metabolic intermediates can be detected, including high levels of double-stranded DNA breaks that accumulate in irc3? mutants. irc3?-related topology changes in rho- mtDNA can be reversed by the deletion of mitochondrial RNA polymerase RPO41, suggesting that Irc3p counterbalances adverse effects of transcription on mitochondrial genome stability.
Project description:Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle and a prime target of antiviral drugs. Herpesviruses use an ATP-driven packaging motor/terminase complex to translocate and cleave concatemeric dsDNA into procapsids but its molecular architecture and mechanism are unknown. We report atomic structures of a herpesvirus hexameric terminase complex in both the apo and ADP•BeF3-bound states. Each subunit of the hexameric ring comprises three components-the ATPase/terminase pUL15 and two regulator/fixer proteins, pUL28 and pUL33-unlike bacteriophage terminases. Distal to the nuclease domains, six ATPase domains form a central channel with conserved basic-patches conducive to DNA binding and trans-acting arginine fingers are essential to ATP hydrolysis and sequential DNA translocation. Rearrangement of the nuclease domains mediated by regulatory domains converts DNA translocation mode to cleavage mode. Our structures favor a sequential revolution model for DNA translocation and suggest mechanisms for concerted domain rearrangements leading to DNA cleavage.
Project description:Replicative helicases are essential ATPases that unwind DNA to initiate chromosomal replication. While bacterial replicative DnaB helicases are hexameric, Helicobacter pylori DnaB (HpDnaB) was found to form double hexamers, similar to some archaeal and eukaryotic replicative helicases. Here we present a structural and functional analysis of HpDnaB protein during primosome formation. The crystal structure of the HpDnaB at 6.7 Å resolution reveals a dodecameric organization consisting of two hexamers assembled via their N-terminal rings in a stack-twisted mode. Using fluorescence anisotropy we show that HpDnaB dodecamer interacts with single-stranded DNA in the presence of ATP but has a low DNA unwinding activity. Multi-angle light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that interaction with the DnaG primase helicase-binding domain dissociates the helicase dodecamer into single ringed primosomes. Functional assays on the proteins and associated complexes indicate that these single ringed primosomes are the most active form of the helicase for ATP hydrolysis, DNA binding and unwinding. These findings shed light onto an activation mechanism of HpDnaB by the primase that might be relevant in other bacteria and possibly other organisms exploiting dodecameric helicases for DNA replication.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public-health threat worldwide. Although the mobile genomic island responsible for this phenotype, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC), has been thought to be nonreplicative, we predicted DNA-replication-related functions for some of the conserved proteins encoded by SCC. We show that one of these, Cch, is homologous to the self-loading initiator helicases of an unrelated family of genomic islands, that it is an active 3'-to-5' helicase and that the adjacent ORF encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Our 2.9-Å crystal structure of intact Cch shows that it forms a hexameric ring. Cch, like the archaeal and eukaryotic MCM-family replicative helicases, belongs to the pre-sensor II insert clade of AAA+ ATPases. Additionally, we found that SCC elements are part of a broader family of mobile elements, all of which encode a replication initiator upstream of their recombinases. Replication after excision would enhance the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:Helicases are ubiquitous adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) with widespread roles in genome metabolism. Here, we report a previously undescribed functionality for ATPases with helicase-like domains; namely, that ATP hydrolysis can trigger ATP-independent long-range protein diffusion on DNA in one dimension (1D). Specifically, using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy we show that the Type III restriction enzyme EcoP15I uses its ATPase to switch into a distinct structural state that diffuses on DNA over long distances and long times. The switching occurs only upon binding to the target site and requires hydrolysis of ~30 ATPs. We define the mechanism for these enzymes and show how ATPase activity is involved in DNA target site verification and 1D signaling, roles that are common in DNA metabolism: for example, in nucleotide excision and mismatch repair.
Project description:Recently, it has been shown that a predicted P-loop ATPase (the HerA or MlaA protein), which is highly conserved in archaea and also present in many bacteria but absent in eukaryotes, has a bidirectional helicase activity and forms hexameric rings similar to those described for the TrwB ATPase. In this study, the FtsK-HerA superfamily of P-loop ATPases, in which the HerA clade comprises one of the major branches, is analyzed in detail. We show that, in addition to the FtsK and HerA clades, this superfamily includes several families of characterized or predicted ATPases which are predominantly involved in extrusion of DNA and peptides through membrane pores. The DNA-packaging ATPases of various bacteriophages and eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses also belong to the FtsK-HerA superfamily. The FtsK protein is the essential bacterial ATPase that is responsible for the correct segregation of daughter chromosomes during cell division. The structural and evolutionary relationship between HerA and FtsK and the nearly perfect complementarity of their phyletic distributions suggest that HerA similarly mediates DNA pumping into the progeny cells during archaeal cell division. It appears likely that the HerA and FtsK families diverged concomitantly with the archaeal-bacterial division and that the last universal common ancestor of modern life forms had an ancestral DNA-pumping ATPase that gave rise to these families. Furthermore, the relationship of these cellular proteins with the packaging ATPases of diverse DNA viruses suggests that a common DNA pumping mechanism might be operational in both cellular and viral genome segregation. The herA gene forms a highly conserved operon with the gene for the NurA nuclease and, in many archaea, also with the orthologs of eukaryotic double-strand break repair proteins MRE11 and Rad50. HerA is predicted to function in a complex with these proteins in DNA pumping and repair of double-stranded breaks introduced during this process and, possibly, also during DNA replication. Extensive comparative analysis of the 'genomic context' combined with in-depth sequence analysis led to the prediction of numerous previously unnoticed nucleases of the NurA superfamily, including a specific version that is likely to be the endonuclease component of a novel restriction-modification system. This analysis also led to the identification of previously uncharacterized nucleases, such as a novel predicted nuclease of the Sir2-type Rossmann fold, and phosphatases of the HAD superfamily that are likely to function as partners of the FtsK-HerA superfamily ATPases.
Project description:Scaffolding proteins (SPs) are required for the capsid shell assembly of many tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, some archaeal viruses, herpesviruses, and adenoviruses. Despite their importance, only one high-resolution structure is available for SPs within procapsids. Here, we use the inherent size limit of NMR to identify mobile segments of the 303-residue phage P22 SP free in solution and when incorporated into a ?23 MDa procapsid complex. Free SP gives NMR signals from its acidic N-terminus (residues 1-40) and basic C-terminus (residues 264-303), whereas NMR signals from the middle segment (residues 41-263) are missing because of intermediate conformational exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale. When SP is incorporated into P22 procapsids, NMR signals from the C-terminal helix-turn-helix domain disappear because of binding to the procapsid interior. Signals from the N-terminal domain persist, indicating that this segment retains flexibility when bound to procapsids. The unstructured character of the N-terminus, coupled with its high content of negative charges, is likely important for dissociation and release of SP during the double-stranded DNA genome packaging step accompanying phage maturation.
Project description:Dedicated AAA+ ATPases deposit hexameric ring-shaped helicases onto DNA to promote replication in cellular organisms. To understand how loading occurs, we used electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to determine the ATP-bound structure of the intact E. coli DnaB?DnaC helicase/loader complex. The 480 kDa dodecamer forms a three-tiered assembly, in which DnaC adopts a spiral configuration that remodels N-terminal scaffolding and C-terminal motor regions of DnaB to produce a clear break in the helicase ring. Surprisingly, DnaC's AAA+ fold is dispensable for ring remodeling because the DnaC isolated helicase-binding domain can both load DnaB onto DNA and increase the efficiency by which the helicase acts on substrates in vitro. Our data demonstrate that DnaC opens DnaB by a mechanism akin to that of polymerase clamp loaders and indicate that bacterial replicative helicases, like their eukaryotic counterparts, possess autoregulatory elements that influence how hexameric motor domains are loaded onto and unwind DNA.
Project description:The molecular origin of the action of helicases is explored, starting with a model built based on the different X-ray structures of the large tumor antigen (LTag) hexameric helicase and a simplified model containing the ionized phosphate backbones of a single-strand DNA. The coupling between the protein structural changes and the translocation process is quantified using an effective electrostatic free-energy surface for the protein/DNA complex. This surface is then used in Langevin dynamics simulations of the time dependence of the translocation process. Remarkably, the simulated motion along the free-energy surface results in a vectorial translocation of the DNA, consistent with the biological process. The electrostatic energy of the system appears to reproduce the directionality of this process. Thus, we are able to provide a consistent structure-based molecular description of the energetic and dynamics of the translocation process. This analysis may have general implications for relating structural models to translocation directionality in helicases and other DNA translocases.
Project description:The catalytic properties of cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase have been analysed. The pH profile, effect of inhibitors, cold-stability and substrate specificity are characteristic of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatases, although a high guanosine triphosphatase activity does appear to be restricted to plant mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatases. The kinetic properties of nucleoside 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis by membrane-bound and soluble enzymes have been studied by means of double-reciprocal plots. These plots were linear in the absence of an activating anion, which may indicate that the catalytic and/or regulatory mechanism of Arum maculatum adenosine triphosphatase is different from that of other enzyme preparations. It is suggested that the differences in subunit composition of plant and mammalian adenosine triphosphatases reported previously [Dunn, Slabas & Moore (1985) Biochem. J. 225, 821-824] are structurally, rather than functionally, significant.