Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones.
ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-type complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91(phox) localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40(phox) . p40(phox) itself exhibited colocalization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91(phox) and p40(phox) with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in colocalization of p40(phox) with NOX2/gp91(phox) at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for actin organization and dynamics in neuronal growth cones as well as neurite outgrowth. Here, we report that the cytosolic subunit p40(phox) of the NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex is partially associated with F-actin in neuronal growth cones, while ROS produced by this complex regulates F-actin dynamics and neurite growth. These findings provide evidence for a bidirectional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones.
Project description:The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex plays a critical role in the antimicrobial functions of the phagocytic cells of the immune system. The catalytic core of this oxidase consists of a complex between gp91(phox), p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac-2. Mutations in each of the phox components, except p40(phox), have been described in cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), defining their essential role in oxidase function. We sought to establish the role of p40(phox) by investigating the NADPH oxidase responses of neutrophils isolated from p40(phox-/-) mice. In the absence of p40(phox), the expression of p67(phox) is reduced by approximately 55% and oxidase responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha/fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G latex beads, Staphylococcus aureus, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and zymosan were reduced by approximately 97, 85, 84, 75, and 30%, respectively. The defect in ROS production by p40(phox-/-) neutrophils in response to S. aureus translated into a severe, CGD-like defect in the killing of this organism both in vitro and in vivo, defining p40(phox) as an essential component in bacterial killing.
Project description:NADPH oxidase is one of the major components of the innate immune system and is used by phagocytes to generate microbicidal reactive oxygen species. Activation of the enzyme requires the participation of a minimum of five proteins, p22(phox), gp91(phox) (together forming flavocytochrome b(558)), p47(phox), p67(phox) and the GTP-binding protein, Rac2. A sixth protein, p40(phox), has been implicated in the control of the activity of NADPH oxidase principally based on its sequence homology to, and physical association with, other phox components, and also the observation that it is phosphorylated during neutrophil activation. However, to date its role in regulating the activity of the enzyme has remained obscure, with evidence for both positive and negative influences on oxidase activity having being reported. Data are presented here using the cell-free system for NADPH oxidase activation that shows that p40(phox) can function to promote oxidase activation by increasing the affinity of p47(phox) for the enzyme approx. 3-fold.
Project description:During activation of the phagocyte (Nox2-based) NADPH oxidase, the cytoplasmic Phox complex (p47(phox)-p67(phox)-p40(phox)) translocates and associates with the membrane-spanning flavocytochrome b(558). It is unclear where (in cytoplasm or on membranes), when (before or after assembly), and how p40(phox) acquires its PI(3)P-binding capabilities. We demonstrated that in addition to conformational changes induced by H(2)O(2) in the cytoplasm, p40(phox) acquires PI(3)P-binding through direct or indirect membrane targeting. We also found that p40(phox) is essential when p47(phox) is partially phosphorylated during Fc?R-mediated oxidase activation; however, p40(phox) is less critical when p47(phox) is adequately phosphorylated, using phosphorylation-mimicking mutants in HEK293(Nox2/Fc?RIIa) and RAW264.7(p40/p47KD) cells. Moreover, PI binding to p47(phox) is less important when the autoinhibitory PX-PB1 domain interaction in p40(phox) is disrupted or when p40(phox) is targeted to membranes. Furthermore, we suggest that high affinity PI(3)P binding of the p40(phox) PX domain is critical during its accumulation on phagosomes, even when masked by the PB1 domain in the resting state. Thus, in addition to mechanisms for directly acquiring PI(3)P binding in the cytoplasm by H(2)O(2), p40(phox) can acquire PI(3)P binding on targeted membranes in a p47(phox)-dependent manner and functions both as a "carrier" of the cytoplasmic Phox complex to phagosomes and an "adaptor" of oxidase assembly on phagosomes in cooperation with p47(phox), using positive feedback mechanisms.
Project description:Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus, Gc) triggers a potent inflammatory response and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Gc survives exposure to neutrophils despite these cells' antimicrobial products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production in neutrophils is initiated by NADPH oxidase, which converts oxygen into superoxide. The subunits of NADPH oxidase are spatially separated between granules (gp91(phox)/p22(phox)) and the cytoplasm (p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox)). Activation of neutrophils promotes the coassembly of NADPH oxidase subunits at phagosome and/or plasma membranes. While Gc-expressing opacity-associated (Opa) proteins can induce neutrophils to produce ROS, Opa-negative (Opa-) Gc does not stimulate neutrophil ROS production. Using constitutively Opa- and OpaD-positive (OpaD+) Gc bacteria in strain FA1090, we now show that the difference in ROS production levels in primary human neutrophils between these backgrounds can be attributed to differential assembly of NADPH oxidase. Neutrophils infected with Opa- Gc showed limited translocation of NADPH oxidase cytoplasmic subunits to cellular membranes, including the bacterial phagosome. In contrast, these subunits rapidly translocated to neutrophil membranes following infection with OpaD+ Gc. gp91(phox) and p22(phox) were recruited to Gc phagosomes regardless of bacterial Opa expression. These results suggest that Opa- Gc interferes with the recruitment of neutrophil NADPH oxidase cytoplasmic subunits to membranes, in particular, the p47(phox) "organizing" subunit, to prevent assembly of the holoenzyme, resulting in an absence of the oxidative burst.
Project description:Cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase interact with the actin cytoskeleton. These interactions are thought to be important for the activation of this enzyme system but they are poorly characterised at the molecular level. Here we have explored the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and p40(phox), one of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase. Full length p40(phox) expressed in COS cells co-localised with F-actin in a peripheral lamellar compartment. The co-localisation was lost after deletion of the Phox homology (PX) domain and the PX domain in isolation (p40PX) showed the same F-actin co-localisation as the full length protein. PX domains are known lipid-binding modules however, a mutant p40PX which did not bind lipids still co-localised with F-actin suggesting that lipid-independent interactions underlie the localisation. Affinity chromatography identified actin as a binding partner for p40PX in neutrophil extracts. Pure actin interacted with both p40(phox) and with p40PX suggesting it is a direct interaction. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D resulted in actin rearrangement and concomitantly the localisation of full length p40(phox) proteins and that of p40PX changed. Thus p40PX is a dual F-actin/lipid-binding module and F-actin interactions with the PX domain dictate at least in part the intracellular localisation of the cytosolic p40(phox) subunit of the NADPH oxidase.
Project description:Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) resulting from excess alcohol consumption is an important cause of heart failure (HF). Although it is assumed that the cardiotoxicity of the ethanol (EtOH)-metabolite acetaldehyde (ACA) is central for its development and progression, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. Murine cardiomyocytes (CMs) exposed to ACA or EtOH showed increased superoxide (O2(•-)) levels and decreased mitochondrial polarization, both being normalized by NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition. C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient for the ACA-degrading enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2(-/-)) were fed a 2% EtOH diet for 5 weeks creating an ACA-overload. 2% EtOH-fed ALDH-2(-/-) mice exhibited a decreased cardiac function, increased heart-to-body and lung-to-body weight ratios, increased cardiac levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as increased NOX activity and NOX2/glycoprotein 91(phox) (NOX2/gp91(phox)) subunit expression compared to 2% EtOH-fed C57BL/6 mice. Echocardiography revealed that ALDH-2(-/-)/gp91(phox-/-) mice were protected from ACA-overload-induced HF after 5 weeks of 2% EtOH-diet, demonstrating that NOX2-derived O2(•-) contributes to the development of ACM. Translated to human pathophysiology, we found increased gp91(phox) expression in endomyocardial biopsies of ACM patients. In conclusion, ACM is promoted by ACA-driven mitochondrial dysfunction and can be improved by ablation of NOX2/gp91(phox). NOX2/gp91(phox) therefore might be a potential pharmacological target to treat ACM.
Project description:Flavocytochrome b(558), the catalytic core of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2), mediates electron transfer from NADPH to molecular oxygen to generate superoxide, the precursor of highly ROS for host defense. Flavocytochrome b(558) is an integral membrane heterodimer consisting of a large glycosylated subunit, gp91(phox), and a smaller subunit, p22(phox). We recently showed in murine macrophages that flavocytochrome b(558) localizes to the PM and Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, whereas in primary hMDMs, gp91(phox) and p22(phox) reside in the PM and the ER. The antimicrobial activity of macrophages, including ROS production, is greatly enhanced by IFN-?, but how this is achieved is incompletely understood. To further define the mechanisms by which IFN-? enhances macrophage NADPH oxidase activity, we evaluated changes in flavocytochrome b(558) expression and localization, along with NADPH oxidase activity, in IFN-? stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and primary murine BMDMs and hMDMs. We found that enhanced capacity for ROS production is, in part, a result of increased protein expression of gp91(phox) and p22(phox) but also demonstrate that IFN-? induced a shift in the predominant localization of gp91(phox) and p22(phox) from intracellular membrane compartments to the PM. Our results are the first to show that a cytokine can change the distribution of macrophage flavocytochrome b(558) and provide a potential, new mechanism by which IFN-? modulates macrophage antimicrobial activity. Altogether, our data suggest that the mechanisms by which IFN-? regulates antimicrobial activity of macrophages are more complex than previously appreciated.
Project description:The efficiency of immune-mediated clearance of cancer cells is hampered by immunosuppressive mediators in the malignant microenvironment, including NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species. We aimed at defining the effects of histamine, an inhibitor of the myeloid NADPH oxidase/NOX2, on the development of Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) from myeloid precursors and the impact of these mechanisms for tumor growth. Histamine was found to promote the maturation of human DCs from monocytes by increasing the expression of HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules, which resulted in improved induction of Th cells with Th0 polarity. Experiments using wild-type and NOX2-deficient myelomonoblastic cells showed that histamine facilitated myeloid cell maturation only in cells capable of generating reactive oxygen species. Treatment of mice with histamine reduced the growth of murine EL-4 lymphomas in parallel with an increment of tumor-infiltrating DCs in NOX2-sufficient mice but not in NOX2-deficient (gp91(phox) (-/-)) mice. We propose that strategies to target the myeloid NADPH oxidase may facilitate the development of endogenous DCs in cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gp91(phox) is a transmembrane protein and the catalytic core of the NADPH oxidase complex of neutrophils. Lack of this protein causes chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe and recurrent infections due to the incapacity of phagocytes to kill microorganisms. METHODOLOGY: Here we optimize a prokaryotic cell-free expression system to produce integral mammalian membrane proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Using this system, we over-express truncated forms of the gp91(phox) protein under soluble form in the presence of detergents or lipids resulting in active proteins with a "native-like" conformation. All the proteins exhibit diaphorase activity in the presence of cytosolic factors (p67(phox), p47(phox), p40(phox) and Rac) and arachidonic acid. We also produce proteoliposomes containing gp91(phox) protein and demonstrate that these proteins exhibit activities similar to their cellular counterpart. The proteoliposomes induce rapid cellular delivery and relocation of recombinant gp91(phox) proteins to the plasma membrane. Our data support the concept of cell-free expression technology for producing recombinant proteoliposomes and their use for functional and structural studies or protein therapy by complementing deficient cells in gp91(phox) protein.
Project description:Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an immunodeficiency with recurrent pyogenic infections and granulomatous inflammation, results from loss of phagocyte superoxide production by recessive mutations in any 1 of 4 genes encoding subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. These include gp91(phox) and p22(phox), which form the membrane-integrated flavocytochrome b, and cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). A fifth subunit, p40(phox), plays an important role in phagocytosis-induced superoxide production via a phox homology (PX) domain that binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P). We report the first case of autosomal recessive mutations in NCF4, the gene encoding p40(phox), in a boy who presented with granulomatous colitis. His neutrophils showed a substantial defect in intracellular superoxide production during phagocytosis, whereas extracellular release of superoxide elicited by phorbol ester or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) was unaffected. Genetic analysis of NCF4 showed compound heterozygosity for a frameshift mutation with premature stop codon and a missense mutation predicting a R105Q substitution in the PX domain. Parents and a sibling were healthy heterozygous carriers. p40(phox)R105Q lacked binding to PtdIns(3)P and failed to reconstitute phagocytosis-induced oxidase activity in p40(phox)-deficient granulocytes, with premature loss of p40(phox)R105Q from phagosomes. Thus, p40(phox) binding to PtdIns(3)P is essential for phagocytosis-induced oxidant production in human neutrophils and its absence can be associated with disease.