The iron-catalyzed construction of 2-aminopyrimidines from alkynenitriles and cyanamides.
ABSTRACT: Several cycloaddition catalysts and reagents were surveyed for their effectiveness toward cyclizing alkynenitriles with cyanamides. Catalytic amounts of FeI2, (iPr)PDAI and Zn were found to effectively catalyze the [2+2+2] cycloaddition of a variety of cyanamides and alkynenitriles to afford bicyclic 2-aminopyrimidines.
Project description:A variety of bicyclic N,N-disubstituted 2-aminopyridines have been prepared from diynes and cyanamides by nickel-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition reactions. The reactions proceeded at room temperature with low catalyst loading to afford 2-aminopyridines in good to excellent yields. The method is amenable to both internal and terminal diynes and proceeds in a regioselective manner. A number of cyanamides with diverse functional group tolerance were used. The intermolecular version employing 3-hexyne and N-cyanopyrrolidine also afforded the desired N,N-disubstituted 2-aminopyridine in good yield.
Project description:Diynes and cyanamides undergo an iron-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition to form highly substituted 2-aminopyridines in an atom-efficient manner that is both high yielding and regioselective. This system was also used to cyclize two terminal alkynes and a cyanamide to afford a 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyridine product regioselectively.
Project description:The cross-coupling of alkyl cyanamides with a number of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halide and pseudohalide coupling partners has been developed via a modification of Pd-catalyzed amidation methods. The reactions proceed selectively under mild conditions with reasonable reaction times in moderate to excellent yields.
Project description:We report a rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric formal intermolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of 2-alkylenecyclobutanols with ?,?-unsaturated cyclic ketones leading to synthetically useful trans-bicyclic molecules. Three consecutive stereogenic centers are formed in a highly enantio- and diastereoselective manner. Stepwise C-C bond cleavage and annulation are likely involved in the reaction pathway. Here, iPr-Duphos is the viable chiral ligand that promotes excellent enantio-control.
Project description:The application of alkyl and aryl substituted cyanamides in synthetic chemistry has diversified multi-fold in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent advances (since 2012) in the chemistry of cyanamides and detail their application in cycloaddition chemistry, aminocyanation reactions, as well as electrophilic cyanide-transfer agents and their unique radical and coordination chemistry.
Project description:The reaction of Ni(COD)(2), IPr, and nitrile affords dimeric [Ni(IPr)RCN](2) in high yields. X-ray analysis revealed these species display simultaneous ?(1)- and ?(2)-nitrile binding modes. These dimers are catalytically competent in the formation of pyridines from the cycloaddition of diynes and nitriles. Kinetic analysis showed the reaction to be first order in [Ni(IPr)RCN](2), zeroth order in added IPr, zeroth order in nitrile, and zeroth order in diyne. Extensive stoichiometric competition studies were performed, and selective incorporation of the exogenous, not dimer bound, nitrile was observed. Post cycloaddition, the dimeric state was found to be largely preserved. Nitrile and ligand exchange experiments were performed and found to be inoperative in the catalytic cycle. These observations suggest a mechanism whereby the catalyst is activated by partial dimer-opening followed by binding of exogenous nitrile and subsequent oxidative heterocoupling.
Project description:CuI-catalyzed cycloaddition (CA) of the ketonitrones, Ph2C=N+(R')O- (R' = Me, CH2Ph), to the disubstituted cyanamides, NCNR2 (R = Me2, Et2, (CH2)4, (CH2)5, (CH2)4O, C9H10, (CH2Ph)2, Ph(Me)), gives the corresponding 5-amino-substituted 2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazoles (15 examples) in good to moderate yields. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions (CH2Cl2, RT or 45 °C) and requires 10 mol % of [Cu(NCMe)4](BF4) as the catalyst. The somewhat reduced yields are due to the individual properties of 2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazoles, which easily undergo ring opening via N-O bond splitting. Results of density functional theory calculations reveal that the CA of ketonitrones to CuI-bound cyanamides is a concerted process, and the copper-catalyzed reaction is controlled by the predominant contribution of the HOMOdipole-LUMOdipolarophile interaction (group I by Sustmann's classification). The metal-involving process is much more asynchronous and profitable from both kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints than the hypothetical metal-free reaction.
Project description:A cool break: 3-Azetidinone and a variety of diynes undergo a cycloaddition reaction catalyzed by Ni/IPr to give dihydroazocine compounds (see scheme; IPr=1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolidene). The reaction involves a challenging C(sp)2-C(sp)3 bond cleavage step, yet, surprisingly, proceeds at low temperature.
Project description:A series of novel unique structural organophosphorus aminopyrimidines were developed as potential DNA-targeting membrane active inhibitors through an efficient one-pot procedure from aldehydes, phosphonate and aminopyrimidine. The biological assay revealed that some of the prepared compounds displayed antibacterial activities. In particular, imidazole derivative 2c exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against MRSA with an MIC value of 4 μg mL-1 in comparison with the clinical drugs chloromycin and norfloxacin. Experiments revealed that the active molecule 2c had the ability to rapidly kill the tested strains without obviously triggering the development of bacterial resistance, showed low toxicity to L929 cells and could disturb the cell membrane. The molecular docking study discovered that compound 2c could bind with DNA gyrase via hydrogen bonds and other weak interactions. Further exploration disclosed that the active molecule 2c could also effectively intercalate into MRSA DNA and form a steady 2c-DNA supramolecular complex, which might further block DNA replication to exert powerful antibacterial effects.
Project description:The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are pentameric oligomers in which binding sites for nicotinic agonists and competitive antagonists are found at selected subunit interfaces. The nAChR spontaneously exists in multiple conformations associated with its activation and desensitization steps, and conformations are selectively stabilized by binding of agonists and antagonists. In the nAChR, agonist binding and the associated conformational changes accompanying activation and desensitization are cooperative. AChBP, which lacks the transmembrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains, serves as a homology model of the extracellular domain of the nAChRs. We identified unique cooperative binding behavior of a number of 4,6-disubstituted 2-aminopyrimidines to Lymnaea AChBP, with different molecular variants exhibiting positive, nH > 1.0, and negative cooperativity, nH < 1.0. Therefore, for a distinctive set of ligands, the extracellular domain of a nAChR surrogate suffices to accommodate cooperative interactions. X-ray crystal structures of AChBP complexes with examples of each allowed the identification of structural features in the ligands that confer differences in cooperative behavior. Both sets of molecules bind at the agonist-antagonist site, as expected from their competition with epibatidine. An analysis of AChBP quaternary structure shows that cooperative ligand binding is associated with a blooming or flare conformation, a structural change not observed with the classical, noncooperative, nicotinic ligands. Positively and negatively cooperative ligands exhibited unique features in the detailed binding determinants and poses of the complexes.