Interleukin 7 plays a role in T lymphocyte apoptosis inhibition driven by mesenchymal stem cell without favoring proliferation and cytokines secretion.
ABSTRACT: Since 2004, when a case report describing the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) infusion as a therapy for GVHD after bone marrow transplantation, a new perspective in MSC function emerged. Since then hMSCs immunomodulatory potential became the target of several studies. Although great progress has been made in our understanding of hMSCs, their effect on T cell remains obscure. Our study has confirmed the already described effect of hMSCs on lymphocytes proliferation and survival. We also show that the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis is contact-independent and occurs in a prostaglandin-independent manner. A potential correlation between IL-7 and hMSCs effect is suggested, as we observed an increase in IL-7 receptors (CD127) on lymphocyte membrane in MSC presence. Additionally, blocking IL-7 in hMSCs-lymphocytes co-cultures increased lymphocytes apoptosis and we also have demonstrated that hMSCs are able to produce this interleukin. Moreover, we found that during Th1/Th17 differentiation in vitro, hMSCs presence leads to Th1/Th17 cells with reduced capacity of INF-y and IL-17 secretion respectively, regardless of having several pro-inflammatory cytokines in culture. We did not confirm an increment of Treg in these cultures, but a reduced percentage of INF-y/IL-17 secreting cells was observed, suggesting that the ratio between anti and pro-inflammatory cells changed. This changed ratio is very important to GvHD therapy and links hMSCs to an anti-inflammatory role. Taken together, our findings provide important preliminary results on the lymphocyte pathway modulated by MSCs and may contribute for developing novel treatments and therapeutic targets for GvHD and others autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Th17 is a newly identified T-cell lineage that secretes proinflammatory cytokine IL-17. Th17 cells have been shown to play a critical role in mediating autoimmune diseases such as EAE, colitis, and arthritis, but their role in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still unknown. Here we showed that, in an acute GVHD model of C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor to BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipient, IL-17(-/-) donor T cells manifested an augmented Th1 differentiation and IFN-gamma production and induced exacerbated acute GVHD. Severe tissue damage mediated by IL-17(-/-) donor T cells was associated with increased Th1 infiltration, up-regulation of chemokine receptors by donor T cells, and enhanced tissue expression of inflammatory chemokines. Administration of recombinant IL-17 and neutralizing IFN-gamma in the recipients given IL-17(-/-) donor cells ameliorated the acute GVHD. Furthermore, the regulation of Th1 differentiation by IL-17 or Th17 may be through its influence on host DCs. Our results indicate that donor Th17 cells can down-regulate Th1 differentiation and ameliorate acute GVHD in allogeneic recipients, and that treatments neutralizing proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 may augment acute GVHD as well as other inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Multipotent human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) harbor immunomodulatory properties that are therapeutically relevant. One of the most clinically important populations of leukocytes is the interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-secreting T (Th17) lymphocytes. However, mechanisms of hMSC and Th17 cell interactions are incompletely resolved. We found that, along with Th1 responses, hMSCs strongly suppressed Th17 responses and this required both IL-25--also known as IL--17E-as well as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), a potent cell surface ligand for tolerance induction. Knockdown of IL-25 expression in hMSCs abrogated Th17 suppression in vitro and in vivo. However, IL-25 alone was insufficient to significantly suppress Th17 responses, which also required surface PD-L1 expression. Critically, IL-25 upregulated PD-L1 surface expression through the signaling pathways of JNK and STAT3, with STAT3 found to constitutively occupy the proximal region of the PD-L1 promoter. Our findings demonstrate the complexities of hMSC-mediated Th17 suppression, and highlight the IL-25/STAT3/PD-L1 axis as a candidate therapeutic target.
Project description:The morbidity and mortality associated with graft-host-disease (GVHD) is a significant obstacle to the greater use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Donor T cells that predominantly differentiate into TH1/Tc1 T cells and generate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mediate GVHD. Although numerous studies have described a pathogenic role for IFN-gamma, multiple reports have demonstrated that the lack of IFN-gamma paradoxically exacerbated GVHD lethality. This has led to speculation that another subset of T cells may significantly contribute to GVHD mortality. Several groups have demonstrated a new lineage of CD4+ T helper cell development distinct from TH1 or TH2 differentiation. This lineage is characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-21 and has been termed TH17 cells. Here, we demonstrate that a highly purified population of TH17 cells is capable of inducing lethal GVHD, hallmarked by extensive pathologic cutaneous and pulmonary lesions. Upon transfer, these cells migrate to and expand in GVHD target organs and secondary lymphoid tissues. Finally, we demonstrate differential roles for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-17A in the clinical manifestations of GVHD induced by TH17 cells. Our studies demonstrate that cells other than TH1/Tc1 can mediate acute GVHD.
Project description:Autoimmune uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness. We here investigated whether intraperitoneal administration of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) might prevent development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice. Time course study showed that the number of IFN-?- or IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T cells was increased in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) on the postimmunization day 7 and decreased thereafter. The retinal structure was severely disrupted on day 21. An intraperitoneal injection of hMSCs at the time of immunization protected the retina from damage and suppressed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the eye. Analysis of DLNs on day 7 showed that hMSCs decreased the number of Th1 and Th17 cells. The hMSCs did not reduce the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-23 which are the cytokines that drive Th1/Th17 differentiation. Also, hMSCs did not induce CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells. However, hMSCs increased the level of an immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 and the population of IL-10-expressing B220(+)CD19(+) cells. Together, data demonstrate that hMSCs attenuate EAU by suppressing Th1/Th17 cells and induce IL-10-expressing B220(+)CD19(+) cells. Our results support suggestions that hMSCs may offer a therapy for autoimmune diseases mediated by Th1/Th17 responses.
Project description:Acute graft- vs. -host disease (GVHD) is an important cause of morbidity and death after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We identify a new approach to prevent GVHD that impairs monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) alloactivation of T cells, yet preserves graft- vs.-leukemia (GVL). Exceeding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) capacity results in a spliced form of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1s). XBP-1s mediates ER stress and inflammatory responses. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting XBP-1 in moDCs abrogates their stimulation of allogeneic T cells. B-I09, an inositol-requiring enzyme-1? (IRE1?) inhibitor that prevents XBP-1 splicing, reduces human moDC migration, allo-stimulatory potency, and curtails moDC IL-1?, TGF?, and p40 cytokines, suppressing Th1 and Th17 cell priming. B-I09-treated moDCs reduce responder T cell activation via calcium flux without interfering with regulatory T cell (Treg) function or GVL effects by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells. In a human T cell mediated xenogeneic GVHD model, B-I09 inhibition of XBP-1s reduced target-organ damage and pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells without impacting donor Tregs or anti-tumor CTL. DC XBP-1s inhibition provides an innovative strategy to prevent GVHD and retain GVL.
Project description:: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are being increasingly pursued as potential therapies for immune-mediated conditions, including multiple sclerosis. Although they can suppress human Th1 responses, they reportedly can reciprocally enhance human Th17 responses. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the capacity of hMSCs to modulate human Th1 and Th17 responses. Human adult bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated, and their purity and differentiation capacity were confirmed. Human venous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated, alone, together with hMSC, or in the presence of hMSC-derived supernatants (sups). Cytokine expression by CD4+ T-cell subsets (intracellular staining by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) and secreted cytokines (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were then quantified. The contribution of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as of myeloid cells to the hMSC-mediated regulation of T-cell responses was investigated by selective depletion of PGE2 from the hMSC sups (anti-PGE2 beads) and by the selective removal of CD14+ cells from the PBMC (magnetic-activated cell sorting separation). Human MSC-secreted products could reciprocally induce interleukin-17 expression while decreasing interferon-? expression by human CD4+ T cells, both in coculture and through soluble products. Pre-exposure of hMSCs to IL-1? accentuated their capacity to reciprocally regulate Th1 and Th17 responses. Human MSCs secreted high levels of PGE2, which correlated with their capacity to regulate the T-cell responses. Selective removal of PGE2 from the hMSC supernatants abrogated the impact of hMSC on the T cells. Selective removal of CD14+ cells from the PBMCs also limited the capacity of hMSC-secreted PGE2 to affect T-cell responses. Our discovery of a novel PGE2-dependent and myeloid cell-mediated mechanism by which human MSCs can reciprocally induce human Th17 while suppressing Th1 responses has implications for the use of, as well as monitoring of, MSCs as a potential therapeutic for patients with multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated diseases.Although animal studies have generated a growing interest in the anti-inflammatory potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, MSCs possess the capacity to both limit and promote immune responses. Yet relatively little is known about human-MSC modulation of human disease-implicated T-cell responses, or the mechanisms underlying such modulation. The current study reveals a novel prostaglandin E2-dependent and myeloid cell-mediated mechanism by which human MSCs can reciprocally regulate human Th17 and Th1 responses, with implications for the use of MSCs as a potential therapeutic for patients with multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated diseases.
Project description:Chronic helminth infections are known to be associated with modulation of Ag-specific CD4(+) T responses. However, the role of CD4(+) T cell responses in human infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is not well defined. To examine the role of CD4(+) T cells expressing Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in strongyloidiasis, we compared the frequency (Fo) of these subsets in infected (INF) individuals with Fo in S. stercoralis-uninfected (UN) individuals. INF individuals exhibited a significant decrease in the spontaneous and Ag-specific Fo of both monofunctional and dual-functional Th1 cells compared with UN. Similarly, INF individuals also exhibited significantly decreased Fo of monofunctional and dual-functional Th17 cells upon Ag stimulation compared with UN. In contrast, both the spontaneous and the Ag-induced Fo of monofunctional and dual-functional Th2 cells was significantly increased in INF compared with UN individuals. This differential T cell response was predominantly Ag specific because it was abrogated upon control Ag or mitogen stimulation. The regulation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells was predominantly dependent on IL-10, whereas the regulation of Th2, but not Th1 or Th17, cells was also dependent on TGF-?. In addition, treatment of S. stercoralis infection significantly increased the Ag-specific Fo of Th1 and Th17 cells and decreased the Fo of Th2 cells in INF individuals. Thus, S. stercoralis infection is characterized by a parasite Ag-dependent regulation of monofunctional and dual-functional Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, a regulation also reversible by antihelminthic treatment.
Project description:Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, systemic and recurrent inflammatory disease associated with hyperactive Th17 and Th1 immune responses. Recent studies have shown that B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) negatively regulates the immune response. In this study, we investigated whether BTLA activation could be exploited to inhibit the development of abnormal immune responses in BD patients. BTLA expression in PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased in active BD patients. Decreased BTLA level was associated with increased Th17 and Th1 responses. Activation of BTLA inhibited the abnormal Th17 and Th1 responses and IL-22 expression in both patients and controls. Addition of an agonistic anti-BTLA antibody remarkably inhibited DC-induced Th17 and Th1 cell responses, resulted in decreased production of the Th17 and Th1-related cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-12p70 and reduced CD40 expression in DCs. In conclusion, decreased BTLA expression in ocular BD may lead to inappropriate control of the Th17 and Th1 immune responses and DC functions. Therefore, BTLA may be involved in the development and recurrence of this disease. Agonistic agents of BTLA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of BD and other inflammatory diseases mediated by abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.
Project description:In acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), naive donor CD4(+) T cells recognize alloantigens on host antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into T helper (Th) subsets (Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells), but the role of Th subsets in GVHD pathogenesis is incompletely characterized. Here we report that, in an MHC-mismatched model of C57BL/6 donor to BALB/c recipient, WT donor CD4(+) T cells predominantly differentiated into Th1 cells and preferentially mediated GVHD tissue damage in gut and liver. However, absence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in CD4(+) T cells resulted in augmented Th2 and Th17 differentiation and exacerbated tissue damage in lung and skin; absence of both IL-4 and IFN-gamma resulted in augmented Th17 differentiation and preferential, although not exclusive, tissue damage in skin; and absence of both IFN-gamma and IL-17 led to further augmentation of Th2 differentiation and idiopathic pneumonia. The tissue-specific GVHD mediated by Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells was in part associated with their tissue-specific migration mediated by differential expression of chemokine receptors. Furthermore, lack of tissue expression of the IFN-gamma-inducible B7-H1 played a critical role in augmenting the Th2-mediated idiopathic pneumonia. These results indicate donor CD4(+) T cells can reciprocally differentiate into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells that mediate organ-specific GVHD.
Project description:The complement system has been shown to regulate T-cell activation and alloimmune responses in GVHD. Mice deficient in the central component of complement system C3 have significantly lower GVHD-related mortality/morbidity, and C3 modulates Th1/Th17 polarization in mouse GVHD. To investigate whether anticomplement therapy has any impact on human T-cell activation, a drug candidate Compstatin was used to inhibit C3 activation in this study. We found the frequency of IFN-? (Th1)-, IL-4 (Th2)-, IL-17 (Th17)-, IL-2- and TNF-?-producing cells were significantly reduced among activated CD4(+) cells in the presence of Compstatin. Compstatin treatment decreased the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells upon TCR stimulation. However, Compstatin does not affect the production of IL-2 and TNF-? in activated CD8(+) T cells, and the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into distinct memory and effector subsets remained intact. Furthermore, we examined complement deposition in skin and lip biopsy samples of patients diagnosed with cutaneous GVHD. C3 deposition was detected in the squamous epithelium and dermis, blood vessels and damaged sweat glands, and was associated with gland damage and regeneration. We conclude that C3 mediates Th1/Th17 polarization in human T-cell activation and skin GVHD in patients.