Impurity of stem cell graft by murine embryonic fibroblasts - implications for cell-based therapy of the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT: Stem cells have been demonstrated to possess a therapeutic potential in experimental models of various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The types of implanted cells appear to play a crucial role. Previously, groups of the stem cell network NRW implemented a feeder-based cell line within the scope of their projects, examining the implantation of stem cells after ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Retrospective evaluation indicated the presence of spindle-shaped cells in several grafts implanted in injured animals, which indicated potential contamination by co-cultured feeder cells (murine embryonic fibroblasts - MEFs). Because feeder-based cell lines have been previously exposed to a justified criticism with regard to contamination by animal glycans, we aimed to evaluate the effects of stem cell/MEF co-transplantation. MEFs accounted for 5.3?±?2.8% of all cells in the primary FACS-evaluated co-culture. Depending on the culture conditions and subsequent purification procedure, the MEF-fraction ranged from 0.9 to 9.9% of the cell suspensions in vitro. MEF survival and related formation of extracellular substances in vivo were observed after implantation into the uninjured rat brain. Impurity of the stem cell graft by MEFs interferes with translational strategies, which represents a threat to the potential recipient and may affect the graft microenvironment. The implications of these findings are critically discussed.
Project description:Successful realization of the enormous potential of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine demands the development of well-defined culture conditions. Maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) typically requires co-culture with feeder layer cells, generally mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Concerns about xenogeneic pathogen contamination and immune reaction to feeder cells underlie the need for ensuring the safety and efficacy of future stem cell-based products through the development of a controlled culture environment. To gain insight into the effectiveness of MEF layers, here we have developed a biomimetic synthetic feeder layer (BSFL) that is acellular and replicates the stiffness and topography of MEFs. The mechanical properties of MEFs were measured using atomic force microscopy. The average Young's modulus of the MEF monolayers was replicated using tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels. BSFLs replicated topographical features of the MEFs, including cellular, subcellular, and cytoskeletal features. On BSFLs, mouse ESCs adhered and formed compact round colonies; similar to on MEF controls but not on Flat PA. ESCs on BSFLs maintained their pluripotency and self-renewal across passages, formed embryoid bodies and differentiated into progenitors of the three germ layers. This acellular biomimetic synthetic feeder layer supports stem cell culture without requiring co-culture of live xenogeneic feeder cells, and provides a versatile, tailorable platform for investigating stem cell growth.Embryonic stem cells have enormous potential to aid therapeutics, because they can renew themselves and become different cell types. This study addresses a key challenge for ESC use - growing them safely for human patients. ESCs typically grow with a feeder layer of mouse fibroblasts. Since patients have a risk of immune response to feeder layer cells, we have developed a material to mimic the feeder layer and eliminate this risk. We investigated the influence of feeder layer topography and stiffness on mouse ESCs. While the biomimetic synthetic feeder layer contains no live cells, it replicates the stiffness and topography of feeder layer cells. Significantly, ESCs grown on BSFLs retain their abilities to grow and become multiple cell types.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cells artificially derived from an adult somatic cell (typically human fibroblast) by forced expression of specific genes. In recent years, different feeders like inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and feeder free system have commonly been used for supporting the culture of stem cells in undifferentiated state. In the present work, the culture of hiPSCs and their characterizations on BD Matrigel (feeder-and serum-free system), MEF and HDF feeders using cell culture methods and molecular techniques were evaluated and compared. The isolated HDFs from foreskin samples were reprogrammed to hiPSCs using gene delivery system. Then, the pluripotency ability of hiPSCs cultured on each layer was determined by teratoma formation and immunohistochemical staining. After EBs generation the expression level of three germ layers genes were evaluated by Q-real-time PCR. Also, the cytogenetic stability of hiPSCs cultured on each condition was analyzed by karyotyping and comet assay. Then, the presence of pluripotency antigens were confirmed by Immunocytochemistry (ICC) test and alkaline phosphatase staining. This study were showed culturing of hiPSCs on BD Matrigel, MEF and HDF feeders had normal morphology and could maintain in undifferentiated state for prolonged expansion. The hiPSCs cultured in each system had normal karyotype without any chromosomal abnormalities and the DNA lesions were not observed by comet assay. Moreover, up-regulation in three germ layers genes in cultured hiPSCs on each layer (same to ESCs) compare to normal HDFs were observed (p?<?0.05). The findings of the present work were showed in stem cells culturing especially hiPSCs both MEF and HDF feeders as well as feeder free system like Matrigel are proper despite benefits and disadvantages. Although, MEFs is suitable for supporting of stem cell culturing but it can animal pathogens transferring and inducing immune response. Furthermore, HDFs have homologous source with hiPSCs and can be used as feeder instead of MEF but in therapeutic approaches the cells contamination is a problem. So, this study were suggested feeder free culturing of hiPSCs on Matrigel in supplemented media (without using MEF conditioned medium) resolves these problems and could prepare easy applications of hiPSCs in therapeutic approaches of regenerative medicine such as stem-cell therapy and somatic cell nuclear in further researches.
Project description:Preparation of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells to maintain pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is time consuming and involved in animal issues. Here, we demonstrated a novel method to prepare feeder cells with high efficiency, timesaving, and low costs. MEFs in 3?×?104 cell/cm2 were fixed by methanol for 5?min and air drying for 5?min. Thereafter, the methanol fixed MEF cells (MT-MEF) were able to be used directly to culture PSCs or stored at room temperature for the future usage. PSCs cultured on MT-MEF could be continuously expanded for over 40 passages with the naïve pluripotency. MT-MEFs could also be used to maintain human and pig iPSCs. Moreover, methanol fixed MEFs' culture dish was able to be reused for at least 4 times, and to be applied for antibiotic resistant screening assay to establishing stable transfected PSC lines. Alternatively, the immortalized cell lines, for instance NIH3T3 cells, could also be fixed by methanol and used as feeder cells to maintain PSCs. Thus, this novel means of methanol fixed feeder cells can completely replace the mitomycin C and gamma radiation treated MEF feeder cells, and be used to maintain PSCs derived from mouse as well as other animal species.
Project description:The biological activity of cell-derived substrates to maintain undifferentiated murine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells was correlated to membrane fluidity as a new parameter of cell culture substrates. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were employed as feeder cells and their membrane fluidity was tuned by chemical fixation using formaldehyde (FA). Membrane fluidity was evaluated by real-time single-molecule observations of green fluorescent protein-labeled epidermal growth factor receptors on chemically fixed MEFs. Biological activity was monitored by colony formation of iPS cells. Treatment with a low concentration of FA sustained the membrane fluidity and biological activity, which were comparable to those of mitomycin C-treated MEFs. The biological activity was further confirmed by sustained expression of alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-1, and other pluripotency markers in iPS cells after 3-5 days of culture on FA-fixed MEFs. Chemical fixation of feeder cells has several advantages such as providing ready-to-use culture substrates without contamination by proliferating feeder cells. Therefore, our results provide an important basis for the development of chemically fixed culture substrates for pluripotent stem cell culture as an alternative to conventional treatment by mitomycin C or x-ray irradiation.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture is routinely performed using inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a feeder cell layer (FL). Although these cells maintain pluripotency of hESCs, the molecular basis for this is unknown. Objectives of this study were to determine whether timing between MEF inactivation and their use as a FL influenced hESC growth and differentiation, and to begin defining the mechanism(s) involved. hESCs were plated on MEFs prepared 1 (MEF-1), 4 (MEF-4), and 7 (MEF-7) days earlier. hESC colony morphology and Oct3/4 expression levels were evaluated to determine the influence of different FLs. Significant enhancement of hESC growth (self-renewal) was observed on MEF-1 compared with MEF-4 and/or MEF-7. Conditioned media (CM) collected from MEF-1 supported significantly better hESC growth in a FL-free system compared to MEF-7 CM. Effects of MEFs on hESC growth were not caused by differences in cell density or viability, although indications of apoptosis were observed in MEF-7. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that MEF-7 were morphologically distinct from MEF-1 and MEF-4. Microarray analysis identified 19 genes related to apoptosis with significantly different levels of expression between MEF-1 and MEF-7. Several differentially expressed RNAs had gene ontology classifications associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) structural constituents and growth factors. Because members of Wnt signaling pathway were identified in the array analysis, we examined the ability of the Wnt1 CM and secreted frizzled-related proteins to affect hESC growth and differentiation. The addition of Wnt1 CM to both MEF-1 and MEF-7 significantly increased the number of undifferentiated colonies, while the addition of Sfrps promoted differentiation. Together, these results suggest that microenvironment, ECM, and soluble factors expressed by MEF-1 are significantly better at maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency of hESCs. Our findings have important implications in the optimization of hESC culture when MEFs are used as FL or CM is used in FL-free culture.
Project description:Feeder cells like mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) have been widely applied for culture of pluripotent stem cells, but their roles remain elusive. Noticeably, ESCs cultured on the feeders display transcriptional heterogeneity. We investigated roles of feeder cells by examining the telomere maintenance. Here we show that telomere is longer in mESCs cultured with than without the feeders. mESC cultures without MEF feeders exhibit telomere loss, chromosomal fusion, and aneuploidy with increasing passages. Notably, feeders facilitate heterogeneous transcription of 2-cell genes including Zscan4 and telomere elongation. Moreover, feeders produce Fstl1 that together with BMP4 periodically activate Zscan4. Interestingly, Zscan4 is repressed in mESCs cultured in 2i (inhibitors of Mek and Gsk3? signaling) media, associated with shorter telomeres and increased chromosome instability. These data suggest the important role of feeders in maintaining telomeres for long-term stable self-renewal and developmental pluripotency of mESCs.
Project description:Despite recent progress in the preparation of feeder cells for human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), there remain issues which limit the acquisition of feeder cells in large scale. Approaches for obtaining feeder cells quickly on a large scale are in immediate need. To reach this goal, we established suspension-adhesion method (SAM) and three-dimensional (3D) suspension method (3DSM). In SAM, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) growth were fully inhibited by 10??g/ml mitomycin-C (MMC) in 0.5?hours, and the feeder cells generated display higher adherent and recovery rates as well as longer survival time compared to conventional method (CM). 3DSM, an optimized method of SAM in which MEFs were cultured and MMC treated in suspension, was developed to lower the costs and workload using CELLSPIN System. The yield of feeder cells is several times the yield of SAM while the adherent and recovery rates and the capacity of supporting hiPSCs growth were not sacrificed. Hence, 3DSM is an economical and easy way to generate large-scale feeder cells for hiPSCs cultures.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have indefinite replicative potential and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. hESCs are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeder cells of human origin. In addition, feeder-free culture systems can be used to support hESCs, in which the adhesive substrate plays a key role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal or differentiation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components define the microenvironment of the niche for many types of stem cells, but their role in the maintenance of hESCs remains poorly understood. We used a proteomic approach to characterize in detail the composition and interaction networks of ECMs that support the growth of self-renewing hESCs. Whereas many ECM components were produced by supportive and unsupportive MEF and human placental stromal fibroblast feeder cells, some proteins were only expressed in supportive ECM, suggestive of a role in the maintenance of pluripotency. We show that identified candidate molecules can support attachment and self-renewal of hESCs alone (fibrillin-1) or in combination with fibronectin (perlecan, fibulin-2), in the absence of feeder cells. Together, these data highlight the importance of specific ECM interactions in the regulation of hESC phenotype and provide a resource for future studies of hESC self-renewal.
Project description:The rabbit is a classical experimental animal species. A major limitation in using rabbits for biomedical research is the lack of germ-line-competent rabbit embryonic stem cells (rbESCs). We hypothesized that the use of homologous feeder cells and recombinant rabbit leukemia inhibitory factor (rbLIF) might improve the chance in deriving germ-line-competent rbES cells. In the present study, we established rabbit embryonic fibroblast (REF) feeder layers and synthesized recombinant rbLIF. We derived a total of seven putative rbESC lines, of which two lines (M5 and M23) were from culture Condition I using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as feeders supplemented with human LIF (hLIF) (MEF+hLIF). Another five lines (R4, R9, R15, R21, and R31) were derived from Condition II using REFs as feeder cells supplemented with rbLIF (REF+rbLIF). Similar derivation efficiency was observed between these two conditions (8.7% vs. 10.2%). In a separate experiment with 2×3 factorial design, we examined the effects of feeder cells (MEF vs. REF) and LIFs (mLIF, hLIF vs. rbLIF) on rbESC culture. Both Conditions I and II supported satisfactory rbESC culture, with similar or better population doubling time and colony-forming efficiency than other combinations of feeder cells with LIFs. Rabbit ESCs derived and maintained on both conditions displayed typical ESC characteristics, including ESC pluripotency marker expression (AP, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and SSEA4) and gene expression (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, c-Myc, Klf4, and Dppa5), and the capacity to differentiate into three primary germ layers in vitro. The present work is the first attempt to establish rbESC lines using homologous feeder cells and recombinant rbLIF, by which the rbESCs were derived and maintained normally. These cell lines are unique resources and may facilitate the derivation of germ-line-competent rbESCs.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that coexpressing retinoic acid (RA) receptor gamma and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1 or NR5A2) with OCT4, MYC, KLF4, and SOX2 (4F) rapidly reprograms mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we further explore the role of RA in reprogramming and report that the six factors (6F) efficiently and directly reprogram MEFs into integration-free iPSCs in defined medium (N2B27) in the absence of feeder cells. Through genetic and chemical approaches, we find that RA signalling is essential, in a highly dose-sensitive manner, for MEF reprogramming. The removal of exogenous RA from N2B27, the inhibition of endogenous RA synthesis or the expression of a dominant-negative form of RARA severely impedes reprogramming. By contrast, supplementing N2B27 with various retinoids substantially boosts reprogramming. In addition, when coexpressed with LRH1, RA receptors (RARs) can promote reprogramming in the absence of both exogenous and endogenously synthesized RA. Remarkably, the reprogramming of epiblast stem cells into embryonic stem cell-like cells also requires low levels of RA, which can modulate Wnt signalling through physical interactions of RARs with ?-catenin. These results highlight the important functions of RA signalling in reprogramming somatic cells and primed stem cells to naïve pluripotency. Stem Cells 2015;33:1390-1404.