Identification of an antibody fragment specific for androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most-diagnosed non-skin cancer among males in the US, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Current methods of treatment and diagnosis are not specific for the disease. This work identified an antibody fragment that binds selectively to a molecule on the surface of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells but not benign prostatic cells.Antibody fragment identification was achieved using a library screening and enrichment strategy. A library of 109 yeast-displayed human non-immune antibody fragments was enriched for those that bind to androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, but not to benign prostatic cells or purified prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Seven rounds of panning and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) screening yielded one antibody fragment identified from the enriched library. This molecule, termed HiR7.8, has a low-nanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and high specificity for androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells.Antibody fragment screening from a yeast-displayed library has yielded one molecule with high affinity and specificity. With further pre-clinical development, it is hoped that the antibody fragment identified using this screening strategy will be useful in the specific detection of prostate cancer and in targeted delivery of therapeutic agents for increased efficacy and reduced side effects.
Project description:Prostate cancer development is associated with hyperactive androgen signaling. However, the molecular link between androgen receptor (AR) function and humoral factors remains elusive. A prostate cancer mouse model was generated by selectively mutating the AR threonine 877 into alanine in prostatic epithelial cells through Cre-ERT2-mediated targeted somatic mutagenesis. Such AR point mutant mice (ARpe-T877A/Y) developed hypertrophic prostates with responses to both an androgen antagonist and estrogen, although no prostatic tumor was seen. In prostate cancer model transgenic mice, the onset of prostatic tumorigenesis as well as tumor growth was significantly potentiated by introduction of the AR T877A mutation into the prostate. Genetic screening of mice identified Wnt-5a as an activator. Enhanced Wnt-5a expression was detected in the malignant prostate tumors of patients, whereas in benign prostatic hyperplasia such aberrant up-regulation was not obvious. These findings suggest that a noncanonical Wnt signal stimulates development of prostatic tumors with AR hyperfunction.
Project description:Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland that is frequently found in aging men. Androgens are essential for the development and differentiated function of the prostate, as well as for proliferation and survival of prostatic cells. In man, dog and rodent, there are age-related decreases in serum testosterone. Despite the lower serum testosterone levels, benign prostatic hyperplasia increases with age in men and dogs, while age-dependent prostatic hyperplasia develops in the dorsal and lateral lobes of the rat prostate. The possible mechanisms that lead to prostate hyperplasia have been extensively studied over many years. It is clear that androgens, estrogens and growth factors contribute to the condition, but the exact etiology remains unknown. Prostate cancer (CaP) represents a significant cause of death among males worldwide. As is the case of BPH, it is clear that androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) and their metabolites play important roles in the disease, but cause-effect relationships have not been established. Androgen deprivation therapy has been used for decades, primarily in the metastatic stage, to inhibit androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell growth. Androgen deprivation, which can be achieved by targeting hormone biosynthesis or androgen receptor activation, results in symptom amelioration. However, most patients will develop hormone refractory cancer or castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Prostatic epithelial cells demonstrate enormous plasticity in response to androgen ablation. This characteristic of prostatic epithelial cells may give rise to different populations of cells, some of which may not be dependent on androgen. Consequently, androgen receptor positive and negative cells might co-exist within CRPC. A clear understanding of this possible cellular heterogeneity and plasticity of prostate epithelial cells is necessary to develop an optimal strategy to treat or prevent CRPC.
Project description:A third isozyme of human 5α-steroid reductase, 5α-reductase-3, was identified in prostate tissue at the mRNA level. However, the levels of 5α-reductase-3 protein expression and its cellular localization in human tissues remain unknown.A specific monoclonal antibody was developed, validated, and used to characterize for the first time the expression of 5α-reductase-3 protein in 18 benign and 26 malignant human tissue types using immunostaining analyses.In benign tissues, 5α-reductase-3 immunostaining was high in conventional androgen-regulated human tissues, such as skeletal muscle and prostate. However, high levels of expression also were observed in non-conventional androgen-regulated tissues, which suggest either multiples target tissues for androgens or different functions of 5α-reductase-3 among human tissues. In malignant tissues, 5α-reductase-3 immunostaining was ubiquitous but particularly over-expressed in some cancers compared to their benign counterparts, which suggests a potential role for 5α-reductase-3 as a biomarker of malignancy. In benign prostate, 5α-reductase-3 immunostaining was localized to basal epithelial cells, with no immunostaining observed in secretory/luminal epithelial cells. In high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 5α-reductase-3 immunostaining was localized in both basal epithelial cells and neoplastic epithelial cells characteristic of HGPIN. In androgen-stimulated and castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CaP), 5α-reductase-3 immunostaining was present in most epithelial cells and at similar levels, and at levels higher than observed in benign prostate. Analyses of expression and functionality of 5α-reductase-3 in human tissues may prove useful for development of treatment for benign prostatic enlargement and prevention and treatment of CaP.
Project description:Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients' sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Project description:Elucidating the relevant genomic changes mediating development and evolution of prostate cancer is paramount for effective diagnosis and therapy. A putative dominant-acting nude mouse prostatic carcinoma tumor-inducing gene, PTI-1, has been cloned that is expressed in patient-derived human prostatic carcinomas but not in benign prostatic hypertrophy or normal prostate tissue. PTI-1 was detected by cotransfecting human prostate carcinoma DNA into CREF-Trans 6 cells, inducing tumors in nude mice, and isolating genes displaying increased expression in tumor-derived cells by using differential RNA display (DD). Screening a human prostatic carcinoma (LNCaP) cDNA library with a 214-bp DNA fragment found by DD permitted the cloning of a full-length 2.0-kb PTI-1 cDNA. Sequence analysis indicates that PTI-1 is a gene containing a 630-bp 5' sequence and a 3' sequence homologous to a truncated and mutated form of human elongation factor 1 alpha. In vitro translation demonstrates that the PTI-1 cDNA encodes a predominant approximately 46-kDa protein. Probing Northern blots with a DNA fragment corresponding to the 5' region of PTI-1 identifies multiple PTI-1 transcripts in RNAs from human carcinoma cell lines derived from the prostate, lung, breast, and colon. In contrast, PTI-1 RNA is not detected in human melanoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, normal cerebellum, or glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. By using a pair of primers recognizing a 280-bp region within the 630-bp 5' PTI-1 sequence, reverse transcription-PCR detects PTI-1 expression in patient-derived prostate carcinomas but not in normal prostate or benign hypertrophic prostate tissue. In contrast, reverse transcription-PCR detects prostate-specific antigen expression in all of the prostate tissues. These results indicate that PTI-1 may be a member of a class of oncogenes that could affect protein translation and contribute to carcinoma development in human prostate and other tissues. The approaches used, rapid expression cloning with the CREF-Trans 6 system and the DD strategy, should prove widely applicable for identifying and cloning additional human oncogenes.
Project description:The transcription factor coregulator Casein kinase II?-binding protein 2 or CR6-interacting factor 1 (CK?BP2/CRIF1) binds the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells and in response to dihydrotestosterone localizes with AR on the prostate-specific antigen gene enhancer, but does not bind DNA suggesting CK?BP2/CRIF1 localization in chromatin is determined by AR. In this study we show also that CK?BP2/CRIF1 inhibits wild-type AR and AR N-terminal transcriptional activity, binds to the AR C-terminal region, inhibits interaction of the AR N- and C-terminal domains (N/C interaction) and competes with p160 coactivator binding to the AR C-terminal domain, suggesting CK?BP2/CRIF1 interferes with AR activation functions 1 and 2. CK?BP2/CRIF1 is expressed mainly in stromal cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia and in stroma and epithelium of prostate cancer. CK?BP2/CRIF1 protein is increased in epithelium of androgen-dependent prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia and decreased slightly in castration recurrent epithelium compared to androgen-dependent prostate cancer. The multifunctional CK?BP2/CRIF1 is a STAT3 interacting protein and reported to be a coactivator of STAT3. CK?BP2/CRIF1 is expressed with STAT3 in prostate cancer where STAT3 may help to offset the AR repressor effect of CK?BP2/CRIF1 and allow AR regulation of prostate cancer growth.
Project description:Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients’ sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using Lluminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Overall design: Comparison of autoantibodies against 1827 E.coli expressed cDNA clones in patients with prostate cancer (n=49), benign prostate hyperplasia (n=70) and healthy controls (n=28)
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several data favor androgen receptor implication in prostate cancer initiation through the induction of several gene activation programs. The aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) among androgen-regulated genes (ARG) and to evaluate comparative expression of these genes in normal prostate and normal prostate-related androgen-sensitive tissues that do not (or rarely) give rise to cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>ARG were selected in non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial RWPE-1 cells stably expressing an exogenous human androgen receptor, using RNA-microarrays and validation by qRT-PCR. Expression of 48 preselected genes was quantified in tissue samples (seminal vesicles, prostate transitional zones and prostate cancers, benign prostatic hypertrophy obtained from surgical specimens) using TaqMan® low-density arrays. The diagnostic performances of these potential biomarkers were compared to that of genes known to be associated with PCa (i.e. PCA3 and DLX1).<h4>Results and discussion</h4>By crossing expression studies in 26 matched PCa and normal prostate transitional zone samples, and 35 matched seminal vesicle and PCa samples, 14 genes were identified. Similarly, 9 genes were overexpressed in 15 benign prostatic hypertrophy samples, as compared to PCa samples. Overall, we selected 8 genes of interest to evaluate their diagnostic performances in comparison with that of PCA3 and DLX1. Among them, 3 genes: CRYAB, KCNMA1 and SDPR, were overexpressed in all 3 reference non-cancerous tissues. The areas under ROC curves of these genes reached those of PCA3 (0.91) and DLX1 (0.94).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We identified ARG with reduced expression in PCa and with significant diagnostic values for discriminating between cancerous and non-cancerous prostatic tissues, similar that of PCA3. Given their expression pattern, they could be considered as potentially protective against prostate cancer. Moreover, they could be complementary to known genes overexpressed in PCa and included along with them in multiplex diagnostic tools.
Project description:Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are small molecule drugs that function as either androgen receptor (AR) agonists or antagonists. Variability in AR regulatory proteins in target tissues permits SARMs to selectively elicit anabolic benefits while eschewing the pitfalls of traditional androgen therapy. SARMs have few side effects and excellent oral and transdermal bioavailability and may, therefore, represent viable alternatives to current androgen therapies. SARMs have been studied as possible therapies for many conditions, including osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, breast cancer, stress urinary incontinence (SUI), prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), male contraception, hypogonadism, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and sarcopenia/muscle wasting/cancer cachexia. While there are no indications for SARMs currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), many potential applications are still being explored, and results are promising. In this review, we examine the literature assessing the use of SARMS for a number of indications.
Project description:Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects more than 50% of men by age 60 years, and is the cause of millions of dollars in health care expenditure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary obstruction. Despite the widespread use of medical therapy, there is no universal therapy that treats all men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. At least 30% of patients do not respond to medical management and a subset require surgery. Significant advances have been made in understanding the natural history and development of the prostate, such as elucidating the role of the enzyme 5α-reductase type 2, and advances in genomics and biomarker discovery offer the potential for a more targeted approach to therapy. We review the current understanding of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression as well as the key genes and signaling pathways implicated in the process such as 5α-reductase. We also explore the potential of biomarker screening and gene specific therapies as tools to risk stratify patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and identify those with symptomatic or medically resistant forms.A PubMed® literature search of current and past peer reviewed literature on prostate development, lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia pathogenesis, targeted therapy, biomarkers, epigenetics, 5α-reductase type 2 and personalized medicine was performed. An additional Google Scholar™ search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined, as were their cited references, and a synopsis of original data was generated with the goal of informing the practicing urologist of these advances and their implications.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is associated with a state of hyperplasia of the stromal and epithelial compartments, with 5α-reductase type 2 and androgen signaling having key roles in the development and maintenance of the prostate. Chronic inflammation, multiple growth factor and hormonal signaling pathways, and medical comorbidities have complex roles in prostate tissue homeostasis as well as its evolution into the clinical state of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Resistance to medical therapy with finasteride may occur through silencing of the 5α-reductase type 2 gene by DNA methylation, leading to a state in which 30% of adult prostates do not express 5α-reductase type 2. Novel biomarkers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms may be used to risk stratify patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia and identify those at risk for progression or failure of medical therapy. Several inhibitors of the androgen receptor and other signaling pathways have recently been identified which appear to attenuate benign prostatic hyperplasia progression and may offer alternative targets for medical therapy.Progressive worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia is the result of multiple pathways including androgen receptor signaling, proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor signals. New techniques in genomics, proteomics and epigenetics have led to the discovery of aberrant signaling pathways, novel biomarkers, DNA methylation signatures and potential gene specific targets. As personalized medicine continues to develop, the ability to risk stratify patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, identify those at higher risk for progression, and seek alternative therapies for those in whom conventional options are likely to fail will become the standard of targeted therapy.