Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated miRNA-gene Expression in HMGA2-silenced Retinoblastoma Cells.
ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a primary childhood eye cancer. HMGA2 shows promise as a molecule for targeted therapy. The involvement of miRNAs in genome-level molecular dys-regulation in HMGA2-silenced RB cells is poorly understood. Through miRNA expression microarray profiling, and an integrated array analysis of the HMGA2-silenced RB cells, the dysregulated miRNAs and the miRNA-target relationships were modelled. Loop network analysis revealed a regulatory association between the transcription factor (SOX5) and the deregulated miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-9*, miR-9-3). Silencing of HMGA2 deregulated the vital oncomirs (miR-7, miR-331, miR-26a, miR-221, miR-17~92 and miR-106b?25) in RB cells. From this list, the role of the miR-106b?25 cluster was examined further for its expression in primary RB tumor tissues (n = 20). The regulatory targets of miR-106b?25 cluster namely p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and BIM (pro-apoptotic gene) were elevated, and apoptotic cell death was observed, in RB tumor cells treated with the specific antagomirs of the miR-106b?25 cluster. Thus, suppression of miR-106b?25 cluster controls RB tumor growth. Taken together, HMGA2 mediated anti-tumor effect present in RB is, in part, mediated through the miR-106b?25 cluster.
Project description:AIM: To explore the molecular mechanisms deregulated by high mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) gene silencing in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. METHODS: Synthetic anti-HMGA2 short interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the HMGA2 gene in cultured Y79 RB cells that were subjected to whole genome microarray analysis. The expression of differentially regulated key genes was confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in post-silenced RB cell lines (Y79 and WERI Rb1). These deregulated genes were compared for their constitutive expression in primary RB tumors (n=10). Zymographic determination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was performed in RB cells. A cell cycle assay and a proliferation assay were performed in post-transfected RB cells. RESULTS: HMGA2 gene silencing in cultured RB cells results in reduced cell proliferation and transition in the G1/S phase. The whole genome microarray analysis of HMGA2 silenced Y79 cells revealed overall upregulation of 1,132 genes (? 1.0 fold) and downregulation of 1,562 genes (? -1.0 fold). Specific quantitative pathway analysis of the deregulated genes (using Biointerpreter) revealed 150 upregulated genes and 77 downregulated genes (? 1.0 fold) involved in vital pathways, namely, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, Ras pathway, Ras-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, and tumor protein p53. The differential expression of genes obtained from microarray analysis (Homo sapiens ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family [ELK1], Homo sapiens cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [CDK6], Homo sapiens E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding [E2F4], Homo sapiens G-2 and S-phase expressed 1 [GTSE1], Damage-regulated autophagy modulator [DRAM], Homo sapiens cadherin 1, type 1,E-cadherin (epithelial) [CDH1], Homo sapiens snail homolog 1 (Drosophila) [SNAI1], Homo sapiens matrix metallopeptidase 2 [MMP2], and Homo sapiens matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) was confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in post-silenced RB cells. Zymographic analysis revealed that the increase in MMP mRNA expression in the post-silenced RB cells did not correlate with corresponding enzyme activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed molecular regulatory changes induced by HMGA2 silencing in RB cancer cells, offering mechanistic insights into the anticancer potential. HMGA2 may be considered a promising candidate for gene silencing therapy in RB.
Project description:The main objective of the study is to identify the de-regulated miRNAs in association with HMGA2 (oncogene) in the Retinoblastoma tumorus. The present experiment was carried out using Y79 (Retinoblastoma cell line), as the invitro model of Retinoblastoma tumor. The HMGA2 transcripts were silenced using siRNA and the post-silenced RB cells (at the end of 48 hours) were subjected to miRNA profiling using agilent platform.The key miRNAs de-regulated in this experiment has been validated using qRT-PCR and further their role has been evaluated by addition of specific antagomirs in RB cell lines (Y79 and Weri Rb 1). Agilent one-color experiment,Organism: Homo sapiens ,Agilent Human miRNA 8x15k Arrays AMADID: 021827 [Agilent miRNA labeling reagent and Hybridization Kit Cat # 5190-0408] RB cells (Y79) treated with anti-HMGA2 siRNA or with control
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as a novel class of anti-tumor agents and have manifested the ability to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis in different cancer cells. A significant number of genes have been identified as potential effectors responsible for the anti-tumor function of HDAC inhibitor. However, the molecular mechanisms of these HDAC inhibitors in this process remain largely undefined. In the current study, we searched for microRNAs (miRs) that were affected by HDAC inhibitor trichostatin (TSA) and investigated their effects in endometrial cancer (EMC) cells. Our data showed that TSA significantly inhibited the growth of EMC cells and induced their apoptosis. Among the miRNAs that altered in the presence of TSA, the miR-106b-93-25 cluster, together with its host gene MCM7, were obviously down-regulated in EMC cells. p21 and BIM, which were identified as target genes of miR-106b-93-25 cluster, increased in TSA treated tumor cells and were responsible for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We further identified MYC as a regulator of miR-106b-93-25 cluster and demonstrated its down-regulation in the presence of TSA resulted in the reduction of miR-106b-93-25 cluster and up-regulation of p21 and BIM. More important, we found miR-106b-93-25 cluster was up-regulated in clinical EMC samples in association with the overexpression of MCM7 and MYC and the down-regulation of p21 and BIM. Thus our studies strongly indicated TSA inhibited EMC cell growth and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at least partially through the down-regulation of the miR-106b-93-25 cluster and up-regulation of it's target genes p21 and BIM via MYC.
Project description:Partial hepatectomy (PH) promotes the reentry of quiescent hepatocytes into cell cycle for regrowth. miRNA profiles in livers with different mass deficits after PH have not been investigated and miRNAs implicated in liver regeneration remain unclear. We generated miRNA profiles from normal and remnant livers at 6, 12, 24, and 36?hours after 1/3 or 2/3PH using microarrays. Compared with normal livers, the proportion of altered miRNAs decreased with time after 1/3PH, but increased after 2/3PH. Most of altered miRNAs between 1/3 and 2/3PH exhibited similar up- or down-regulation, but lower expression magnitude for 1/3PH. Among differentially expressed miRNAs between 2/3PH with robust DNA replication and 1/3PH with a minimal replicative response, we identified miR-101a, miR-92a, miR-25, miR-93 and miR-106b as key regulators of cell cycle. In 2/3PH model, overexpression of miR-106b~25 cluster tended to accelerate liver regeneration, while inhibition of miR-106b~25 cluster markedly repressed regenerative response and delayed recovery of liver function. Mechanistically, RB1 and KAT2B with cell cycle arrest activity were identified as novel targets of miR-106b/93 and miR-25, respectively. Overall, we featured miRNA profiles and dynamics after 1/3 and 2/3PH, and identified miR-106b~25 cluster as being involved in timely cell cycle entry of hepatocytes after PH.
Project description:Progress in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy, has been slow. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs targeting multiple mRNAs, has revealed a new level of gene expression regulation. To determine whether miRNAs play a role in the malignant transformation of plasma cells (PCs), we have used both miRNA microarrays and quantitative real time PCR to profile miRNA expression in MM-derived cell lines (n = 49) and CD138+ bone marrow PCs from subjects with MM (n = 16), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 6), and normal donors (n = 6). We identified overexpression of miR-21, miR-106b approximately 25 cluster, miR-181a and b in MM and MGUS samples with respect to healthy PCs. Selective up-regulation of miR-32 and miR-17 approximately 92 cluster was identified in MM subjects and cell lines but not in MGUS subjects or healthy PCs. Furthermore, two miRNAs, miR-19a and 19b, that are part of the miR-17 approximately 92 cluster, were shown to down regulate expression of SOCS-1, a gene frequently silenced in MM that plays a critical role as inhibitor of IL-6 growth signaling. We also identified p300-CBP-associated factor, a gene involved in p53 regulation, as a bona fide target of the miR106b approximately 25 cluster, miR-181a and b, and miR-32. Xenograft studies using human MM cell lines treated with miR-19a and b, and miR-181a and b antagonists resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth in nude mice. In summary, we have described a MM miRNA signature, which includes miRNAs that modulate the expression of proteins critical to myeloma pathogenesis.
Project description:The role of TGF-? signaling in tumorigenesis is paradoxical: it can be tumor suppressive or tumor promotional, depending on context. The metastatic regulator, Six1, was recently shown to mediate this switch, providing a novel means to explain this elusive 'TGF-? paradox'. Herein, we identify a mechanism by which Six1 activates the tumor promotional arm of TGF-? signaling, via its ability to upregulate the miR-106b-25 microRNA cluster, and further identify a novel function for this cluster of microRNAs. Although expression of the miR-106b-25 cluster is known to overcome TGF-?-mediated growth suppression via targeting p21 and BIM, we demonstrate for the first time that this same cluster can additionally target the inhibitory Smad7 protein, resulting in increased levels of the TGF-? type I receptor and downstream activation of TGF-? signaling. We further show that the miR-106b-25 cluster is sufficient to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a tumor initiating cell phenotype, and that it is required downstream of Six1 to induce these phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate a significant correlation between miR-106b, Six1, and activated TGF-? signaling in human breast cancers, and further show that high levels of miR-106b and miR-93 in breast tumors significantly predicts shortened time to relapse. These findings expand the spectrum of oncogenic functions of miR-106b-25, and may provide a novel molecular explanation, through the Six1 regulated miR-106b-25 cluster, by which TGF-? signaling shifts from tumor suppressive to tumor promoting.
Project description:The miR-106b-25 microRNA (miRNA) cluster is a candidate oncogene in human prostate cancer. Here, we report that miRNAs encoded by miR-106b-25 are upregulated in both primary tumors and distant metastasis. Moreover, increased tumor miR-106b expression was associated with disease recurrence and the combination of high miR-106b and low CASP7 (caspase-7) expressions in primary tumors was an independent predictor of early disease recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio=4.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-12.3). To identify yet unknown oncogenic functions of miR-106b, we overexpressed it in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells to examine miR-106b-induced global expression changes among protein-coding genes. The approach revealed that CASP7 is a direct target of miR-106b, which was confirmed by western blot analysis and a 3'-untranslated region reporter assay. Moreover, selected phenotypes induced by miR-106b knockdown in DU145 human prostate cancer cells did not develop when both miR-106b and CASP7 expression were inhibited. Further analyses showed that CASP7 is downregulated in primary prostate tumors and metastatic lesions across multiple data sets and is by itself associated with disease recurrence and disease-specific survival. Using bioinformatics, we also observed that miR-106b-25 may specifically influence focal adhesion-related pathways. This observation was experimentally examined using miR-106b-25-transduced 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. After infection with a miR-106b-25 lentiviral expression construct, 22Rv1 cells showed increased adhesion to basement membrane- and bone matrix-related filaments and enhanced soft agar growth. In summary, miR-106b-25 was found to be associated with prostate cancer progression and disease outcome and may do so by altering apoptosis- and focal adhesion-related pathways.
Project description:Activation of the unfolded protein response sensor PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk) attenuates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress levels. Conversantly, if the damage is too severe and ER function cannot be restored, this signaling branch triggers apoptosis. Bcl-2 homology 3-only family member Bim is essential for ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling Bim activation under ER stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that downregulation of the miR-106b-25 cluster contributes to ER stress-induced apoptosis and the upregulation of Bim. Hypericin-mediated photo-oxidative ER damage induced Perk-dependent cell death and led to a significant decrease in the levels of miRNAs belonging to miR-106b-25 cluster in wild-type (WT) but not in Perk?/? MEFs. Further, we show that expression of miR-106b-25 and Mcm-7 (host gene of miR-106b-25) is co-regulated through the transcription factors Atf4 (activating transcription factor 4) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2). ER stress increased the activity of WT Bim 3'UTR (untranslated region) construct but not the miR-106b-25 recognition site-mutated Bim 3'UTR construct. Overexpression of miR-106b-25 cluster inhibits ER stress-induced cell death in WT but did not confer any further protection in Bim-knockdown cells. Further, we show downregulation in the levels of miR-106b-25 cluster in the symptomatic SOD1(G86R) transgenic mice. Our results suggest a molecular mechanism whereby repression of miR-106b-25 cluster has an important role in ER stress-mediated increase in Bim and apoptosis.
Project description:The High-mobility group AT-hook 2 protein (HMGA2) is involved in different processes during tumorigenesis. High expression levels of HMGA2 are found in various types of cancer, with recent studies highlighting the important role of miRNAs in the regulation of HMGA2 expression. We report a study of 155 ovarian tumors (30 sex-cord stromal tumors, 22 borderline tumors, and 103 carcinomas) analyzed for HMGA2 expression as well as the expression of two miRNAs targeting this gene, let-7a and miR-30c. We also evaluated the expression of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and lin28 homologues (LIN28A/B) genes which are known to be an enhancer of miR-30c expression and a repressor of let-7a, respectively. HMGA2 was found expressed at high levels in most samples analyzed, with clear cell carcinomas as the only exception. let-7a and miR-30c were highly deregulated in all tumor types. LIN28A and FHIT were found overexpressed in all examined tumor types. The chromosomal imbalances that might lead to loss of the genes expressing let-7a and miR-30c could be evaluated on the basis of previously generated karyotypic and high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data on 103 tumors. 76% of the samples with an imbalanced genome had at least one chromosomal aberration leading to a deletion of a miRNA cluster for let-7a and miR-30c. FISH using locus specific probes for these clusters validate the aberrations at the gene level. Our study shows that genomic imbalances are involved in miR-30c and let-7a deregulation. One can reasonably assume that dysregulation of these miRNAs is a cause leading to HMGA2 upregulation in ovarian tumors.
Project description:Transfection of human oral squamous carcinoma cells (clone E10) with mimics for unexpressed miR-20b or miR-363-5p, encoded by the miR-106a-363 cluster (miR-20b, miR-106a, miR-363-3p, or miR-363-5p), caused 40-50% decrease in proliferation. Transfection with mimics for miR-18a or miR-92a, encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster (all members being expressed in E10 cells), had no effect on proliferation. In contrast, mimic for the sibling miRNA-19a yielded about 20% inhibition of proliferation. To investigate miRNA involvement profiling of miRNA transcriptomes were carried out using deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays. In transfectants for miR-19a, or miR-20b or miR-363-5p most differentially expressed miRNAs exhibited decreased expression, including some miRNAs encoded in paralogous miR-17-92-or miR-106b-25 cluster. Only in cells transfected with miR-19a mimic significantly increased expression of miR-20b observed-about 50-fold as judged by qRT-PCR. Further studies using qRT-PCR showed that transfection of E10 cells with mimic for miRNAs encoded by miR-17-92 - or miR-106a-363 - or the miR-106b-25 cluster confirmed selective effect on expression on sibling miRNAs. We conclude that high levels of miRNAs encoded by the miR-106a-363 cluster may contribute to inhibition of proliferation by decreasing expression of several sibling miRNAs encoded by miR-17-92 or by the miR-106b-25 cluster. The inhibition of proliferation observed in miR-19a-mimic transfectants is likely caused by the miR-19a-dependent increase in the levels of miR-20b and miR-106a. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs from miR-106a, miR-20b and miR-363-5p transfectants, but not miR-92a transfectants, yielded significant associations to "Cellular Growth and Proliferation" and "Cell Cycle." Western blotting results showed that levels of affected proteins to differ between transfectants, suggesting that different anti-proliferative mechanisms may operate in these transfectants.