G9a/GLP-dependent H3K9me2 patterning alters chromatin structure at CpG islands in hematopoietic progenitors.
ABSTRACT: The formation of chromatin domains is an important step in lineage commitment. In human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), G9a/GLP-dependent H3K9me2 chromatin territories form de novo during lineage specification and are nucleated at punctate sites during lineage commitment. Here, we examined the patterning of G9a/GLP-dependent H3K9me2 in HSPCs and the consequences for chromatin structure.We profiled chromatin accessibility across the genome of HSPCs treated with either a small molecule inhibitor of G9a/GLP or DMSO. We observed that chromatin accessibility is dramatically altered at the regions of H3K9me2 nucleation. We have characterized the regions of H3K9me2 nucleation, with our analysis revealing that H3K9me2 is nucleated in HSPCs at CpG islands (CGIs) and CGI-like sequences across the genome. Our analysis furthermore revealed a bias of H3K9me2 nucleation towards regions with low rates of C- > T deamination, which typically lack DNA methylation. Lastly, we examined the interaction of H3K9me2 and DNA methylation and determined that chromatin accessibility changes upon loss of H3K9me2 are dependent on the presence of DNA methylation.These results indicate that H3K9me2 nucleation is established at specific sequences that have base composition similar to CGIs. Our results furthermore indicate that H3K9me2 nucleation leads to local changes in chromatin accessibility and that H3K9me2 and DNA methylation work synergistically to regulate chromatin accessibility.
Project description:We profiled chromatin accessibility across the genome of HSPCs treated with either a small molecule inhibitor of G9a/GLP or DMSO. We observed that chromatin accessibility is dramatically altered at the regions of H3K9me2 nucleation. We have characterized the regions of H3K9me2 nucleation, revealing that H3K9me2 is nucleated in HSPCs at CpG islands (CGIs) and CGI-like sequences across the genome. Our analysis furthermore revealed a bias of H3K9me2 nucleation towards regions with low rates of C->T deamination, which typically lack DNA methylation. Lastly we examined the interaction of H3K9me2 and DNA methylation and determined that chromatin accessibility changes upon loss of H3K9me2 are dependent on the presence of DNA methylation. Examination of chromatin remodeling with FAIRE-seq in HSPCs treated with either a small molecule inhibitor of G9a/GLP or DMSO
Project description:G9a and GLP lysine methyltransferases form a heterodimeric complex that is responsible for the majority of histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methylation (H3K9me1/me2). Widely interspaced zinc finger (WIZ) associates with the G9a-GLP protein complex, but its role in mediating lysine methylation is poorly defined. Here, we show that WIZ regulates global H3K9me2 levels by facilitating the interaction of G9a with chromatin. Disrupting the association of G9a-GLP with chromatin by depleting WIZ resulted in altered gene expression and protein-protein interactions that were distinguishable from that of small molecule-based inhibition of G9a/GLP, supporting discrete functions of the G9a-GLP-WIZ chromatin complex in addition to H3K9me2 methylation.
Project description:G9a (EHMT2) and the G9a-like protein GLP (EHMT1) form a stable G9a/GLP heterodimer in embryonic stem cells and function cooperatively to establish and maintain the abundant repressive H3K9me2 modification, in addition to modifying several non-histone proteins. The G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is implicated in lineage-specific gene silencing and covers large chromosomal domains. While the mechanism of H3K9me2maintenance by G9a/GLP is known, how new patterns of this modification are established is not well understood. With this in mind, we used FLAG affinity purification of G9a under two different stringency conditions (150 and 300 mM NaCl) coupled with mass spectrometry to identify proteins stably associated with G9a/GLP, which could serve as potential recruiters of the complex to unmodified chromatin.
Project description:A facultative heterochromatin mark, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by histone methyltransferases G9a/GLP (EHMT2/1), undergoes dramatic rearrangements during myeloid cell differentiation as observed by chromatin imaging. To determine whether these structural transitions also involve genomic repositioning of H3K9me2, we used ChIP-sequencing to map genome-wide topography of H3K9me2 in normal human granulocytes, normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, primary myeloblasts from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and a model leukemia cell line K562. We observe that H3K9me2 naturally repositions from the previously designated "repressed" chromatin state in hematopoietic progenitors to predominant association with heterochromatin regions in granulocytes. In contrast, AML cells accumulate H3K9me2 on previously undefined large (> 100 Kb) genomic blocks that are enriched with AML-specific single nucleotide variants, sites of chromosomal translocations, and genes downregulated in AML. Specifically, the AML-specific H3K9me2 blocks are enriched with genes regulated by the proto-oncogene ERG that promotes stem cell characteristics. The AML-enriched H3K9me2 blocks (in contrast to the heterochromatin-associated H3K9me2 blocks enriched in granulocytes) are reduced by pharmacological inhibition of the histone methyltransferase G9a/GLP in K562 cells concomitantly with transcriptional activation of ERG and ETS1 oncogenes. Our data suggest that G9a/GLP mediate formation of transient H3K9me2 blocks that are preserved in AML myeloblasts and may lead to an increased rate of AML-specific mutagenesis and chromosomal translocations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Vascular inflammation underlies cardiovascular disease. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) upregulate selective genes, including MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and proinflammatory cytokines upon local inflammation, which directly contribute to vascular disease and adverse clinical outcome. Identification of factors controlling VSMC responses to inflammation is therefore of considerable therapeutic importance. Here, we determine the role of Histone H3 lysine 9 di-methylation (H3K9me2), a repressive epigenetic mark that is reduced in atherosclerotic lesions, in regulating the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results: We used VSMC-lineage tracing to reveal reduced H3K9me2 levels in VSMCs of arteries after injury and in atherosclerotic lesions compared with control vessels. Intriguingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed H3K9me2 enrichment at a subset of inflammation-responsive gene promoters, including MMP3, MMP9, MMP12, and IL6, in mouse and human VSMCs. Inhibition of G9A/GLP (G9A-like protein), the primary enzymes responsible for H3K9me2, significantly potentiated inflammation-induced gene induction in vitro and in vivo without altering NF?B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling. Rather, reduced G9A/GLP activity enhanced inflammation-induced binding of transcription factors NF?B-p65 and cJUN to H3K9me2 target gene promoters MMP3 and IL6. Taken together, these results suggest that promoter-associated H3K9me2 directly attenuates the induction of target genes in response to inflammation in human VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS:This study implicates H3K9me2 in regulating the proinflammatory VSMC phenotype. Our findings suggest that reduced H3K9me2 in disease enhance binding of NF?B and AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcription factors at specific inflammation-responsive genes to augment proinflammatory stimuli in VSMC. Therefore, H3K9me2-regulation could be targeted clinically to limit expression of MMPs and IL6, which are induced in vascular disease.
Project description:Cell-type specific gene silencing by histone H3 lysine 27 and lysine 9 methyltransferase complexes PRC2 and G9A-GLP is crucial both during development and to maintain cell identity. Although studying their interaction partners has yielded valuable insight into their functions, how these factors are regulated on a network level remains incompletely understood. Here, we present a new approach that combines quantitative interaction proteomics with global chromatin profiling to functionally characterize repressive chromatin modifying protein complexes in embryonic stem cells. We define binding stoichiometries of 9 new and 12 known interaction partners of PRC2 and 10 known and 29 new interaction partners of G9A-GLP, respectively. We demonstrate that PRC2 and G9A-GLP interact physically and share several interaction partners, including the zinc finger proteins ZNF518A and ZNF518B. Using global chromatin profiling by targeted mass spectrometry, we discover that even sub-stoichiometric binding partners such as ZNF518B can positively regulate global H3K9me2 levels. Biochemical analysis reveals that ZNF518B directly interacts with EZH2 and G9A. Our systematic analysis suggests that ZNF518B may mediate the structural association between PRC2 and G9A-GLP histone methyltransferases and additionally regulates the activity of G9A-GLP.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is associated with dysregulated CD4? Th cell responses, with intestinal homeostasis depending on the balance between IL-17-producing Th17 and Foxp3? Tregs. Differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 and Treg subsets is associated with specific gene expression profiles; however, the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to controlling Th17 and Treg differentiation remains unclear. Using a murine T cell transfer model of colitis, we found that T cell-intrinsic expression of the histone lysine methyltransferase G9A was required for development of pathogenic T cells and intestinal inflammation. G9A-mediated dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) restricted Th17 and Treg differentiation in vitro and in vivo. H3K9me2 was found at high levels in naive Th cells and was lost following Th cell activation. Loss of G9A in naive T cells was associated with increased chromatin accessibility and heightened sensitivity to TGF-?1. Pharmacological inhibition of G9A methyltransferase activity in WT T cells promoted Th17 and Treg differentiation. Our data indicate that G9A-dependent H3K9me2 is a homeostatic epigenetic checkpoint that regulates Th17 and Treg responses by limiting chromatin accessibility and TGF-?1 responsiveness, suggesting G9A as a therapeutic target for treating intestinal inflammation.
Project description:Immune cells develop endotoxin tolerance (ET) after prolonged stimulation. ET increases the level of a repression mark H3K9me2 in the transcriptionally silent chromatin specifically associated with pro-inflammatory genes. However, it is not clear what proteins are functionally involved in this process. Here we show that a novel chromatin activity-based chemoproteomic (ChaC) approach can dissect the functional chromatin protein complexes that regulate ET-associated inflammation. Using UNC0638 that binds the enzymatically active H3K9-specific methyltransferase G9a/GLP, ChaC reveals that G9a is constitutively active at a G9a-dependent mega-dalton repressome in primary endotoxin-tolerant macrophages. G9a/GLP broadly impacts the ET-specific reprogramming of the histone code landscape, chromatin remodelling and the activities of select transcription factors. We discover that the G9a-dependent epigenetic environment promotes the transcriptional repression activity of c-Myc for gene-specific co-regulation of chronic inflammation. ChaC may also be applicable to dissect other functional protein complexes in the context of phenotypic chromatin architectures.
Project description:Protein lysine methyltransferases G9a and GLP modulate the transcriptional repression of a variety of genes via dimethylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9me2) as well as dimethylation of non-histone targets. Here we report the discovery of UNC0638, an inhibitor of G9a and GLP with excellent potency and selectivity over a wide range of epigenetic and non-epigenetic targets. UNC0638 treatment of a variety of cell lines resulted in lower global H3K9me2 levels, equivalent to levels observed for small hairpin RNA knockdown of G9a and GLP with the functional potency of UNC0638 being well separated from its toxicity. UNC0638 markedly reduced the clonogenicity of MCF7 cells, reduced the abundance of H3K9me2 marks at promoters of known G9a-regulated endogenous genes and disproportionately affected several genomic loci encoding microRNAs. In mouse embryonic stem cells, UNC0638 reactivated G9a-silenced genes and a retroviral reporter gene in a concentration-dependent manner without promoting differentiation.
Project description:Learning triggers alterations in gene transcription in brain regions such as the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex (EC) that are necessary for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Here, we identify an essential role for the G9a/G9a-like protein (GLP) lysine dimethyltransferase complex and the histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) marks it catalyzes, in the transcriptional regulation of genes in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus and the EC during memory consolidation. Contextual fear learning increased global levels of H3K9me2 in area CA1 and the EC, with observable changes at the Zif268, DNMT3a, BDNF exon IV, and cFOS gene promoters, which occurred in concert with mRNA expression. Inhibition of G9a/GLP in the EC, but not in the hippocampus, enhanced contextual fear conditioning relative to control animals. The inhibition of G9a/GLP in the EC induced several histone modifications that include not only methylation but also acetylation. Surprisingly, we found that downregulation of G9a/GLP activity in the EC enhanced H3K9me2 in area CA1, resulting in transcriptional silencing of the non-memory permissive gene COMT in the hippocampus. In addition, synaptic plasticity studies at two distinct EC-CA1 cellular pathways revealed that G9a/GLP activity is critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term potentiation initiated in the EC via the perforant pathway, but not the temporoammonic pathway. Together, these data demonstrate that G9a/GLP differentially regulates gene transcription in the hippocampus and the EC during memory consolidation. Furthermore, these findings support the possibility of a role for G9a/GLP in the regulation of cellular and molecular cross talk between these two brain regions during LTM formation.