Characteristics of dental fear among Arabic-speaking children: a descriptive study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dental fear has not only been linked to poor dental health in children but also persists across the lifespan, if unaddressed, and can continue to affect oral, systemic, and psychological health. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Arabic version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and to assess the difference in factor structure between boys and girls. METHODS: Participants were 220 consecutive paediatric dental patients 6-12 years old seeking dental care at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Participants completed the 15-item Arabic version of the CFSS-DS questionnaire at the end of the visit. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Factor analysis (principal components, varimax rotation) was employed to assess the factor structure of the scale. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha was 0.86. Four factors with eigenvalues above 1.00 were identified, which collectively explained 64.45% of the variance. These factors were as follows: Factor 1, 'fear of usual dental procedures' consisted of 8 items such as 'drilling' and 'having to open the mouth', Factor 2, 'fear of health care personnel and injections' consisted of three items, Factor 3, 'fear of strangers', consisted of 2 items. Factor 4, 'fear of general medical aspects of treatment', consisted of 2 items. Notably, four factors of dental fear were found in girls, while five were found in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Four factors of different strength pertaining to dental fear were identified in Arabic-speaking children, indicating a simple structure. Most items loaded high on the factor related to fear of usual dental procedures. The fear-provoking aspects of dental procedures differed in boys and girls. Use of the scale may enable dentists to determine the item/s of dental treatment that a given child finds most fear-provoking and guide the child's behaviour accordingly.
Project description:Dental fear (DF) is a challenging problem in dentistry. It is multifactorial in origin and many contributing factors have been identified. The aim of the study was to assess dental fear among 12-15 years old Arabic speaking children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and its relation to demographic variables, previous dental experience, and child behaviour.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1522 boys and girls from middle schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia participated in this study during the period of 2014 to 2016. The Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) was used to assess DF. A parental questionnaire was used to record the children's previous dental experience. Children were examined for caries and the children's behaviour was assessed during dental examination using Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale. The associations between different variables and the CFSS-DS scores were analysed using t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analysis.The response rate of the questionnaires was 78.6%. The mean CFSS-DS score was 25.99?±?9.3 out of a maximum of 75. Bivariate analysis showed that younger children, girls, and public-school students were significantly more fearful than older children, boys, and private school children, respectively (P?<?0.001). Children who showed poor behaviour during dental examination were significantly more fearful than those with good behaviour (P?<?0.001). Regression analysis showed that children who had significantly higher scores of dental fear were the children who did not visit the dentist in the past year due to dental fear; who never visited the dentist or those who only visited the dentist on pain; who were reported by parents as crying, screaming, or resistant during their previous dental visit; and those who were described to be in pain during previous dental treatment. Dental caries showed no significant association with DF.This study confirms that DF is low among 12-15 years old Arabic speaking children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. DF is associated with age, gender, school type, irregular patterns of dental visits, painful experiences during previous dental visits and negative behaviours during dental examinations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a major issue affecting children's oral health and clinical management. This study investigates the association between children's DFA and family related factors, including parents' DFA, parenting styles, family structure (nuclear or single-parent family), and presence of siblings.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 405 children (9-13 years old) and their parents were recruited from 3 elementary schools in Hong Kong. Child's demographic and family-related information was collected through a questionnaire. Parents' and child's DFA were measured by using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), respectively. Parenting styles were gauged by using the Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ).<h4>Results</h4>DFA was reported by 33.1% of children. The mean (SD) CFSS-DS score was 29.1 (11.0). Children with siblings tended to report DFA (37.0% vs. 24.1%; p?=?0.034) and had a higher CFSS-DS score (29.9 vs. 27.4; p?=?0.025) as compared with their counterpart. Children from single-parent families had lower CFSS-DS score as compared with children from nuclear families (??=?-?9.177; p?=?0.029). Subgroup analysis showed a higher CFSS-DS score among boys with siblings (??=?7.130; p?=?0.010) as compared with their counterpart; girls' from single-parent families had a lower CFSS-DS score (??=?-?13.933; p?=?0.015) as compared with girls from nuclear families. Children's DFA was not associated with parents' DFA or parenting styles (p?>?0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Family structure (nuclear or single-parent family) and presence of siblings are significant determinants for children's DFA. Parental DFA and parenting style do not affect children's DFA significantly.
Project description:Introduction:Children with high dental anxiety display uncooperative behavior during dental procedures. Different self-assessment questionnaires are in use to estimate the prevalence of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) in children but they need to be tested for reliability and validity in different populations. Objectives:The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of two scales for the assessment of child dental fear and anxiety in a sample of Croatian children. Material and Methods:The sample comprised 202 pairs consisting of children and their mothers (97 boys and 105 girls) aged 5 - 12 years. Two scales were used to assess children's DFA: the Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) and the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale - face version (MCDAS-f). The Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) was used in the sample of children's mothers. The average scores of cooperative children and children with behavior management problem (BMP) were compared. Results:Cooperative children displayed significantly lower CFSS-DS scores than children with BMP (M = 28. 46 vs. M = 39. 36; P < 0.001). The average MCDAS-f score was significantly higher in children with BMP than in cooperative children (M = 28. 07 vs. 20. 01; P < 0.001). The CFSS-DS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0. 90), while internal consistency of MCDAS-f was good (? = 0. 73). The maternal CDAS showed good internal consistency (? = 0, 89). The correlations with other self-report measurements of DFS show good validity of all scales. The correlations between CFSS-DS and MCDAS-f were highly significant (r = 0.482; P < 0. 01) as well as the correlations of CFSS-DS and MCDAS-f with CDAS scores (r = 0.223; P < 0. 01 and r = 0.198; P < 0. 01, respectively. Conclusion:The obtained results suggest that both the CFSS-DS scale and the MCDAS-f scale are reliable and valid scales for measuring dental fear and anxiety in children in a sample of Croatian children. The MCDAS-f scale has shown slightly lower internal consistency but it is suitable for use in young children. In addition, the MCDAS-f scale is simple to administer.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey (DFS) questionnaire. METHODS: Kleinknecht's DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates' of the University of Malaya. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%). However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%). Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P = 0.004). "Heart beats faster" and "muscle being tensed" were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. "Drill" and "anesthetic needle" were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. CONCLUSION: Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services.
Project description:According to literature, students’ attitudes toward peers with disabilities are crucial for the social inclusion of students with disabilities. Therefore, knowledge about students’ behavioral intention to interact with peers with intellectual disability (ID) can help improve the social inclusion of students with ID. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Behavioral Intention to Interact with Peers with Intellectual Disability Scale (BIS). Data were collected from 887 elementary school students (591 girls and 296 boys) from third to sixth grades in Saudi Arabia. Psychometric properties of the BIS were examined with a confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance analysis (across gender), and reliability scales (internal consistency). Good indicators were obtained for the construct and the convergent validity of the BIS. The results supported the two-dimensional structure of the BIS. The internal consistency of the BIS and each of its subscales was good. Furthermore, no measurement variance was found for boys and girls students. The Arabic version of the scale showed good psychometric properties and therefore can be recommended to measure students’ behavioral intention to interact with peers with intellectual disability.
Project description:Fear is a central emotional response to imminent threats such as the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) assesses the severity of fear towards COVID-19. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the FCV-19S. Using a forward-backward translation, the FCV-19S was translated into Arabic. An online survey using the Arabic versions of FCV-19S and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered. Reliability and concurrent and confirmatory validity were examined. The dataset consisted of 693 Saudi participants. The internal consistency of the Arabic FCV-19S was satisfactory (??=?.88), with sound concurrent validity indicated by significant and positive correlations with HADS (r?=?.66). The unidimensional structure of the FCV-19S was confirmed. The Arabic version of the FCV-19S is psychometrically robust and can be used in research assessing the psychological impact of COVID-19 among a Saudi adult population.
Project description:In this project, the effects of a 20-week exercise intervention on whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation signatures (CpG sites level) in boys and girls with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) were investigated. Twenty-three children (10.05 ± 1.39 years, 56% girls) with OW/OB, were randomized to either a 20-week exercise intervention (exercise group [EG]; n=10; 4 boys/ 6 girls), or to usual lifestyle (control group [CG] (n=13; 6 boys/ 7 girls). Whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome profile (RNA-seq) analyses were performed before and after the intervention period. Changes in the DNA methylation sites of 485 and 386 CpGs were induced by the exercise intervention (compared to the control group) in boys and girls respectively (p < 0.001). These CpG sites mapped to loci enriched in distinct gene pathways related to metabolic diseases, fatty acid metabolism, and immune function in boys or girls (p < 0.05). In boys, changes on the DNA methylation status of 87 CpG sites (from the subset of 485 significant CpGs) associated with changes in the gene expression levels of 51 gene transcripts which were regulated by exercise (p < 0.05). Among girls, changes on DNA methylation at 46 CpG sites (from the initial 386 significant CpGs) were associated with changes in the gene expression levels of 30 gene transcripts affected by exercise. Gene transcripts affected by exercise-induced DNA methylation were related to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammation. Nevertheless, none of the presented analyses survived multiple testing correction (FDR > 0.05). This multi-omics approach reveals that exercise may regulate gene pathways involved in metabolism and immune functions in blood cells of boys and girls with OW/OB. These preliminary results provide an important first step to characterize the molecular response to exercise interventions in pediatric populations. Overall design: Bisulphite converted DNA from the 23 individual in two time points (baseline and t1; 46 samples) were hybridised to the Infinium Methylation EPIC array (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).
Project description:BACKGROUND:While it is most often associated with its effects on physical health, obesity is also associated with serious self-stigmatization. The lack of a suitable, validated tool to measure weight-related self-stigma in Arabic countries may be partly responsible for the scarcity of literature about this problem. OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the reliability and validity of an Arabic version of the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ). METHODS:Data on the Arabic-translated version of the 12-item WSSQ were collected using two cross-sectional electronic questionnaires distributed among Saudi nationals through the Sharik Association for Health Research's database in June 2020. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and exploratory factor analysis of the Arabic WSSQ were assessed and compared with the original English version and other translations. RESULTS:For reliability analysis, 43 participants completed the Arabic WSSQ during two time periods. Internal consistency was ?=.898 for the overall survey, ?=.819 for the fear of enacted stigma subscale (factor 1), and ?=.847 for the self-devaluation subscale (factor 2). The test-retest reliability of the intraclass correlation coef?cient was ?=.982. In the factor structure analysis, 295 participants completed the questionnaire. The Arabic WSSQ loading of the items was consistent with the original WSSQ, except for the loading of item 9, which was stronger in factor 2 than in factor 1. The two factors accounted for the observed variances of 47.7% and 10.6%. CONCLUSIONS:The Arabic version of the WSSQ has good internal consistency and reliability, and the factorial structure is similar to that of the original WSSQ. The Arabic WSSQ is adaptable for clinicians seeking to assess weight-related self-stigma in Arabic-speaking people.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural five factor instrument developed to assess emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties for parent and teacher ratings in the Danish version of SDQ for different age groups of boys and girls. METHODS: The Danish versions of the SDQ were distributed to a total of 71,840 parent and teacher raters of 5-, 7- and 10- to 12-year-old children included in four large scale Danish cohorts. The internal reliability was assessed and exploratory factor analyses were carried out to replicate the originally proposed five factor structure. Mean scores and percentiles were examined in order to differentiate between low, medium and high levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties. RESULTS: The original five factor structure could be substantially confirmed. The Conduct items however did not solely load on the proposed Conduct scale and the Conduct scale was further contaminated by non-conduct items. Positively worded items tended to load on the Prosocial scale. This was more so the case for teachers than for parents. Parent and teacher means and percentiles were found to be lower compared to British figures but similar to or only slightly lower than those found in the other Nordic countries. The percentiles for girls were generally lower than for boys, markedly so for the teacher hyperactivity ratings. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the usefulness of the SDQ as a screening tool for boys and girls across age groups and raters in the general Danish population.
Project description:The success of the dental restorations largely depends on its esthetics, although various literature reviews recommend that anterior teeth midline be placed coinciding the facial midline, the amount of acceptable deviation between facial and dental midline has not been fully investigated. To observe the acceptable deviation between the dental and facial midline. Facial photographs of 200 students aged about 18-30 years of both sexes, without any missing teeth, with complete alignment of anterior teeth, were selected and scanned on to computer screen. Using specialized programme, the crown width of the central incisor in the mouth and on photograph was ensured constant. The distance between the facial midline, (obtained by bisecting intercanthal line) and the mesial surfaces of the central incisors were read on the computer. 44.4 % Boys and 55 % of Girls showed deviation between dental and facial midline in the range of 0-1 mm. while, 54 % of boys and 33 % of girls showed deviation of the dental and facial midline in the range 1-2 mm. 37 % of boys and 8 % of girls showed deviation of dental midline with facial midline with the range of 2-3 mm. 80 % of the study population showed maxillary and mandibular dental midlines never coincide. Majority of the study population showed deviation between facial midline and anterior teeth midline within the range of 0-1 mm.