Fusion of the TEL gene on 12p13 to the AML1 gene on 21q22 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
ABSTRACT: Chromosomal rearrangements involving band 12p13 are found in a wide variety of human leukemias but are particularly common in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The genes involved in these rearrangements, however, have not been identified. We now report the cloning of a t(12;21) translocation breakpoint involving 12p13 and 21q22 in two cases of childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in which t(12;21) rearrangements were not initially apparent. The consequence of the translocation is fusion of the helix-loop-helix domain of TEL, an ETS-like putative transcription factor, to the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of the transcription factor AML1. These data show that TEL, previously shown to be fused to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, can be implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia through its fusion to either a receptor tyrosine kinase or a transcription factor. The TEL-AML1 fusion also indicates that translocations affecting the AML1 gene can be associated with lymphoid, as well as myeloid, malignancy.
Project description:The TEL/AML1 fusion gene results from the most frequent t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Its contribution to transformation is largely unknown, in particular with respect to survival and apoptosis. We therefore silenced TEL/AML1 expression in leukemic REH cells by RNA inhibition, which eventually led to programmed cell death. Microarray and 2D gel electrophoresis data demonstrated a differential regulation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), among them HSP90, as well as of its client, survivin. Consistent with these findings, ectopic expression of TEL/AML1 in Ba/F3 cells increased protein levels of HSP90 and survivin and conferred resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Our data suggest that TEL/AML1 not only contributes to leukemogenesis by affecting an antiapoptotic network but also seems to be indispensable for maintaining the malignant phenotype. The functional relationship between TEL/AML1, HSP90, and survivin provides the rational for targeted therapy, be it the fusion gene or the latter 2 proteins.
Project description:Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a clonal disease that evolves through the accrual of genetic rearrangements and/or mutations within the dominant clone. The TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1) fusion in precursor-B (pre-B) ALL is the most common genetic rearrangement in childhood cancer; however, the cellular origin and the molecular pathogenesis of TEL-AML1-induced leukemia have not been identified. To study the origin of TEL-AML1-induced ALL, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing TEL-AML1 either ubiquitously or in lymphoid progenitors. TEL-AML1 expression in all lineages, but not lymphoid-restricted expression, led to progenitor cell expansion that evolved into oligoclonal B-lineage ALL in 3% of the transgenic zebrafish. This leukemia was transplantable to conditioned wild-type recipients. We demonstrate that TEL-AML1 induces a B cell differentiation arrest, and that leukemia development is associated with loss of TEL expression and elevated Bcl2/Bax ratio. The TEL-AML1 transgenic zebrafish models human pre-B ALL, identifies the molecular pathways associated with leukemia development, and serves as the foundation for subsequent genetic screens to identify modifiers and leukemia therapeutic targets.
Project description:The contribution of the most common reciprocal translocation in childhood B-cell precursor leukemia t(12;21)(p13;q22) to leukemia development is still under debate. Direct as well as secondary indirect effects of the TEL-AML1 fusion protein are commonly recorded by using cell lines and patient samples, often bearing the TEL-AML1 fusion protein for decades. To identify direct targets of the fusion protein a short-term induction of TEL-AML1 is needed. We here describe in detail the experimental procedure, quality controls and contents of the ChIP, mRNA expression and SILAC datasets associated with the study published by Linka and colleagues in the Blood Cancer Journal  utilizing a short term induction of TEL-AML1 in an inducible precursor B-cell line model.
Project description:The reciprocal translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22), the most common structural genomic alteration in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, results in a chimeric transcription factor TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1). We identified directly and indirectly regulated target genes utilizing an inducible TEL-AML1 system derived from the murine pro B-cell line BA/F3 and a monoclonal antibody directed against TEL-AML1. By integration of promoter binding identified with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip, gene expression and protein output through microarray technology and stable labelling of amino acids in cell culture, we identified 217 directly and 118 indirectly regulated targets of the TEL-AML1 fusion protein. Directly, but not indirectly, regulated promoters were enriched in AML1-binding sites. The majority of promoter regions were specific for the fusion protein and not bound by native AML1 or TEL. Comparison with gene expression profiles from TEL-AML1-positive patients identified 56 concordantly misregulated genes with negative effects on proliferation and cellular transport mechanisms and positive effects on cellular migration, and stress responses including immunological responses. In summary, this work for the first time gives a comprehensive insight into how TEL-AML1 expression may directly and indirectly contribute to alter cells to become prone for leukemic transformation.
Project description:The t(12;21) translocation is the most common genetic rearrangement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and gives rise to the TEL-AML1 fusion gene, which functions as a transcription factor. TEL-AML1 expression in EML1 cells results in an impairment of differentiation along the B-lymphoid lineage. We analyzed gene expression profiles of EML1 cells after expression of TEL-AML1
Project description:The TEL (ETV6)-AML1 (CBFA2) gene fusion is the most common reciprocal chromosomal rearrangement in childhood cancer occurring in approximately 25% of the most predominant subtype of leukemia- common acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The TEL-AML1 genomic sequence has been characterized in a pair of monozygotic twins diagnosed at ages 3 years, 6 months and 4 years, 10 months with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The twin leukemic DNA shared the same unique (or clonotypic) but nonconstitutive TEL-AML1 fusion sequence. The most plausible explanation for this finding is a single cell origin of the TEL-AML fusion in one fetus in utero, probably as a leukemia-initiating mutation, followed by intraplacental metastasis of clonal progeny to the other twin. Clonal identity is further supported by the finding that the leukemic cells in the two twins shared an identical rearranged IGH allele. These data have implications for the etiology and natural history of childhood leukemia.
Project description:Around 20-25% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias carry the TEL-AML1 (TA) fusion gene. It is a fusion of two central hematopoietic transcription factors, TEL (ETV6) and AML1 (RUNX1). Despite its prevalence, the exact genomic targets of TA have remained elusive. We evaluated gene loci and enhancers targeted by TA genome-wide in precursor B acute leukemia cells using global nuclear run-on sequencing (GRO-seq). Nascent RNA expression profiles were generated with GRO-seq after TEL-AML1 expression in the Nalm6 pre-B-ALL cell line in four different time points (0, 4, 12 and 24 h). TEL-AML1-mut and luciferase induction cell lines were used as controls. Two replicates were included for all six samples.
Project description:Background The t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation is found in 20 to 25% of cases of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). This rearrangement results in the fusion of ETV6 (TEL) and RUNX1 (AML1) genes and defines a relatively uniform category, although only some patients suffer very late relapse. TEL/AML1-positive patients are thus an interesting subgroup to study, and such studies should elucidate the biological processes underlying TEL/AML1 pathogenesis. We report an analysis of gene expression in 60 children with B-lineage ALL using Agilent whole genome oligo-chips (44K-G4112A) and/or real time RT-PCR. Results We compared the leukemia cell gene expression profiles of 16 TEL/AML1-positive ALL patients to those of 44 TEL/AML1-negative patients, whose blast cells did not contain any additional recurrent translocation. Microarray analyses of 26 samples allowed the identification of genes differentially expressed between the TEL/AML1-positive and negative ALL groups. Gene enrichment analysis defined five enriched GO categories: cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell motility and response to wounding, associated with 14 genes –RUNX1, TCFL5, TNFRSF7, CBFA2T3, CD9, SCARB1, TP53INP1, ACVR1C, PIK3C3, EGFL7, SEMA6A, CTGF, LSP1, TFPI— highlighting the biology of the TEL/AML1 sub-group. These results were first confirmed by the analysis of an additional microarray data-set (7 patient samples) and second by real-time RT-PCR quantification and clustering using an independent set (27 patient samples). Over-expression of RUNX1 (AML1) was further investigated and in one third of the patients correlated with cytogenetic findings. Conclusions Gene expression analyses of leukemia cells from 60 children with TEL/AML1-positive and -negative B-lineage ALL led to the identification of five biological processes, associated with 14 validated genes characterizing and highlighting the biology of the TEL/AML1-positive ALL sub-group. Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gene expression profiles, TEL/AML1 fusion transcript, functional annotation Overall design: We carried out a prospective multicentric study on childhood B-ALL leukemia to elucidate the molecular processes involved in TEL/AML1-positive leukemia. All the patients included in this study received treatment according to the French FRALLE 2000 trial. We used Agilent whole-genome oligo-chips (44K-G4112A) to compare the gene expression signatures of TEL/AML1-positive patients to those of TEL/AML1-negative patients with no recurrent chimeric products irrespective of their clinical risk category. Previous microarray gene expression studies had revealed the effect of chromosomal alteration on transcription profiles, so we excluded from our cohort those patients with other recurrent chromosomal translocations or fusion transcripts (BCR/ABL, E2A/PBX1, MLL rearrangements). We then searched for the biological pathways associated with genes differentially expressed in TEL/AML1-positive leukemia (ETV6/RUNX1).
Project description:There is increasing evidence that miRNA and transcription factors interact in an instructive fashion in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. We explored the impact of TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1), the most common fusion protein in childhood leukemia, on miRNA expression and the leukemic phenotype. Using RNA interference, miRNA expression arrays, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we identified miRNA-494 and miRNA-320a to be up-regulated upon TEL-AML1 silencing independently of TEL expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis identified miRNA-494 as a direct miRNA target of the fusion protein TEL-AML1. Using bioinformatic analysis as well as functional luciferase experiments, we demonstrate that survivin is a target of the 2 miRNAs. miRNA-494 and miRNA-320a were introduced to the cells by transfection and survivin expression determined by Western blot analysis. These miRNAs blocked survivin expression and resulted in apoptosis in a similar manner as TEL-AML1 silencing by itself; this silencing was also shown to be Dicer-dependent. miRNAs-494 and -320a are expressed at lower levels in TEL-AML1+ leukemias compared with immunophenotype-matched nonTEL-AML1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes, and within TEL-AML1+ leukemias their expression is correlated to survivin levels. In summary our data suggest that TEL-AML1 might exert its antiapoptotic action at least in part by suppressing miRNA-494 and miRNA-320a, lowering their expression causing enhanced survivin expression.
Project description:Genetic alterations in the transcriptional repressor ETV6 are associated with hematological malignancies. Notably, the t(12;21) translocation leading to an ETV6-AML1 fusion gene is the most common genetic alteration found in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Moreover, most of these patients also lack ETV6 expression, suggesting a tumor suppressor function. To gain insights on ETV6 DNA-binding specificity and genome wide transcriptional regulation capacities, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments coupled to deep sequencing in a t(12;21)-positive pre-B leukemic cell line. This strategy led to the identification of ETV6-bound regions that were further associated to gene expression. ETV6 binding is mostly cell type-specific as only few regions are shared with other blood cell subtypes. Peaks localization and motif enrichment analyses revealed that this unique binding profile could be associated with the ETV6-AML1 fusion protein specific to the t(12;21) background. This study underscores the complexity of ETV6 binding and uncovers ETV6 transcriptional network in pre-B leukemia cells bearing the recurrent t(12;21) translocation.