Chromatin regulates DNA torsional energy via topoisomerase II-mediated relaxation of positive supercoils.
ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic topoisomerases I (topo I) and II (topo II) relax the positive (+) and negative (-) DNA torsional stress (TS) generated ahead and behind the transcription machinery. It is unknown how this DNA relaxation activity is regulated and whether (+) and (-)TS are reduced at similar rates. Here, we used yeast circular minichromosomes to conduct the first comparative analysis of topo I and topo II activities in relaxing chromatin under (+) and (-)TS. We observed that, while topo I relaxed (+) and (-)TS with similar efficiency, topo II was more proficient and relaxed (+)TS more quickly than (-)TS. Accordingly, we found that the relaxation rate of (+)TS by endogenous topoisomerases largely surpassed that of (-)TS. We propose a model of how distinct conformations of chromatin under (+) and (-)TS may produce this unbalanced relaxation of DNA. We postulate that, while quick relaxation of (+)TS may facilitate the progression of RNA and DNA polymerases, slow relaxation of (-)TS may serve to favor DNA unwinding and other structural transitions at specific regions often required for genomic transactions.
Project description:Cellular DNA topoisomerases (topo I and topo II) are highly conserved enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA during normal genome transactions, such as DNA transcription and replication. In budding yeast, topo I is dispensable whereas topo II is essential, suggesting fundamental and exclusive roles for topo II, which might include the functions of the topo IIa and topo IIb isoforms found in mammalian cells. In this review, we discuss major findings of the structure and chromosomal organization of genes regulated by topo II in budding yeast. Experimental data was derived from short (10 min) and long term (120 min) responses to topo II inactivation in top-2 ts mutants. First, we discuss how short term responses reveal a subset of yeast genes that are regulated by topo II depending on their promoter architecture. These short term responses also uncovered topo II regulation of transcription across multi-gene clusters, plausibly by common DNA topology management. Finally, we examine the effects of deactivated topo II on the elongation of RNA transcripts. Each study provides an insight into the particular chromatin structure that interacts with the activity of topo II. These findings are of notable clinical interest as numerous anti-cancer therapies interfere with topo II activity.
Project description:Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA topology through a strand-passage mechanism. Some type II topoisomerases relax supercoils, unknot and decatenate DNA to below thermodynamic equilibrium. Several models of this non-equilibrium topology simplification phenomenon have been proposed. The kinetic proofreading (KPR) model postulates that strand passage requires a DNA-bound topoisomerase to collide twice in rapid succession with a second DNA segment, implying a quadratic relationship between DNA collision frequency and relaxation rate. To test this model, we used a single-molecule assay to measure the unlinking rate as a function of DNA collision frequency for Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV (topo IV) that displays efficient non-equilibrium topology simplification activity, and for E. coli topoisomerase III (topo III), a type IA topoisomerase that unlinks and unknots DNA to equilibrium levels. Contrary to the predictions of the KPR model, topo IV and topo III unlinking rates were linearly related to the DNA collision frequency. Furthermore, topo III exhibited decatenation activity comparable with that of topo IV, supporting proposed roles for topo III in DNA segregation. This study enables us to rule out the KPR model for non-equilibrium topology simplification. More generally, we establish an experimental approach to systematically control DNA collision frequency.
Project description:Topoisomerase IV (Topo IV), an essential ATP-dependent bacterial type II topoisomerase, transports one segment of DNA through a transient double-strand break in a second segment of DNA. In vivo, Topo IV unlinks catenated chromosomes before cell division and relaxes positive supercoils generated during DNA replication. In vitro, Topo IV relaxes positive supercoils at least 20-fold faster than negative supercoils. The mechanisms underlying this chiral discrimination by Topo IV and other type II topoisomerases remain speculative. We used magnetic tweezers to measure the relaxation rates of single and multiple DNA crossings by Topo IV. These measurements allowed us to determine unambiguously the relative importance of DNA crossing geometry and enzymatic processivity in chiral discrimination by Topo IV. Our results indicate that Topo IV binds and passes DNA strands juxtaposed in a nearly perpendicular orientation and that relaxation of negative supercoiled DNA is perfectly distributive. Together, these results suggest that chiral discrimination arises primarily from dramatic differences in the processivity of relaxing positive and negative supercoiled DNA: Topo IV is highly processive on positively supercoiled DNA, whereas it is perfectly distributive on negatively supercoiled DNA. These results provide fresh insight into topoisomerase mechanisms and lead to a model that reconciles contradictory aspects of previous findings while providing a framework to interpret future results.
Project description:Escherichia coli possesses two type 1A topoisomerases, Topo I (topA) and Topo III (topB). Topo I relaxes excess negative supercoiling, and topA mutants can grow only in the presence of compensatory mechanisms, such as gyrase mutations. topB mutants grow as well as wild-type cells. In vitro, Topo III, but not Topo I, can efficiently decatenate DNA during replication. However, in vivo, a chromosome segregation defect is seen only when both type 1A topoisomerases are absent. Here we present experimental evidence for an interplay between gyrase and type 1A topoisomerases in chromosome segregation. We found that both the growth defect and the Par(-) phenotypes of a gyrB(Ts) mutant at nonpermissive temperatures were significantly corrected by deleting topA, but only when topB was present. Overproducing Topo IV, the major cellular decatenase, could not substitute for topB. We also show that overproducing Topo III at a very high level could suppress the Par(-) phenotype. We previously found that the growth and chromosome segregation defects of a triple topA rnhA gyrB(Ts) mutant in which gyrase supercoiling activity was strongly inhibited could be corrected by overproducing Topo III (V. Usongo, F. Nolent, P. Sanscartier, C. Tanguay, S. Broccoli, I. Baaklini, K. Drlica, and M. Drolet, Mol. Microbiol. 69:968-981, 2008). We show here that this overproduction could be bypassed by substituting the gyrB(Ts) allele for a gyrB(+) one or by growing cells in a minimal medium, conditions that reduced both topA- and rnhA-dependent unregulated replication. Altogether, our data point to a role for Topo III in chromosome segregation when gyrase is inefficient and suggest that Topo I plays an indirect role via supercoiling regulation.
Project description:Type 1A topoisomerases (topos) are the only ubiquitous topos. E. coli has two type 1A topos, topo I (topA) and topo III (topB). Topo I relaxes negative supercoiling in part to inhibit R-loop formation. To grow, topA mutants acquire compensatory mutations, base substitutions in gyrA or gyrB (gyrase) or amplifications of a DNA region including parC and parE (topo IV). topB mutants grow normally and topo III binds tightly to single-stranded DNA. What functions topo I and III share in vivo and how cells lacking these important enzymes can survive is unclear. Previously, a gyrB(Ts) compensatory mutation was used to construct topA topB null mutants. These mutants form very long filaments and accumulate diffuse DNA, phenotypes that appears to be related to replication from R-loops. Here, next generation sequencing and qPCR for marker frequency analysis were used to further define the functions of type 1A topos. The results reveal the presence of a RNase HI-sensitive origin of replication in the terminus (Ter) region of the chromosome that is more active in topA topB cells than in topA and rnhA (RNase HI) null cells. The S9.6 antibodies specific to DNA:RNA hybrids were used in dot-blot experiments to show the accumulation of R-loops in rnhA, topA and topA topB null cells. Moreover topA topB gyrB(Ts) strains, but not a topA gyrB(Ts) strain, were found to carry a parC parE amplification. When a topA gyrB(Ts) mutant carried a plasmid producing topo IV, topB null transductants did not have parC parE amplifications. Altogether, the data indicate that in E. coli type 1A topos are required to inhibit R-loop formation/accumulation mostly to prevent unregulated replication in Ter, and that they are essential to prevent excess negative supercoiling and its detrimental effects on cell growth and survival.
Project description:The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts.
Project description:The role of DNA topoisomerases (Topo) IIalpha and IIbeta was investigated in various drug-resistant melanoma cells. Melanoma cells resistant to etoposide, exhibited an up to tenfold reduced Topo II activity corresponding to an increasing degree of drug resistance indicating that modulation of Topo II activity contribute to the drug-resistant phenotype. The reduction of Topo II activity was reflected by decreased nuclear amounts of both Topo II isoforms.
Project description:Type II DNA topoisomerases have been classified into two families, Topo IIA and Topo IIB, based on structural and mechanistic dissimilarities. Topo IIA is the target of many important antibiotics and antitumoural drugs, most of them being inactive on Topo IIB. The effects and mode of action of Topo IIA inhibitors in vitro and in vivo have been extensively studied for the last twenty-five years. In contrast, studies of Topo IIB inhibitors were lacking. To document this field, we have studied two Hsp90 inhibitors (radicicol and geldanamycin), known to interact with the ATP-binding site of Hsp90 (the Bergerat fold), which is also present in Topo IIB. Here, we report that radicicol inhibits the decatenation and relaxation activities of Sulfolobus shibatae DNA topoisomerase VI (a Topo IIB) while geldanamycin does not. In addition, radicicol has no effect on the Topo IIA Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. In agreement with their different effects on DNA topoisomerase VI, we found that radicicol can theoretically fit in the ATP-binding pocket of the DNA topoisomerase VI 'Bergerat fold', whereas geldanamycin cannot. Radicicol inhibited growths of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (a crenarchaeon) and of Haloferax volcanii (a euryarchaeon) at the same doses that inhibited DNA topoisomerase VI in vitro. In contrast, the bacteria E.coli was resistant to this drug. Radicicol thus appears to be a very promising compound to study the mechanism of Topo IIB in vitro, as well as the biological roles of these enzymes in vivo.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases control the topology of DNA. Type II topoisomerases exhibit topology simplification, whereby products of their reactions are simplified beyond that expected based on thermodynamic equilibrium. The molecular basis for this process is unknown, although DNA bending has been implicated. To investigate the role of bending in topology simplification, the DNA bend angles of four enzymes of different types (IIA and IIB) were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The enzymes tested were Escherichia coli topo IV and yeast topo II (type IIA enzymes that exhibit topology simplification), and Methanosarcina mazei topo VI and Sulfolobus shibatae topo VI (type IIB enzymes, which do not). Bend angles were measured using the manual tangent method from topographical AFM images taken with a novel amplitude-modulated imaging mode: small amplitude small set-point (SASS), which optimises resolution for a given AFM tip size and minimises tip convolution with the sample. This gave improved accuracy and reliability and revealed that all 4 topoisomerases bend DNA by a similar amount: ~120° between the DNA entering and exiting the enzyme complex. These data indicate that DNA bending alone is insufficient to explain topology simplification and that the 'exit gate' may be an important determinant of this process.
Project description:Type II topoisomerases manage DNA supercoiling and aid chromosome segregation using a complex, ATP-dependent duplex strand passage mechanism. Type IIB topoisomerases and their homologs support both archaeal/plant viability and meiotic recombination. Topo VI, a prototypical type IIB topoisomerase, comprises two Top6A and two Top6B protomers; how these subunits cooperate to engage two DNA segments and link ATP turnover to DNA transport is poorly understood. Using multiple biochemical approaches, we show that Top6B, which harbors the ATPase activity of topo VI, recognizes and exploits the DNA crossings present in supercoiled DNA to stimulate subunit dimerization by ATP. Top6B self-association in turn induces extensive DNA bending, which is needed to support duplex cleavage by Top6A. Our observations explain how topo VI tightly coordinates DNA crossover recognition and ATP binding with strand scission, providing useful insights into the operation of type IIB topoisomerases and related meiotic recombination and GHKL ATPase machineries.