ROS-dependent prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) up-regulation and ceramide generation are the prime signaling events associated with curcumin-induced autophagic cell death in human malignant glioma.
ABSTRACT: Malignant gliomas are extremely resistant to therapies that induce apoptosis, but are less resistant to therapies that induce autophagy. Therefore, drugs targeting autophagy are promising in the management of malignant gliomas. In this study, we investigated the anti-glioma potential of curcumin in vitro, and further examined the molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced cell death in human malignant glioma. Here, we provide evidence that curcumin is cytotoxic against human malignant glioma cell lines, and the mechanism of cell death caused by curcumin is associated with features of autophagy. Curcumin suppresses the growth of human malignant glioma cells via ROS-dependent prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) induction and ceramide generation. Extracellular supplementation of antioxidants such as glutathione and N-acetylcysteine to glioma cells abrogated the Par-4 induction, ceramide generation, and in turn, prevented curcumin-induced autophagic cell death. Moreover, tumor cells transfected with Par-4 gene sensitized the curcumin-induced autophagic cell death. Overall, this study describes a novel signaling pathway by which curcumin induces ROS-dependent Par-4 activation and ceramide generation, leading to autophagic cell death in human malignant glioma cells.
Project description:Glioma is the most frequent and aggressive type of brain neoplasm, being anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), its most malignant forms. The survival rate in patients with these neoplasms is 15 months after diagnosis, despite a diversity of treatments, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. The resistance of GBM to various therapies is due to a highly mutated genome; these genetic changes induce a de-regulation of several signaling pathways and result in higher cell proliferation rates, angiogenesis, invasion, and a marked resistance to apoptosis; this latter trait is a hallmark of highly invasive tumor cells, such as glioma cells. Due to a defective apoptosis in gliomas, induced autophagic death can be an alternative to remove tumor cells. Paradoxically, however, autophagy in cancer can promote either a cell death or survival. Modulating the autophagic pathway as a death mechanism for cancer cells has prompted the use of both inhibitors and autophagy inducers. The autophagic process, either as a cancer suppressing or inducing mechanism in high-grade gliomas is discussed in this review, along with therapeutic approaches to inhibit or induce autophagy in pre-clinical and clinical studies, aiming to increase the efficiency of conventional treatments to remove glioma neoplastic cells.
Project description:This article contains raw and processed data related to a research, "Honokiol induces autophagic cell death in malignant glioma through reactive oxygen species-mediated regulation of the p53/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway" (C.J. Lin, T.L. Chen, Y.Y. Tseng, G.J. Wu, M.H. Hsieh, Y.W. Lin, R.M. Chen, 2016) . Data were obtained by immunoblotting analyses of light chain 3 (LC3)-II, beclin-1, Akt, and mTOR in human glioma U87 MG cells and mouse glioma tissues treated with honokiol, an active constituent extracted from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, "Honokiol induces autophagy of neuroblastoma cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and endoplasmic reticular stress/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration" (P.S. Yeh, W. Wang, Y.A. Chang, C.J. Lin, J.J. Wang, R.M. Chen, 2016) . The processed data show the effects of honokiol on induction of autophagy in human glioma U87 MG cells by analyzing levels of LC3-II, p62, and bectin-1, "Honokiol-induced apoptosis and autophagy in glioblastoma multiforme cells" (K.H. Chang, M.D Yan, C.J. Yao, P.C. Lin, G.M. Lai, 2013) . In addition, chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, was administered to the cells to further confirm honokiol-induced cell autophagy. Sequentially, mice with gliomas were created and treated with honokiol. Amounts of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Akt and mTOR in glioma tissues were analyzed to determine the possible mechanisms of honokiol-induced autophagy.
Project description:We aim to investigate the effect of aurantiamide acetate isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis terniflora DC against gliomas. Human malignant glioma U87 and U251 cells were incubated with different concentrations (0-100 ?M) of aurantiamide acetate. Aurantiamide acetate greatly decreased the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It induced moderate mitochondrial fragmentation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. No significant difference was found in the alternation of other intracellular organelles, although F-actin structure was slightly disturbed. Apparent ultrastructure alternation with increased autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation was observed in aurantiamide acetate-treated cells. The expression of LC3-II was greatly up-regulated in cells exposed to aurantiamide acetate (P < 0.05 compared with control). The cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes induced by aurantiamide acetate treatment was confirmed by fluorescent reporter protein labelling. Administration of chloroquine (CQ), which inhibits the fusion step of autophagosomes, further increased the accumulation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of U87 cells. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine, Bafilomycin A1 or CQ had no influence on aurantiamide acetate-induced cytotoxicity, whereas autophagy stimulator rapamycin significantly suppressed aurantiamide acetate-induced cell death. The anti-tumour effects of aurantiamide acetate were further evaluated in tumour-bearing nude mice. Intratumoural injection of aurantiamide acetate obviously suppressed tumour growth, and increased number of autophagic vacuoles was observed in tumour tissues of animals receiving aurantiamide acetate. Our findings suggest that aurantiamide acetate may suppress the growth of malignant gliomas by blocking autophagic flux.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is widely used for treating primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas. However, the efficacy of TMZ is often limited by the development of resistance. Recently, studies have found that TMZ treatment could induce autophagy, which contributes to therapy resistance in glioma. To enhance the benefit of TMZ in the treatment of glioblastomas, effective combination strategies are needed to sensitize glioblastoma cells to TMZ. In this regard, as autophagy could promote cell survival or autophagic cell death, modulating autophagy using a pharmacological inhibitor, such as chloroquine, or an inducer, such as rapamycin, has received considerably more attention. To understand the effectiveness of regulating autophagy in glioblastoma treatment, this review summarizes reports on glioblastoma treatments with TMZ and autophagic modulators from in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as clinical trials. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using autophagy regulatory compounds that can sensitive TMZ treatment as a chemotherapy for glioma treatment.
Project description:Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) is characterized as a crucial molecule in cancer cell growth that plays an essential role in the development of gliomas, but the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1) overexpression increased UBE2C expression, whereas FoxM1 suppression inhibited UBE2C expression in glioma cells. In addition, high FoxM1/UBE2C expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in glioma. We subsequently demonstrated that UBE2C was a direct transcriptional target of FoxM1, and site-directed mutations markedly down-regulated UBE2C promoter activity. Moreover, UBE2C siRNA (si-UBE2C) significantly induced glioma cell autophagy and increased both mCherry-LC3 punctate fluorescence and LC3B-II/LC3-I expression. Notably, the si-UBE2C-induced decrease in cell viability was markedly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1. The silencing of UBE2C resulted in a distinct inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, which functions in the negative modulation of autophagy. Collectively, our findings provide clinical and molecular evidence that FoxM1 promotes glioma progression by enhancing UBE2C transcription and that the inhibition of UBE2C partially induces autophagic glioma cell death. Thus, targeting the FoxM1-UBE2C axis has therapeutic potential in the treatment of gliomas.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a type of malignant cancer, and 85% of metastatic NSCLC patients have a poor prognosis. C₂-ceramide induces G2/M phase arrest and cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. In this study, the autophagy-inducing effect of C₂-ceramide was demonstrated, and cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) was investigated in NSCLC H460 and H1299 cells. The results suggested that C₂-ceramide exhibited dose-dependent anticancer effects in H460 and H1299 cells and autophagy induction. Zebrafish-based acridine orange staining confirmed the combined effects in vivo. Importantly, the combination of a sublethal dose of C₂-ceramide and CQ resulted in additive cytotoxicity and autophagy in both cell lines. Alterations of related signaling factors, including Src and SIRT1 inhibition and activation of the autophagic regulators LAMP2 and LC3-I/II, contributed to the autophagy-dependent apoptosis. We found that C₂-ceramide continuously initiated autophagy; however, CQ inhibited autophagosome maturation and degradation during autophagy progression. Accumulated and non-degraded autophagosomes increased NSCLC cell stress, eventually leading to cell death. This study sheds light on improvements to NSCLC chemotherapy to reduce the chemotherapy dose and NSCLC patient burden.
Project description:Autophagy is considered primarily a cell survival process, although it can also lead to cell death. However, the factors that dictate the shift between these 2 opposite outcomes remain largely unknown. In this work, we used ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main active component of marijuana, a compound that triggers autophagy-mediated cancer cell death) and nutrient deprivation (an autophagic stimulus that triggers cytoprotective autophagy) to investigate the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for the activation of cytotoxic autophagy in cancer cells. By using a wide array of experimental approaches we show that THC (but not nutrient deprivation) increases the dihydroceramide:ceramide ratio in the endoplasmic reticulum of glioma cells, and this alteration is directed to autophagosomes and autolysosomes to promote lysosomal membrane permeabilization, cathepsin release and the subsequent activation of apoptotic cell death. These findings pave the way to clarify the regulatory mechanisms that determine the selective activation of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death.
Project description:Autophagy can promote cell survival or cell death, but the molecular basis underlying its dual role in cancer remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active component of marijuana, induces human glioma cell death through stimulation of autophagy. Our data indicate that THC induced ceramide accumulation and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation and thereby activated an ER stress response that promoted autophagy via tribbles homolog 3-dependent (TRB3-dependent) inhibition of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. We also showed that autophagy is upstream of apoptosis in cannabinoid-induced human and mouse cancer cell death and that activation of this pathway was necessary for the antitumor action of cannabinoids in vivo. These findings describe a mechanism by which THC can promote the autophagic death of human and mouse cancer cells and provide evidence that cannabinoid administration may be an effective therapeutic strategy for targeting human cancers.
Project description:Apoptosis and autophagy are the two prominent forms of developmental cell death, and researches have shown that crosstalk exists between these two processes. A prior study demonstrated that triptolide inhibited the proliferation of malignant glioma cells. However, whether apoptosis and autophagy participate in the inhibitory effect of triptolide in glioma cells has not been clarified. In the present study, we demonstrated that triptolide potently inhibited the growth of glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Additionally, the treatment with triptolide induced apoptosis and autophagy in various glioma cell lines. Triptolide-induced autophagy may have tumor-supporting effects. Autophagy and apoptosis could cross-inhibit each other in glioma cells treated with triptolide. Moreover, we found that triptolide induced ROS production and JNK activation and inhibited the activity of Akt and mTOR. Finally, we demonstrated that triptolide suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft glioma model. Collectively, these data indicated that triptolide induced G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via activating the ROS/JNK and blocking the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in glioma cells. Triptolide may be a potential anti-tumor drug targeting gliomas.
Project description:Identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance of gliomas to anticancer treatments is an issue of great therapeutic interest. ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of marijuana, and other cannabinoids inhibit tumor growth in animal models of cancer, including glioma, an effect that relies, at least in part, on the stimulation of autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, by analyzing the gene expression profile of a large series of human glioma cells with different sensitivity to cannabinoid action, we have identified a subset of genes specifically associated to THC resistance. One of these genes, namely that encoding the growth factor midkine (Mdk), is directly involved in the resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid treatment. We also show that Mdk mediates its protective effect via the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor and that Mdk signaling through ALK interferes with cannabinoid-induced autophagic cell death. Furthermore, in vivo Mdk silencing or ALK pharmacological inhibition sensitizes cannabinod-resistant tumors to THC antitumoral action. Altogether, our findings identify Mdk as a pivotal factor involved in the resistance of glioma cells to THC pro-autophagic and antitumoral action, and suggest that selective targeting of the Mdk/ALK axis could help to improve the efficacy of antitumoral therapies for gliomas.