Malfunctioning of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces oxidative stress via an iron-dependent mechanism, causing dysfunction in respiratory complexes.
ABSTRACT: Biogenesis and recycling of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters play important roles in the iron homeostasis mechanisms involved in mitochondrial function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Fe-S clusters are assembled into apoproteins by the iron-sulfur cluster machinery (ISC). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ISC gene deletion and consequent iron release under oxidative stress conditions on mitochondrial functionality in S. cerevisiae. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused by H2O2, menadione, or ethanol, was associated with a loss of iron homeostasis and exacerbated by ISC system dysfunction. ISC mutants showed increased free Fe2+ content, exacerbated by ROS-inducers, causing an increase in ROS, which was decreased by the addition of an iron chelator. Our study suggests that the increment in free Fe2+ associated with ROS generation may have originated from mitochondria, probably Fe-S cluster proteins, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that Fe-S cluster anabolism is affected. Raman spectroscopy analysis and immunoblotting indicated that in mitochondria from SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants, the content of [Fe-S] centers was decreased, as was formation of Rieske protein-dependent supercomplex III2IV2, but this was not observed in the iron-deficient ATX1 and MRS4 mutants. In addition, the activity of complexes II and IV from the electron transport chain (ETC) was impaired or totally abolished in SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants. These results confirm that the ISC system plays important roles in iron homeostasis, ROS stress, and in assembly of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1, thus affecting the functionality of the respiratory chain.
Project description:The mitochondrial Hsp70 chaperone Ssq1 plays a dedicated role in the maturation of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins, an essential process of mitochondria. Similar to its bacterial orthologue HscA, Ssq1 binds to the scaffold protein Isu1, thereby facilitating dissociation of the newly synthesized Fe/S cluster on Isu1 and its transfer to target apoproteins. Here we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that Ssq1 also interacts with the monothiol glutaredoxin 5 (Grx5) at a binding site different from that of Isu1. Grx5 binding does not stimulate the ATPase activity of Ssq1 and is most pronounced for the ADP-bound form of Ssq1, which interacts with Isu1 most tightly. The vicinity of Isu1 and Grx5 on the Hsp70 chaperone facilitates rapid Fe/S cluster transfer from Isu1 to Grx5. Grx5 and its bound Fe/S cluster are required for maturation of all cellular Fe/S proteins, regardless of the type of bound Fe/S cofactor and subcellular localization. Hence Grx5 functions as a late-acting component of the core Fe/S cluster (ISC) assembly machinery linking the Fe/S cluster synthesis reaction on Isu1 with late assembly steps involving Fe/S cluster targeting to dedicated apoproteins.
Project description:Iron-sulfur clusters are essential cofactors of proteins. In eukaryotes, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis requires a mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster machinery (ISC) and a cytoplasmic iron-sulfur protein assembly machinery (CIA). Here we used mitochondria and cytoplasm isolated from yeast cells, and [35S]cysteine to detect cytoplasmic Fe-35S cluster assembly on a purified apoprotein substrate. We showed that mitochondria generate an intermediate, called (Fe-S)int, needed for cytoplasmic iron-sulfur cluster assembly. The mitochondrial biosynthesis of (Fe-S)int required ISC components such as Nfs1 cysteine desulfurase, Isu1/2 scaffold, and Ssq1 chaperone. Mitochondria then exported (Fe-S)int via the Atm1 transporter in the inner membrane, and we detected (Fe-S)int in active form. When (Fe-S)int was added to cytoplasm, CIA utilized it for iron-sulfur cluster assembly without any further help from the mitochondria. We found that both iron and sulfur for cytoplasmic iron-sulfur cluster assembly originate from the mitochondria, revealing a surprising and novel mitochondrial role. Mitochondrial (Fe-S)int export was most efficient in the presence of cytoplasm containing an apoprotein substrate, suggesting that mitochondria respond to the cytoplasmic demand for iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. Of note, the (Fe-S)int is distinct from the sulfur intermediate called Sint, which is also made and exported by mitochondria but is instead used for cytoplasmic tRNA thiolation. In summary, our findings establish a direct and vital role of mitochondria in cytoplasmic iron-sulfur cluster assembly in yeast cells.
Project description:The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two homologues of bacterial IscA proteins, designated Isa1p and Isa2p. Bacterial IscA is a product of the isc (iron-sulfur cluster) operon and has been suggested to participate in Fe-S cluster formation or repair. To test the function of yeast Isa1p and Isa2p, single or combinatorial disruptions were introduced in ISA1 and ISA2. The resultant isaDelta mutants were viable but exhibited a dependency on lysine and glutamate for growth and a respiratory deficiency due to an accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. As with other yeast genes proposed to function in Fe-S cluster assembly, mitochondrial iron concentration was significantly elevated in the isa mutants, and the activities of the Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase were dramatically reduced. An inspection of Isa-like proteins from bacteria to mammals revealed three invariant cysteine residues, which in the case of Isa1p and Isa2p are essential for function and may be involved in iron binding. As predicted, Isa1p is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. However, Isa2p is present within the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Our deletion analyses revealed that Isa2p harbors a bipartite N-terminal leader sequence containing a mitochondrial import signal linked to a second sequence that targets Isa2p to the intermembrane space. Both signals are needed for Isa2p function. A model for the nonredundant roles of Isa1p and Isa2p in delivering iron to sites of the Fe-S cluster assembly is discussed.
Project description:Members of the bacterial and mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly machinery include the so-called A-type ISC proteins, which support the assembly of a subset of Fe/S apoproteins. The human genome encodes two A-type proteins, termed ISCA1 and ISCA2, which are related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isa1 and Isa2, respectively. An additional protein, Iba57, physically interacts with Isa1 and Isa2 in yeast. To test the cellular role of human ISCA1, ISCA2, and IBA57, HeLa cells were depleted for any of these proteins by RNA interference technology. Depleted cells contained massively swollen and enlarged mitochondria that were virtually devoid of cristae membranes, demonstrating the importance of these proteins for mitochondrial biogenesis. The activities of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins, including aconitase, respiratory complex I, and lipoic acid synthase, were diminished following depletion of the three proteins. In contrast, the mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] enzyme ferrochelatase and cellular heme content were unaffected. We further provide evidence against a localization and direct Fe/S protein maturation function of ISCA1 and ISCA2 in the cytosol. Taken together, our data suggest that ISCA1, ISCA2, and IBA57 are specifically involved in the maturation of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins functioning late in the ISC assembly pathway.
Project description:The related study has confirmed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, iba57 protein participates in maturation of the [2Fe-2S] cluster into the Rieske protein, which plays important roles in the conformation and functionality of mitochondrial supercomplexes III/IV in the electron transport chain (Sánchez et al., 2018) . We determined in S. cerevisiae the effects of mutation in the IBA57 gene on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and iron homeostasis. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses showed an increased generation of ROS, correlated with free Fe2+ release in the IBA57 mutant yeast. Data obtained support that a dysfunction in the Rieske protein has close relationship between ROS generation and free Fe2+ content, and which is possible that free Fe2+ release mainly proceeds from [Fe-S] cluster-containing proteins.
Project description:Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is one of the rare mitochondrial enzymes evolved to use manganese as a cofactor over the more abundant element iron. Although mitochondrial iron does not normally bind SOD2, iron will misincorporate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sod2p when cells are starved for manganese or when mitochondrial iron homeostasis is disrupted by mutations in yeast grx5, ssq1, and mtm1. We report here that such changes in mitochondrial manganese and iron similarly affect cofactor selection in a heterologously expressed Escherichia coli Mn-SOD, but not a highly homologous Fe-SOD. By x-ray absorption near edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analyses of isolated mitochondria, we find that misincorporation of iron into yeast Sod2p does not correlate with significant changes in the average oxidation state or coordination chemistry of bulk mitochondrial iron. Instead, small changes in mitochondrial iron are likely to promote iron-SOD2 interactions. Iron binds Sod2p in yeast mutants blocking late stages of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (grx5, ssq1, and atm1), but not in mutants defective in the upstream Isu proteins that serve as scaffolds for iron-sulfur biosynthesis. In fact, we observed a requirement for the Isu proteins in iron inactivation of yeast Sod2p. Sod2p activity was restored in mtm1 and grx5 mutants by depleting cells of Isu proteins or using a dominant negative Isu1p predicted to stabilize iron binding to Isu1p. In all cases where disruptions in iron homeostasis inactivated Sod2p, we observed an increase in mitochondrial Isu proteins. These studies indicate that the Isu proteins and the iron-sulfur pathway can donate iron to Sod2p.
Project description:Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors that are crucial for many physiological processes in all organisms. In Escherichia coli, assembly of Fe-S clusters depends on the activity of the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly and sulfur mobilization (SUF) apparatus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the mechanisms that control Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis are still poorly defined. In this study, we performed a global screen to identify the factors affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis using the Keio collection, which is a library of 3,815 single-gene E. coli knockout mutants. The approach was based on radiolabeling of the cells with [2-(14)C]dihydrouracil, which entirely depends on the activity of an Fe-S enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. We identified 49 genes affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and/or iron homeostasis, including 23 genes important only under microaerobic/anaerobic conditions. This study defines key proteins associated with Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis, which will aid further understanding of the cellular mechanisms that coordinate the processes. In addition, we applied the [2-(14)C]dihydrouracil-labeling method to analyze the role of amino acid residues of an Fe-S cluster assembly scaffold (IscU) as a model of the Fe-S cluster assembly apparatus. The analysis showed that Cys37, Cys63, His105, and Cys106 are essential for the function of IscU in vivo, demonstrating the potential of the method to investigate in vivo function of proteins involved in Fe-S cluster assembly.
Project description:In eukaryotes, mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC), export and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machineries carry out biogenesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which are critical for multiple essential cellular pathways. However, little is known about their export out of mitochondria. Here we show that Fe-S assembly of mitoNEET, the first identified Fe-S protein anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, strictly depends on ISC machineries and not on the CIA or CIAPIN1. We identify a dedicated ISC/export pathway in which augmenter of liver regeneration, a mitochondrial Mia40-dependent protein, is specific to mitoNEET maturation. When inserted, the Fe-S cluster confers mitoNEET folding and stability in vitro and in vivo. The holo-form of mitoNEET is resistant to NO and H2O2 and is capable of repairing oxidatively damaged Fe-S of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a master regulator of cellular iron that has recently been involved in the mitochondrial iron supply. Therefore, our findings point to IRP1 as the missing link to explain the function of mitoNEET in the control of mitochondrial iron homeostasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The production of methane by methanogens is dependent on numerous iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins; yet, the machinery involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in methanogens remains largely unknown. Methanogen genomes encode uncharacterized homologs of the core components of the ISC (IscS and IscU) and SUF (SufBC) Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems found in bacteria and eukaryotes. Methanosarcina acetivorans contains three iscSU and two sufCB gene clusters. Here, we report genetic and biochemical characterization of M. acetivorans iscSU2. RESULTS:Purified IscS2 exhibited pyridoxal 5'- phosphate-dependent release of sulfur from L-cysteine. Incubation of purified IscU2 with IscS2, cysteine, and iron (Fe2+) resulted in the formation of [4Fe-4S] clusters in IscU2. IscU2 transferred a [4Fe-4S] cluster to purified M. acetivorans apo-aconitase. IscU2 also restored the aconitase activity in air-exposed M. acetivorans cell lysate. These biochemical results demonstrate that IscS2 is a cysteine desulfurase and that IscU2 is a Fe-S cluster scaffold. M. acetivorans strain DJL60 deleted of iscSU2 was generated to ascertain the in vivo importance of IscSU2. Strain DJL60 had Fe-S cluster content and growth similar to the parent strain but lower cysteine desulfurase activity. Strain DJL60 also had lower intracellular persulfide content compared to the parent strain when cysteine was an exogenous sulfur source, linking IscSU2 to sulfur metabolism. CONCLUSIONS:This study establishes that M. acetivorans contains functional IscS and IscU, the core components of the ISC Fe-S cluster biogenesis system and provides the first evidence that ISC operates in methanogens.
Project description:A number of bacterial species, mostly proteobacteria, possess monothiol glutaredoxins homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial protein Grx5, which is involved in iron-sulphur cluster synthesis. Phylogenetic profiling is used to predict that bacterial monothiol glutaredoxins also participate in the iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) assembly machinery, because their phylogenetic profiles are similar to the profiles of the bacterial homologues of yeast ISC proteins. High evolutionary co-occurrence is observed between the Grx5 homologues and the homologues of the Yah1 ferredoxin, the scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2, the frataxin protein Yfh1 and the Nfu1 protein. This suggests that a specific functional interaction exists between these ISC machinery proteins. Physical interaction analyses using low-definition protein docking predict the formation of strong and specific complexes between Grx5 and several components of the yeast ISC machinery. Two-hybrid analysis has confirmed the in vivo interaction between Grx5 and Isa1. Sequence comparison techniques and cladistics indicate that the other two monothiol glutaredoxins of S. cerevisiae, Grx3 and Grx4, have evolved from the fusion of a thioredoxin gene with a monothiol glutaredoxin gene early in the eukaryotic lineage, leading to differential functional specialization. While bacteria do not contain these chimaeric glutaredoxins, in many eukaryotic species Grx5 and Grx3/4-type monothiol glutaredoxins coexist in the cell.