Localization and proteomic characterization of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains in the inner ear.
ABSTRACT: Biological membranes organize and compartmentalize cell signaling into discrete microdomains, a process that often involves stable, cholesterol-rich platforms that facilitate protein-protein interactions. Polarized cells with distinct apical and basolateral cell processes rely on such compartmentalization to maintain proper function. In the cochlea, a variety of highly polarized sensory and non-sensory cells are responsible for the early stages of sound processing in the ear, yet little is known about the mechanisms that traffic and organize signaling complexes within these cells. We sought to determine the prevalence, localization, and protein composition of cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains in the cochlea. Lipid raft components, including the scaffolding protein caveolin and the ganglioside GM1, were found in sensory, neural, and glial cells. Mass spectrometry of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions revealed over 600 putative raft proteins associated with subcellular localization, trafficking, and metabolism. Among the DRM constituents were several proteins involved in human forms of deafness including those involved in ion homeostasis, such as the potassium channel KCNQ1, the co-transporter SLC12A2, and gap junction proteins GJA1 and GJB6. The presence of caveolin in the cochlea and the abundance of proteins in cholesterol-rich DRM suggest that lipid microdomains play a significant role in cochlear physiology.Although mechanisms underlying cholesterol synthesis, homeostasis, and compartmentalization in the ear are poorly understood, there are several lines of evidence indicating that cholesterol is a key modulator of cochlear function. Depletion of cholesterol in mature sensory cells alters calcium signaling, changes excitability during development, and affects the biomechanical processes in outer hair cells that are responsible for hearing acuity. More recently, we have established that the cholesterol-modulator beta-cyclodextrin is capable of inducing significant and permanent hearing loss when delivered subcutaneously at high doses. We hypothesize that proteins involved in cochlear homeostasis and otopathology are partitioned into cholesterol-rich domains. The results of a large-scale proteomic analysis point to metabolic processes, scaffolding/trafficking, and ion homeostasis as particularly associated with cholesterol microdomains. These data offer insight into the proteins and protein families that may underlie cholesterol-mediated effects in sensory cell excitability and cyclodextrin ototoxicity.
Project description:Lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains in the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, are hot spots for a number of important cellular processes. The novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutation ?C418W, the first lipid-exposed mutation identified in a patient that causes slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome was shown to be cholesterol-sensitive and to accumulate in microdomains rich in the membrane raft marker protein caveolin-1. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the mechanism by which lateral segregation into specialized raft membrane microdomains regulates the activable pool of nAChRs. We performed fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), quantitative RT-PCR, and whole cell patch clamp recordings of GFP-encoding Mus musculus nAChRs transfected into HEK 293 cells to assess the role of cholesterol and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in the diffusion, expression, and functionality of the nAChR (WT and ?C418W). Our findings support the hypothesis that a cholesterol-sensitive nAChR might reside in specialized membrane microdomains that upon cholesterol depletion become disrupted and release the cholesterol-sensitive nAChRs to the pool of activable receptors. In addition, our results in HEK 293 cells show an interdependence between CAV-1 and ?C418W that could confer end plates rich in ?C418W nAChRs to a susceptibility to changes in cholesterol levels that could cause adverse drug reactions to cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins. The current work suggests that the interplay between cholesterol and CAV-1 provides the molecular basis for modulating the function and dynamics of the cholesterol-sensitive ?C418W nAChR.
Project description:Connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin30 (Cx30) are two major protein subunits that co-assemble to form gap junctions (GJs) in the cochlea. Mutations in either one of them are the major cause of non-syndromic prelingual deafness in humans. Because the mechanisms of cochlear pathogenesis caused by Cx mutations are unclear, we investigated effects of Cx30 null mutation on GJ-mediated ionic and metabolic coupling in the cochlea of mice. A novel flattened cochlear preparation was used to directly assess intercellular coupling in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Double-electrode patch clamp recordings revealed that the absence of Cx30 did not significantly change GJ conductance among the cochlear supporting cells. The preserved electrical coupling is consistent with immunolabeling data showing extensive Cx26 GJs in the cochlea of the mutant mice. In contrast, dye diffusion assays showed that the rate and extent of intercellular transfer of multiple fluorescent dyes (including a non-metabolizable D-glucose analogue, 2-NBDG) among cochlear supporting cells were severely reduced in Cx30 null mice. Since the sensory epithelium in the cochlea is an avascular organ, GJ-facilitated intercellular transfer of nutrient and signaling molecules may play essential roles in cellular homeostasis. To test this possibility, NBDG was used as a tracer to study the contribution of GJs in transporting glucose into the cochlear sensory epithelium when delivered systemically. NBDG uptake in cochlear supporting cells was significantly reduced in Cx30 null mice. The decrease was also observed with GJ blockers or glucose competition, supporting the specificity of our tests. These data indicate that GJs facilitate efficient uptake of glucose in the supporting cells. This study provides the first direct experimental evidence showing that the transfer of metabolically-important molecules in cochlear supporting cells is dependent on the normal function of GJs, thereby suggesting a novel pathogenesis process in the cochlea for Cx-mutation-linked deafness.
Project description:Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a Triton X-100-insoluble fraction isolated from lysates of platelets by flotation in sucrose gradients. Transmission electron microscopy of the insoluble material revealed a heterogeneous population of vesicles ranging in size from 20 to 1000 nm, and Western blot analyses of platelet lysates for the caveolae structural coat protein, caveolin/VIP21, were negative. Biochemical characterization of the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction showed it to be cholesterol-rich, greatly and specifically enriched in the plasma membrane glycoprotein CD36, and also to contain Src and the Src-related kinase, Lyn. CD36 within this fraction is shown to be palmitoylated, but the fraction itself is not generally enriched in palmitoylated platelet proteins. These results suggest that this fraction represents caveolin-negative, CD36-rich microdomains in the resting platelet membrane. CD36 can form associations with certain Src-related kinases and can signal to activate platelets. These results suggest the possibility that such microdomains are implicated in platelet activation.
Project description:Sphingolipid microdomains are thought to result from the organization of plasma membrane sphingolipids and cholesterol into a liquid ordered phase, wherein the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are enriched. These domains, resistant to extraction by cold Triton X-100, can be isolated as buoyant membrane complexes (detergent-resistant membranes) in isopycnic density gradients. Here the effects of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), a specific cholesterol-binding agent that neither binds nor inserts into the plasma membrane, were investigated on the sphingolipid microdomains of lymphocytes. MBCD released substantial quantities of GPI-anchored Thy-1 and glycosphingolipid GM1, and also other surface proteins including CD45, and intracellular Lck and Fyn kinases. From endothelial cells, MBCD released GPI-anchored CD59, and CD44, but only a negligible amount of caveolin. Most MBCD-released Thy-1 and CD59 were not sedimentable and thus differed from Thy-1 released by membrane-active cholesterol-binding agents such as saponin and streptolysin O, or Triton X-100. Unlike that released by Triton X-100, only part of the Thy-1 molecules released by MBCD was buoyant in density gradients and co-isolated with GM1. Finally, treatment of Triton X-100-isolated detergent-resistant membranes with MBCD extracted most of the cholesterol without affecting the buoyant properties of Thy-1 or GM1. We suggest that (1) MBCD preferentially extracts cholesterol from outside, rather than within the sphingolipid microdomains and (2) this partly solubilizes GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the glycerophospholipid-rich membrane and releases sphingolipid microdomains in both vesicular and non-vesicular form.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Lipid rafts are cholesterol enriched microdomains that colocalize signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. We examined the effect of methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD)-mediated cholesterol extraction on the proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and angiogenesis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured cholesterol and estimated cell toxicity. Detergent resistant membrane (DRM) and non-DRM fractions were separated using the OptiPrep gradient method. Cell cycles stages were analyzed by flow cytometry, apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and metastasis was determined using a Matrigel invasion assay. Neo-vessel pattern and levels of angiogenic modulators were determined using an <i>in vitro</i> angiogenesis assay and an angiogenesis array, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>The present study found that the cholesterol-depleting agent M?CD, efficiently depleted membrane cholesterol and caused concentration dependent (0.1-0.5 mM) cytotoxicity compared to nystatin and filipin III in TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. A reduced proportion of caveolin-1 found in DRM fractions indicated a cholesterol extraction-induced disruption of lipid raft integrity. M?CD inhibited 52% of MDA-MB 231 cell adhesion on fibronectin and 56% of MDA-MB 468 cell adhesion on vitronectin, while invasiveness of these cells was decreased by 48% and 52% respectively, following M?CD treatment (48 hours). M?CD also caused cell cycle arrest at the G<sub>2</sub>M phase and apoptosis in MDA-MB 231 cells (25% and 58% cells, respectively) and in MDA-MB 468 cells (30% and 38% cells, respectively). We found that M?CD treated cells caused a 52% and 58% depletion of neovessel formation in both MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468 cell lines, respectively. This study also demonstrated that M?CD treatment caused a respective 2.6- and 2.5-fold depletion of tyrosine protein kinase receptor (TEK) receptor tyrosine kinase levels in both TNBC cell lines.<h4>Conclusion</h4>M?CD-induced cholesterol removal enhances alterations in lipid raft integrity, which reduces TNBC cell survival.
Project description:Although lipid-rich microdomains of hepatocyte plasma membranes serve as the major scaffolding regions for cholesterol transport proteins important in cholesterol disposition, little is known regarding intracellular factors regulating cholesterol distribution therein. On the basis of its ability to bind cholesterol and alter hepatic cholesterol accumulation, the cytosolic liver type FA binding protein (L-FABP) was hypothesized to be a candidate protein regulating these microdomains. Compared with wild-type hepatocyte plasma membranes, L-FABP gene ablation significantly increased the proportion of cholesterol-rich microdomains. Lack of L-FABP selectively increased cholesterol, phospholipid (especially phosphatidylcholine), and branched-chain FA accumulation in the cholesterol-rich microdomains. These cholesterol-rich microdomains are important, owing to enrichment therein of significant amounts of key transport proteins involved in uptake of cholesterol [SR-B1, ABCA-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), sterol carrier binding protein (SCP-2)], FA transport protein (FATP), and glucose transporters 1 and 2 (GLUT1, GLUT2) insulin receptor. L-FABP gene ablation enhanced the concentration of SCP-2, SR-B1, FATP4, and GLUT1 in the cholesterol-poor microdomains, with functional implications in HDL-mediated uptake and efflux of cholesterol. Thus L-FABP gene ablation significantly impacted the proportion of cholesterol-rich versus -poor microdomains in the hepatocyte plasma membrane and altered the distribution of lipids and proteins involved in cholesterol uptake therein.
Project description:Growth of normal cells is anchorage dependent because signalling through multiple pathways including Erk, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and Rac requires integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Components of these pathways localize to low-density, cholesterol-rich domains in the plasma membrane named 'lipid rafts' or 'cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains' (CEMM). We previously reported that integrin-mediated adhesion regulates CEMM transport such that cell detachment from the extracellular matrix triggers CEMM internalization and clearance from the plasma membrane. We now report that this internalization is mediated by dynamin-2 and caveolin-1. Internalization requires phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on Tyr 14. A shift in localization of phospho-caveolin-1 from focal adhesions to caveolae induces CEMM internalization upon cell detachment, which mediates inhibition of Erk, PI(3)K and Rac. These data define a novel molecular mechanism for growth and tumour suppression by caveolin-1.
Project description:In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin controls transport of water and solutes via regulation of membrane transporters such as aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the epithelial urea transporter UT-A. To discover proteins potentially involved in vasopressin action in rat kidney collecting ducts, we enriched membrane "raft" proteins by harvesting detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Proteins were identified and quantified with LC-MS/MS. A total of 814 proteins were identified in the DRM fractions. Of these, 186, including several characteristic raft proteins, were enriched in the DRMs. Immunoblotting confirmed DRM enrichment of representative proteins. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of rat IMCDs with antibodies to DRM proteins demonstrated heterogeneity of raft subdomains: MAL2 (apical region), RalA (predominant basolateral labeling), caveolin-2 (punctate labeling distributed throughout the cells), and flotillin-1 (discrete labeling of large intracellular structures). The DRM proteome included GPI-anchored, doubly acylated, singly acylated, cholesterol-binding, and integral membrane proteins (IMPs). The IMPs were, on average, much smaller and more hydrophobic than IMPs identified in non-DRM-enriched IMCD. The content of serine 256-phosphorylated AQP2 was greater in DRM than in non-DRM fractions. Vasopressin did not change the DRM-to-non-DRM ratio of most proteins, whether quantified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, n=22) or immunoblotting (n=6). However, Rab7 and annexin-2 showed small increases in the DRM fraction in response to vasopressin. In accord with the long-term goal of creating a systems-level analysis of transport regulation, this study has identified a large number of membrane-associated proteins expressed in the IMCD that have potential roles in vasopressin action.
Project description:Proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases generates beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides, which accumulate in the brains of individuals affected by Alzheimer disease. Detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRM) rich in cholesterol and sphingolipid, termed lipid rafts, have been implicated in Abeta production. Previously, we and others reported that the four integral subunits of the gamma-secretase associate with DRM. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying DRM association of gamma-secretase subunits. We report that in cultured cells and in brain the gamma-secretase subunits nicastrin and APH-1 undergo S-palmitoylation, the post-translational covalent attachment of the long chain fatty acid palmitate common in lipid raft-associated proteins. By mutagenesis we show that nicastrin is S-palmitoylated at Cys(689), and APH-1 is S-palmitoylated at Cys(182) and Cys(245). S-Palmitoylation-defective nicastrin and APH-1 form stable gamma-secretase complexes when expressed in knock-out fibroblasts lacking wild type subunits, suggesting that S-palmitoylation is not essential for gamma-secretase assembly. Nevertheless, fractionation studies show that S-palmitoylation contributes to DRM association of nicastrin and APH-1. Moreover, pulse-chase analyses reveal that S-palmitoylation is important for nascent polypeptide stability of both proteins. Co-expression of S-palmitoylation-deficient nicastrin and APH-1 in cultured cells neither affects Abeta40, Abeta42, and AICD production, nor intramembrane processing of Notch and N-cadherin. Our findings suggest that S-palmitoylation plays a role in stability and raft localization of nicastrin and APH-1, but does not directly modulate gamma-secretase processing of APP and other substrates.
Project description:KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 voltage-gated potassium channel subunits play key roles in hearing. Other members of the KCNQ family also encode slow, low voltage-activated K(+) M currents. We have previously reported the presence of M-like K(+) currents in sensory hair cells, and expression of Kcnq family genes in the cochlea. Here, we describe Kcnq2/3 gene expression and distribution of M channel subunits KCNQ2 and 3 in the cochlea. By using RT-PCR, we found expression of Kcnq2 in the modiolus and organ of Corti, while Kcnq3 expression was also detected in the cochlear lateral wall. Five alternative splice variants of the Kcnq2 gene, one of which has not been reported previously, were identified in the rat cochlea. KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 immunoreactivities were observed in spiral ganglion auditory neurons. In addition, the unmyelinated parts of the nerve fibers innervating hair cells and synaptic regions under hair cells showed KCNQ2 immunoreactivity. KCNQ3 immunoreactivity was also prominent in spiral ganglion satellite cells. These findings suggest that cochlear M channels play important roles in regulation of cellular excitability and maintenance of cochlear K(+) homeostasis in the auditory system.