Rnd3 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation through notch signaling.
ABSTRACT: Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase.
Project description:Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) 3 (Rnd3), a member of the small Rho GTPase family, is involved in the regulation of cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and proliferation through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling pathway. We report a role of Rnd3 in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus disorder. Mice with Rnd3 genetic deletion developed severe obstructive hydrocephalus with enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles, but not of the fourth ventricles. The cerebral aqueducts in Rnd3-null mice were partially or completely blocked by the overgrowth of ependymal epithelia. We examined the molecular mechanism contributing to this Rnd3-deficiency-mediated hydrocephalus and found that Rnd3 is a regulator of Notch signaling. Rnd3 deficiency, through either gene deletion or siRNA knockdown, resulted in a decrease in Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein degradation. However, there was no correlated change in mRNA change, which in turn led to an increase in NICD protein levels. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Rnd3 and NICD physically interacted, and that down-regulation of Rnd3 attenuated NICD protein ubiquitination. This eventually enhanced Notch signaling activity and promoted aberrant growth of aqueduct ependymal cells, resulting in aqueduct stenosis and the development of congenital hydrocephalus. Inhibition of Notch activity rescued the hydrocephalus disorder in the mutant animals.
Project description:Activation of Notch signaling contributes to glioblastoma multiform (GBM) tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism that promotes the Notch signaling augmentation during GBM genesis remains largely unknown. Identification of new factors that regulate Notch signaling is critical for tumor treatment. The expression levels of RND3 and its clinical implication were analyzed in GBM patients. Identification of RND3 as a novel factor in GBM genesis was demonstrated in vitro by cell experiments and in vivo by a GBM xenograft model. We found that RND3 expression was significantly decreased in human glioblastoma. The levels of RND3 expression were inversely correlated with Notch activity, tumor size, and tumor cell proliferation, and positively correlated with patient survival time. We demonstrated that RND3 functioned as an endogenous repressor of the Notch transcriptional complex. RND3 physically interacted with NICD, CSL, and MAML1, the Notch transcriptional complex factors, promoted NICD ubiquitination, and facilitated the degradation of these cofactor proteins. We further revealed that RND3 facilitated the binding of NICD to FBW7, a ubiquitin ligase, and consequently enhanced NICD protein degradation. Therefore, Notch transcriptional activity was inhibited. Forced expression of RND3 repressed Notch signaling, which led to the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in the xenograft mice in vivo. Downregulation of RND3, however, enhanced Notch signaling activity, and subsequently promoted glioma cell proliferation. Inhibition of Notch activity abolished RND3 deficiency-mediated GBM cell proliferation. We conclude that downregulation of RND3 is responsible for the enhancement of Notch activity that promotes glioblastoma genesis.
Project description:Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) 3 (Rnd3), a member of the small Rho GTPase family, has been suggested to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and apoptosis through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling pathway. The biological function of Rnd3 in the heart is unknown. The downregulation of small GTPase Rnd3 transcripts was found in patients with end-stage heart failure. The pathological significance of Rnd3 loss in the transition to heart failure remains unexplored. To investigate the functional consequence of Rnd3 downregulation and the associated molecular mechanism, we generated Rnd3(+/-) haploinsufficient mice to mimic the downregulation of Rnd3 observed in the failing human heart. Rnd3(+/-) mice were viable; however, the mice developed heart failure after pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Remarkable apoptosis, increased caspase-3 activity, and elevated Rho kinase activity were detected in the Rnd3(+/-) haploinsufficient animal hearts. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase by fasudil treatment partially improved Rnd3(+/-) mouse cardiac functions and attenuated myocardial apoptosis. To determine if Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1) was responsible for Rnd3 deficiency-mediated apoptotic cardiomyopathy, we established a double-knockout mouse line, the Rnd3 haploinsufficient mice with ROCK1-null background (Rnd3(+/-/ROCK1-/-)). Again, genetic deletion of ROCK1 partially but not completely rescued Rnd3 deficiency-mediated heart failure phenotype. These data suggest that downregulation of Rnd3 correlates with cardiac loss of function as in heart failure patients. Animals with Rnd3 haploinsufficiency are predisposed to hemodynamic stress. Hyperactivation of Rho kinase activity is responsible in part for the apoptotic cardiomyopathy development. Further investigation of ROCK1-independent mechanisms in Rnd3-mediated cardiac remodeling should be the focus for future study.
Project description:Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3) is involved in multiple physiological activities involving the Rho kinase?dependent signaling pathway. The present study revealed a novel role of RND3 in the regulation of apoptosis in the brain. Using immunofluorescence and TUNEL assays, a decreased rate of brain apoptosis was observed in Rnd3?knockout mice. In addition, the function of RND3 in promoting apoptosis was determined in PC12 cells by immunoblotting assays and flow cytometry analysis in RNA interference and overexpression experiments. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that Rnd3 and P65 protein interacted using immunoprecipitation analysis, and Rnd3 regulated apoptosis via its association with NF??B P65. Notably, Rnd3 blocked the anti?apoptotic action of NF??B P65 in vitro by downregulating P65. Therefore, RND3?NF??B P65 represents a novel signaling pathway in the regulation of brain apoptosis. The present study suggested an alternative approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases through regulation of apoptosis via the RND3?NF??B P65 signaling pathway in the central nervous system.
Project description:The actin cytoskeleton controls multiple cellular functions, including cell morphology, movement, and growth. Accumulating evidence indicates that oncogenic activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway is accompanied by actin cytoskeletal reorganization. However, the signaling events contributing to actin cytoskeleton remodeling mediated by aberrant ERK1/2 activation are largely unknown. Mutant B-RAF is found in a variety of cancers, including melanoma, and it enhances activation of the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway. We show that targeted knockdown of B-RAF with small interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibition of MEK increased actin stress fiber formation and stabilized focal adhesion dynamics in human melanoma cells. These effects were due to stimulation of the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK)/LIM kinase-2 signaling pathway, cumulating in the inactivation of the actin depolymerizing/severing protein cofilin. The expression of Rnd3, a Rho antagonist, was attenuated after B-RAF knockdown or MEK inhibition, but it was enhanced in melanocytes expressing active B-RAF. Constitutive expression of Rnd3 suppressed the actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion effects mediated by B-RAF knockdown. Depletion of Rnd3 elevated cofilin phosphorylation and stress fiber formation and reduced cell invasion. Together, our results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions.
Project description:Superoxide and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and proliferation play crucial roles in the vascular remodeling. Vascular remodeling contributes to the development and complications of hypertension. Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3 or RhoE), an atypical small Rho-GTPase, is known to be involved in cancer development and metastasis. However, the roles of RND3 in superoxide production and cardiovascular remodeling are unknown. Here, we uncovered the critical roles of RND3 in attenuating superoxide production, VSMCs migration and proliferation, and vascular remodeling in hypertension and its underline mechanisms. VSMCs were isolated and prepared from thoracic aorta of Male Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). RND3 mRNA and protein expressions in arteries and VSMCs were down-regulated in SHR. RND3 overexpression in VSMCs reduced NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity, NOX1 and NOX2 expressions, mitochondria superoxide generation, and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> production in SHR. Moreover, the RND3 overexpression inhibited VSMCs migration and proliferation in SHR, which were similar to the effects of NOX1 inhibitor ML171 plus NOX2 inhibitor GSK2795039. Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) and RhoA expressions and myosin phosphatase targeting protein 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation in VSMCs were increased in SHR, which were prevented by RND3 overexpression. ROCK1 overexpression promoted NOX1 and NOX2 expressions, superoxide and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> production, VSMCs migration and proliferation in both WKY and SHR, which were attenuated by RND3 overexpression. Adenoviral-mediated RND3 overexpression in SHR attenuated hypertension, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress. These results indicate that RND3 attenuates VSMCs migration and proliferation, hypertension and vascular remodeling in SHR via inhibiting ROCK1-NOX1/2 and mitochondria superoxide signaling.
Project description:The depth of cell invasion into the dermis is a clinical determinant for poor prognosis in cutaneous melanoma. The signaling events that promote the switch from a noninvasive to invasive tumor phenotype remain obscure. Activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase B-RAF are prevalent in melanoma. Mutant B-RAF is required for melanoma cell invasion. The expression of Rnd3, a Rho family GTPase, is regulated by mutant B-RAF, although its role in melanoma progression is unknown. In this study, we determined the functional contribution of Rnd3 to invasive melanoma. Endogenous Rnd3 was targeted for knockdown using a doxycycline-inducible short hairpin RNA system in invasive human melanoma cells. Depletion of Rnd3 promoted prominent actin stress fibers and enlarged focal adhesions. Mechanistically, stress fiber formation induced by Rnd3 knockdown required the specific involvement of RhoA and ROCK1/2 activity but not RhoB or RhoC. Rnd3 expression in human melanoma cell lines was strongly associated with elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and invasive behavior in a three-dimensional dermal-like environment. A functional role for Rnd3 was shown in the invasive outgrowth of melanoma tumor spheroids. Knockdown of Rnd3 reduced the invasive outgrowth of spheroids embedded in collagen gels. Additionally, Rnd3 depletion inhibited collective and border cell movement out from spheroids in a ROCK1/2-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings implicate Rnd3 as a major suppressor of RhoA-mediated actin cytoskeletal organization and in the acquisition of an invasive melanoma phenotype.
Project description:Rnd3, also known as RhoE, belongs to the Rnd subclass of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. Rnd proteins are unique due to their inability to switch from a GTP-bound to GDP-bound conformation. Even though studies of the biological function of Rnd3 are far from being concluded, information is available regarding its expression pattern, cellular localization, and its activity, which can be altered depending on the conditions. The compiled data from these studies implies that Rnd3 may not be a traditional small GTPase. The basic role of Rnd3 is to report as an endogenous antagonist of RhoA signaling-mediated actin cytoskeleton dynamics, which specifically contributes to cell migration and neuron polarity. In addition, Rnd3 also plays a critical role in arresting cell cycle distribution, inhibiting cell growth, and inducing apoptosis and differentiation. Increasing data have shown that aberrant Rnd3 expression may be the leading cause of some systemic diseases; particularly highlighted in apoptotic cardiomyopathy, developmental arrhythmogenesis and heart failure, hydrocephalus, as well as tumor metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, a better understanding of the function of Rnd3 under different physiological and pathological conditions, through the use of suitable models, would provide a novel insight into the origin and treatment of multiple human diseases.
Project description:Rnd3, a small Rho GTPase, is involved in the regulation of cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. The biological function of Rnd3 in the heart remains unexplored.To define the functional role of the Rnd3 gene in the animal heart and investigate the associated molecular mechanism.By loss-of-function approaches, we discovered that Rnd3 is involved in calcium regulation in cardiomyocytes. Rnd3-null mice died at the embryonic stage with fetal arrhythmias. The deletion of Rnd3 resulted in severe Ca(2+) leakage through destabilized ryanodine receptor type 2 Ca(2+) release channels. We further found that downregulation of Rnd3 attenuated ?2-adrenergic receptor lysosomal targeting and ubiquitination, which in turn resulted in the elevation of ?2-adrenergic receptor protein levels leading to the hyperactivation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. The PKA activation destabilized ryanodine receptor type 2 channels. This irregular spontaneous Ca(2+) release can be curtailed by PKA inhibitor treatment. Increases in the PKA activity along with elevated cAMP levels were detected in Rnd3-null embryos, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and noncardiac cell lines with Rnd3 knockdown, suggesting a general mechanism for Rnd3-mediated PKA signaling activation. ?2-Adrenergic receptor blocker treatment reduced arrhythmia and improved cardiac function.Rnd3 is a novel factor involved in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis regulation in the heart. Deficiency of the protein induces ryanodine receptor type 2 dysfunction by a mechanism that attenuates Rnd3-mediated ?2-adrenergic receptor ubiquitination, which leads to the activation of PKA signaling. Increased PKA signaling in turn promotes ryanodine receptor type 2 hyperphosphorylation, which contributes to arrhythmogenesis and heart failure.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been used in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for years with promising results, in particular in patients with activating mutations in the EGFR kinase domain (exon 19 E746-A750 deletion or exon 21 L858R point mutation). However, despite their great success in the clinic, a significant number of patients do not respond to EGFR-TKIs, such as those carrying the L858R/T790M mutation or EGFR wild type. Thus, detecting the EGFR mutation status before EGFR-TKIs therapy is essential to ensure its efficacy. In this study, we report a novel SPECT tracer 99mTc-HYNIC-MPG that binds specifically to activating mutant EGFR and which could therefore be used to noninvasively select patients sensitive to EGFR-TKIs. We evaluated the capacity of 99mTc-HYNIC-MPG in detecting EGFR-activating mutations both in vitro and in vivo using four human NSCLC cell lines (PC9, H1975, H358 and H520). 99mTc-HYNIC-MPG had significantly higher accumulation in PC9 tumor cells when compared to H1975, H358 and H520 tumors cells, which may be due to the activating mutations (exon 19 deletion) in EGFR tyrosine kinase domain in PC9 cells. Thus, 99mTc-HYNIC-MPG SPECT imaging may be used to identify NSCLC tumors with a potential high response rate to EGFR-TKIs.