Different endocytotic uptake mechanisms for nanoparticles in epithelial cells and macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Precise knowledge regarding cellular uptake of nanoparticles is of great importance for future biomedical applications. Four different endocytotic uptake mechanisms, that is, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis, were investigated using a mouse macrophage (J774A.1) and a human alveolar epithelial type II cell line (A549). In order to deduce the involved pathway in nanoparticle uptake, selected inhibitors specific for one of the endocytotic pathways were optimized regarding concentration and incubation time in combination with fluorescently tagged marker proteins. Qualitative immunolocalization showed that J774A.1 cells highly expressed the lipid raft-related protein flotillin-1 and clathrin heavy chain, however, no caveolin-1. A549 cells expressed clathrin heavy chain and caveolin-1, but no flotillin-1 uptake-related proteins. Our data revealed an impeded uptake of 40 nm polystyrene nanoparticles by J774A.1 macrophages when actin polymerization and clathrin-coated pit formation was blocked. From this result, it is suggested that macropinocytosis and phagocytosis, as well as clathrin-mediated endocytosis, play a crucial role. The uptake of 40 nm nanoparticles in alveolar epithelial A549 cells was inhibited after depletion of cholesterol in the plasma membrane (preventing caveolin-mediated endocytosis) and inhibition of clathrin-coated vesicles (preventing clathrin-mediated endocytosis). Our data showed that a combination of several distinguishable endocytotic uptake mechanisms are involved in the uptake of 40 nm polystyrene nanoparticles in both the macrophage and epithelial cell line.
Project description:Understanding the endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery vehicle complexes remains a critical bottleneck in designing siRNA delivery vehicles for highly active RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. In this study, we show that dextran functionalization of silica nanoparticles enhanced uptake and intracellular delivery of siRNAs in cultured cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors for endocytotic pathways, we determined that our complexes are endocytosed via a previously unreported mechanism for siRNA delivery in which dextran initiates scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis through a clathrin/caveolin-independent process. Our findings suggest that siRNA delivery efficiency could be enhanced by incorporating dextran into existing delivery platforms to activate scavenger receptor activity across a variety of target cell types.
Project description:The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) shows high affinity binding to multiple inflammatory CC and CXC chemokines and is expressed by erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial DARC facilitates chemokine transcytosis to promote neutrophil recruitment. However, the mechanism of chemokine endocytosis by DARC remains unclear.We investigated the role of several endocytic pathways in DARC-mediated ligand internalization. Here we report that, although DARC co-localizes with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells, caveolin-1 is dispensable for DARC-mediated (125)I-CXCL1 endocytosis as knockdown of caveolin-1 failed to inhibit ligand internalization. (125)I-CXCL1 endocytosis by DARC was also independent of clathrin and flotillin-1 but required cholesterol and was, in part, inhibited by silencing Dynamin II expression.(125)I-CXCL1 endocytosis was inhibited by amiloride, cytochalasin D, and the PKC inhibitor Gö6976 whereas Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) enhanced ligand internalization through DARC. The majority of DARC-ligand interactions occurred on the endothelial surface, with DARC identified along plasma membrane extensions with the appearance of ruffles, supporting the concept that DARC provides a high affinity scaffolding function for surface retention of chemokines on endothelial cells.These results show DARC-mediated chemokine endocytosis occurs through a macropinocytosis-like process in endothelial cells and caveolin-1 is dispensable for CXCL1 internalization.
Project description:Intestinal mucosal inflammation is associated with epithelial wounds that rapidly reseal by migration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Cell migration involves cycles of cell-matrix adhesion/deadhesion that is mediated by dynamic turnover (assembly and disassembly) of integrin-based focal adhesions. Integrin endocytosis appears to be critical for deadhesion of motile cells. However, mechanisms of integrin internalization during remodeling of focal adhesions of migrating IECs are not understood. This study was designed to define the endocytic pathway that mediates internalization of beta(1)-integrin in migrating model IECs. We observed that, in SK-CO15 and T84 colonic epithelial cells, beta(1)-integrin is internalized in a dynamin-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis and small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knock down of clathrin did not prevent beta(1)-integrin internalization. However, beta(1)-integrin internalization was inhibited following cholesterol extraction and after overexpression of lipid raft protein, caveolin-1. Furthermore, internalized beta(1)-integrin colocalized with the lipid rafts marker cholera toxin, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of caveolin-1 and flotillin-1/2 increased beta(1)-integrin endocytosis. Our data suggest that, in migrating IEC, beta(1)-integrin is internalized via a dynamin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathway. Such endocytosis is likely to be important for disassembly of integrin-based cell-matrix adhesions and therefore in regulating IEC migration and wound closure.
Project description:Pharmaceutical intervention often requires therapeutics and/or their carriers to enter cells via endocytosis. Therefore, endocytic aberrancies resulting from disease represent a key, yet often overlooked, parameter in designing therapeutic strategies. In the case of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), characterized by lysosomal accumulation of undegraded substances, common clinical interventions rely on endocytosis of recombinant enzymes. However, the lysosomal defect in these diseases can affect endocytosis, as we recently demonstrated for clathrin-mediated uptake in patient fibroblasts with type A Niemann-Pick disease (NPD), a disorder characterized by acid sphingomylinase (ASM) deficiency and subsequent sphingomyelin storage. Using similar cells, we have examined if this is also the case for clathrin-independent pathways, including caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. We observed impaired caveolin-1 enrichment at ligand-binding sites in NPD relative to wild type fibroblasts, corresponding with altered uptake of ligands and fluid-phase markers by both pathways. Similarly, aberrant lysosomal storage of sphingomyelin induced by pharmacological means also diminished uptake. Partial degradation of the lysosomal storage by untargeted recombinant ASM led to partial uptake enhancement, whereas both parameters were restored to wild type levels by ASM delivery using model polymer nanocarriers specifically targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Carriers also restored caveolin-1 enrichment at ligand-binding sites and uptake through the caveolar and macropinocytic routes. These results demonstrate a link between lysosomal storage in NPD and alterations in clathrin-independent endocytosis, which could apply to other LSDs. Hence, this study shall guide the design of therapeutic approaches using viable endocytic pathways.
Project description:Flotillins were proposed to mediate clathrin-independent endocytosis, and recently, flotillin-1 was implicated in the protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered endocytosis of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Since endocytosis of DAT was previously shown to be clathrin-mediated, we re-examined the role of clathrin coat proteins and flotillin in DAT endocytosis using DAT tagged with the hemagglutinin epitope (HA) in the extracellular loop and a quantitative HA antibody uptake assay. Depletion of flotillin-1, flotillin-2 or both flotillins together by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not inhibit PKC-dependent internalization and degradation of HA-DAT. In contrast, siRNAs to clathrin heavy chain and ?2 subunit of clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 as well as a dynamin inhibitor Dyngo-4A significantly decreased PKC-dependent endocytosis of HA-DAT. Similarly, endocytosis and degradation of DAT that is not epitope-tagged were highly sensitive to the clathrin siRNAs and dynamin inhibition but were not affected by flotillin knockdown. Very little co-localization of DAT with flotillins was observed in cells ectopically expressing DAT and in cultured mouse dopaminergic neurons. Depletion of flotillins increased diffusion rates of HA-DAT in the plasma membrane, suggesting that flotillin-organized microdomains may regulate the lateral mobility of DAT. We propose that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major pathway of PKC-dependent internalization of DAT, and that flotillins may modulate functional association of DAT with plasma membrane rafts rather than mediate DAT endocytosis.
Project description:A polarized layer of endothelial cells that comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) precludes access of systemically administered medicines to brain tissue. Consequently, there is a need for drug delivery vehicles that mediate transendothelial transport of such medicines. Endothelial cells use a variety of endocytotic pathways for the internalization of exogenous materials, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolar endocytosis, and macropinocytosis. The different modes of endocytosis result in the delivery of endocytosed material to distinctive intracellular compartments and therewith correlated differential processing. To obtain insight into the properties of drug delivery vehicles that direct their intracellular processing in brain endothelial cells, we investigated the intracellular processing of fixed-size nanoparticles in an in vitro BBB model as a function of distinct nanoparticle surface modifications. Caveolar endocytosis, adsorptive-mediated endocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis were promoted by the use of uncoated 500-nm particles, attachment of the cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and attachment of prion proteins, respectively. We demonstrate that surface modifications of nanoparticles, including charge and protein ligands, affect their mode of internalization by brain endothelial cells and thereby their subcellular fate and transcytotic potential.
Project description:Polymeric nanoparticles allow to selectively transport chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor tissue. These nanocarriers have to be taken up into the cells to release the drug. In addition, tumors often show pathological metabolic characteristics (hypoxia and acidosis) which might affect the polymer endocytosis.Six different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer structures (homopolymer as well as random and block copolymers with lauryl methacrylate containing hydrophobic side chains) varying in molecular weight and size were analyzed in two different tumor models. The cellular uptake of fluorescence-labeled polymers was measured under hypoxic (pO2 ?1.5 mmHg) and acidic (pH 6.6) conditions. By using specific inhibitors, different endocytotic routes (macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated, dynamin-dependent, cholesterol-dependent endocytosis) were analyzed separately.The current results revealed that the polymer uptake depends on the molecular structure, molecular weight and tumor line used. In AT1 cells, the uptake of random copolymer was five times stronger than the homopolymer, whereas in Walker-256 cells, the uptake of all polymers was much stronger, but this was independent of the molecular structure and size. Acidosis increased the uptake of random copolymer in AT1 cells but reduced the intracellular accumulation of homopolymer and block copolymer. Hypoxia reduced the uptake of all polymers in Walker-256 cells. Hydrophilic polymers (homopolymer and block copolymer) were taken up by all endocytotic routes studied, whereas the more lipophilic random copolymer seemed to be taken up preferentially by cholesterol- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis.The study indicates that numerous parameters of the polymer (structure, size) and of the tumor (perfusion, vascular permeability, pH, pO2) modulate drug delivery, which makes it difficult to select the appropriate polymer for the individual patient.
Project description:In the research field of nanoparticles, many studies demonstrated a high impact of the shape, size and surface charge, which is determined by the functionalization, of nanoparticles on cell viability and internalization into cells. This work focused on the comparison of three different nanoparticle types to give a better insight into general rules determining the biocompatibility of gold, Janus and semiconductor (quantum dot) nanoparticles. Endothelial cells were subject of this study, since blood is the first barrier after intravenous nanoparticle application. In particular, stronger effects on the viability of endothelial cells were found for nanoparticles with an elongated shape in comparison to spherical ones. Furthermore, a positively charged nanoparticle surface (NH2, CyA) leads to the strongest reduction in cell viability, whereas neutral and negatively charged nanoparticles are highly biocompatible to endothelial cells. These findings are attributed to a rapid internalization of the NH2-functionalized nanoparticles in combination with the damage of intracellular membranes. Interestingly, the endocytotic pathway seems to be a size-dependent process whereas nanoparticles with a size of 20 nm are internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis and nanoparticles with a size of 40 nm are taken up by clathrin-mediated internalization and macropinocytosis. Our results can be summarized to formulate five general rules, which are further specified in the text and which determine the biocompatibility of nanoparticles on endothelial cells. Our findings will help to design new nanoparticles with optimized properties concerning biocompatibility and uptake behavior with respect to the respective intended application.
Project description:In secretory epithelial cells, the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) plays a major role in salt and fluid secretion. Our laboratory has identified NKCC1 surface expression as an important regulatory mechanism for Cl(-) secretion in the colonic crypt cell line T84, a process also present in native human colonic crypts. We previously showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by carbachol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decreases NKCC1 surface expression in T84 cells. However, the specific endocytic entry pathway has not been defined. We used a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line stably transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-NKCC1 to map NKCC1 entry during PMA exposure. At given times, we fixed and stained the cells with specific markers (e.g., dynamin II, clathrin heavy chain, and caveolin-1). We also used chlorpromazine, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, amiloride, and dynasore, blockers of the clathrin, caveolin, and macropinocytosis pathways and the vesicle "pinchase" dynamin, respectively. We found that PMA caused dose- and time-dependent NKCC1 endocytosis. After 2.5 min of PMA exposure, approximately 80% of EGFP-NKCC1 endocytic vesicles colocalized with clathrin and approximately 40% colocalized with dynamin II and with the transferrin receptor, the uptake of which is also mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles. We did not observe significant colocalization of EGFP-NKCC1 endocytic vesicles with caveolin-1, a marker of the caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway. We quantified the effect of each inhibitor on PMA-induced EGFP-NKCC1 endocytosis and found that only chlorpromazine and dynasore caused significant inhibition compared with the untreated control (61% and 25%, respectively, at 2.5 min). Together, these results strongly support the conclusion that PMA-stimulated NKCC1 endocytosis is associated with a clathrin pathway.
Project description:Successful implementation of gene therapy heavily relies on efficiently delivering genetic materials and specific targeting into cells. Oncogene-driven endocytosis stimulates nutrient uptake and also develops an endocytosis-mediated defense against therapeutic agents. Cell-penetrating peptides, typically HIV-Tat, are well known for efficient delivery of nucleic acid drugs but lack targeting specificity. Various passive targeting strategies were pursued to enhance the tumor targeting efficiency; however, they are still limited by complicated cellular endocytosis routes and the heterogeneity of cancer types.Tat/pDNA complexes were noncovalently compacted and their physiochemical properties were determined. The siRNA pool and pLV-RNAi-GFP lentivirus were used to knock down dbl oncogene (originally isolated from diffuse B-cell lymphoma) expression, and its overexpression was performed by plasmid transient transfection. The cellular uptake of fluorescent ligands was quantified by confocal imaging and flow cytometry analysis. The transgene efficiency was determined by the Luciferase expression assay. Rho GTPase activation was checked by the GST-Rho GTPase-binding domain pull-down assay.pGL3 plasmid DNA was noncovalently compacted with the Tat peptide into nano-size complexes at high N/P ratios. Macropinocytosis, a clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis process, was shown to contribute to the uptake of middle-sized (?600 nm) Tat/pGL3 complexes. Cell-type-specific variation in macropinocytosis was essentially controlled by the action of the Dbl oncogene. Onco-Dbl presentation constantly induced a high level of macropinocytosis activity in ovarian cancer cells. Onco-Dbl overexpression hyperstimulated macropinocytosis enhancement in cells mainly through actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by the PH domain and Rac1 activation. The Dbl-driven Rho GTPase signaling collectively determined the cell-type-specific macropinocytosis phenotype.Such an aspect can be exploited to selectively confer targeted delivery of Tat/pDNA nano-complexes into ovarian cancer cells. Our work provides a novel alternative for targeted delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-based nucleic acid drugs into certain tumor types if specific endocytosis pathways are used.