The mutation profile of JAK2 and CALR in Chinese Han patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR are highly relevant to the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed high resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing together with T-A cloning to elucidate the unique mutation profile of these genes, in Chinese patients with MPNs. Peripheral blood DNA samples were obtained from 80 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 80 patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Ten PV patients were identified with diverse JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Five novel JAK2 Exon 12 mutation patterns (M532V/E543G, N533D, M535I/H538Y/K549I, E543G and D544N) were described. JAK2 V617F was detected in 140 samples (66 PV, 45 ET and 29 PMF). JAK2 Exon 12 mutations were prevalent (13%) and variable in the Chinese patients. Compared with PV patients with JAK2 V617F mutations, PV patients with JAK2 exon 12 mutations had an earlier median onset of disease (P?=?0.0013). MPL W515L/K mutations were discerned in 4 ET and 3 PMF patients. Two kinds of CALR mutation, c. 1179_1230del and c. 1234_1235insTTGTC were detected in 20 ET and 16 PMF patients. A novel CALR mutation pattern (c. 1173_1223del/c. 1179_1230del) was identified in 2 PMF samples. In addition, 17 scattered point mutations in CALR c.1153 to c.1255 were also detected in 13 cases with CALR frame-shifting variations and 2 cases without CALR frame-shifting variations. Female patients showed a predisposition to CALR mutations (P?=?0.0035). Chinese Ph-negative MPN patients have a unique mutation landscape in the common molecular markers of MPN diagnosis. Validation of the molecular diagnostic pipeline should be emphasized since there is a considerable ethnical diversity in the molecular profiles of Ph-negative MPNs.
Project description:Calreticulin (CALR) plays important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. CALR mutations were described recently in Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2)-negative or MPL-negative primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. CALR trails JAK2 as the second most mutated gene in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). However, little is known about CALR mutation in Chinese patients with leukemia. In the present study, a cohort of 305 Chinese patients with hematopoietic neoplasms was screened for CALR mutations, with the aim of uncovering the frequency of CALR mutations in leukemia and MPNs.Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing were performed to analyze mutations of CALR in 305 patients with hematopoietic malignancies, including 135 acute myeloid leukemia patients, 57 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, and 113 MPN patients.CALR mutations were found in 10.6% (12 of 113) of samples from patients with MPNs. CALR mutations were determined in 11.3% (6 of 53), 21.7% (5 of 23), and 9.1% (1/11) of patients with ET, PMF, and unclassifiable MPN, respectively.We showed that MPN patients carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels compared to those with mutated JAK2. However, all of the leukemia patients had negative results for CALR mutations.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>The complexity of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) cannot be characterized by acquired somatic mutations alone. Individual genetic background is thought to contribute to the development of MPNs. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the <i>TET2</i> rs1548483 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the susceptibility to polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We evaluated the <i>TET2</i> rs1548483 SNP through real-time PCR in 1601 MPN patients out of which 431 with PV, 688 with TE, 233 with PMF, 249 with CML and 197 controls. We included only patients with a molecularly proven driver mutation, such as <i>JAK2</i> V617F, <i>CALR</i> or <i>BCR-ABL1</i>.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Significant association between <i>TET2</i> rs154843 variant allele and <i>JAK2</i> V617F-positive PV and PMF (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.01-2.91; <i>p</i>-value = 0.046, and OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.10-3.77; <i>p</i>-value = 0.024, respectively), and type 2 <i>CALR</i>-positive PMF (OR = 2.98; 95% CI: 1.12-7.93; <i>p</i>-value = 0.035) was noted.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>The <i>TET2</i> rs1548483 SNP is associated with the susceptibility to molecularly annotated PV and PMF.
Project description:Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method.
Project description:Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) characterized by erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis, respectively. Approximately 95% of PV and 50-70% of ET patients harbor the V617F mutation in the exon 14 of JAK2 gene, while about 20-30% of ET patients carry CALRins5 or CALRdel52 mutations. These ET CALR-mutated subjects show higher platelet count and lower thrombotic risk compared to JAK2-mutated patients. Here, we showed that CALR-mutated and JAK2V617F-positive CD34+ cells display different gene and miRNA expression profiles. Indeed, we highlighted several pathways differentially activated between JAK2V617F- and CALR-mutated progenitors, i.e., mTOR, MAPK/PI3K, and MYC pathways. Furthermore, we unveiled that the expression of several genes involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, splicing, and chromatid cohesion are decreased in CALR-mutated cells. According to the low risk of thrombosis in CALR-mutated patients, we also found the downregulation of several genes involved in thrombin signaling and platelet activation. As a whole, these data support the model that CALR-mutated ET could be considered as a distinct disease entity from JAK2V617F-positive MPNs and may provide the molecular basis supporting the different clinical features of these patients.
Project description:Mutations of JAK2V617F, CALR, and MPL genes confirm the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). This study aims to determine the genetic profile of JAK2V617F, CALR exon 9 Type 1 (52 bp deletion) and Type 2 (5 bp insertion), and MPL W515 L/K genes among Malaysian patients and correlate these mutations with clinical and hematologic parameters in MPN. Mutations of JAK2V617F, CALR, and MPL were analyzed in 159 Malaysian patients using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, including 76 polycythemia vera (PV), 41 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 42 primary myelofibrosis (PMF) mutations, and the demographics of the patients were retrieved. The result showed that 73.6% JAK2V617F, 5.66% CALR, and 27.7% were triple-negative mutations. No MPL W515L/K mutation was detected. In ET and PMF, the predominance type was the CALR Type 1 mutation. In JAK2V617F mutant patients, serum LDH was significantly higher in PMF compared to PV and ET. PV has a higher risk of evolving to post PV myelofibrosis compared to ET. A thrombotic event at initial diagnosis of 40.9% was high compared to global incidence. Only one PMF patient had a CALR mutation that transformed to acute myeloid leukemia. JAK2V617F and CALR mutations play an important role in diagnostics. Hence, every patient suspected of having a myeloproliferative neoplasm should be screened for these mutations.
Project description:We evaluated the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of calreticulin (CALR) mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients. In all, 48 ET and 14 PMF patients were enrolled, and the presence of CALR mutations was analyzed by direct sequencing. Patients were classified into three subgroups according to Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F and CALR mutation status, and their clinical features and prognosis were compared. CALR mutations were detected in 15 (24.2%) patients, and the incidence increased to 50.0% in 30 JAK2 V617F mutation-negative cases. These included 11 patients with three known mutations (c.1092_1143del [seven cases], c.1154_1155insTTGTC [three cases], and c.1102_1135del [one case]) and 4 patients with novel mutations. ET patients carrying CALR mutation were younger, had lower white blood cell counts, and experienced less thrombosis during follow-up than those carrying JAK2 V617F mutation, while both patient groups showed similar clinical features and prognosis. In ET patients without JAK2 V617F mutation, CALR mutation did not significantly affect clinical manifestation and prognosis. In conclusion, CALR mutation analysis could be a useful diagnostic tool for ET and PMF in 50% of the cases without JAK2 V617F mutations. The prognostic impact of CALR mutations needs further investigation.
Project description:Primary mielofibrosis (PMF) is a rare chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal megakaryocytes (Mks) in the bone marrow (BM), variable degrees of BM fibrosis, osteosclerosis and angiogenesis, immature myeloid and erythroid cells, and tear-drop erythrocytes in the peripheral blood (PB), and extramedullary hematopoiesis. The identification of the JAK2V617F mutation represented a seminal discovery in the field of Philadelphia-chromosome–negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), providing clues to the pathogenesis, prompting a revision of the diagnostic criteria, and culminating in the development of clinical trials with JAK2 (and JAK1) inhibitors. The JAK2V617F mutation occurs in almost all patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and in 50%-70% of those with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Soon after the identification of the JAK2V617F mutation, mutations in JAK2 exon 12 were described in rare patients with JAK2V617F-negative PV and mutations in MPL were reported in 5%-10% of ET or PMF subjects. The complexity of the molecular pathogenesis of MPNs is reinforced by discovery of additional mutations in TET2, ASXL1, CBL, IDH1/IDH2, EZH2 and IKZF1. These mutations are detected in a minority of patients at different phases of the disorder, including leukemic transformation, and are variably associated each other and with JAK2 or MPL mutations. In order to better characterize biological differences between mutated and wild-type PMF cell populations we performed a gene expression profiling on 9 samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes and 11 wild-type samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip technology. After data preprocessing and filtering a supervised analysis approach was used to define a gene expression signature for mutated samples. PMF samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes exhibit a specific molecular signature as compared with WT samples. Gene expression profile (GEP) of CD34+ cells from 20 PMF patients (1 replicate for each sample). In particular, GEP was performed on 9 samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes and 11 wild-type samples.
Project description:Mutations in the gene calreticulin (CALR) occur in the majority of JAK2- and MPL-unmutated patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF); identifying CALR mutations contributes to the diagnostic pathway of ET and PMF. CALR mutations are heterogeneous spanning over the exon 9, but all result in a novel common protein C terminus. We developed a polyclonal antibody against a 17-amino-acid peptide derived from mutated calreticulin that was used for immunostaining of bone marrow biopsies. We show that this antibody specifically recognized patients harboring different types of CALR mutation with no staining in healthy controls and JAK2- or MPL-mutated ET and PMF. The labeling was mostly localized in megakaryocytes, whereas myeloid and erythroid cells showed faint staining, suggesting a preferential expression of calreticulin in megakaryocytes. Megakaryocytic-restricted expression of calreticulin was also demonstrated using an antibody against wild-type calreticulin and by measuring the levels of calreticulin RNA by gene expression analysis. Immunostaining using an antibody specific for mutated calreticulin may become a rapid, simple and cost-effective method for identifying CALR-mutated patients complementing molecular analysis; furthermore, the labeling pattern supports the preferential expansion of megakaryocytic cell lineage as a result of CALR mutation in an immature hematopoietic stem cell.
Project description:This study aimed to determine GATA1 expression levels to better characterize subgroups in BCR/ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs).This study enrolled 49 patients diagnosed as having BCR/ABL1-negative MPN on the basis of the 2016 World Health Organization classification : nine polycythemia vera (PV), 17 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 12 prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis (prePMF), and 11 overt primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Relevant clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from the medical records. The molecular analysis of CALR and MPL mutations and quantification of JAK2 V617F allele burden were performed. GATA1 expression was assessed by an immunohistochemical assay on bone marrow biopsy. GATA1 expression was analyzed serially in 18 patients.GATA1 expression decreased significantly in PMF compared with that in other subtypes, while no statistical difference was identified between ET and prePMF. GATA1 expression did not differ according to the mutation profiles or the allele burden of JAK2 V617F, but it decreased significantly in patients with overt fibrosis or leukemic transformation.Our results suggest that GATA1 expression is significantly low in PMF and decreases with progressive fibrosis and possibly with leukemic transformation, although our attempt to accurately distinguish between subgroups using GATA1 immunohistochemical approach did not achieve statistical significance. A large patient cohort with long term follow-up is required to evaluate the prognostic value of GATA1 expression.
Project description:The myeloproliferative neoplasms are chronic myeloid cancers divided in Philadelphia positive (Ph+), chronic myeloid leukemia, or negative: polycythemia vera (PV) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Most Ph negative cases have an activating JAK2 or MPL mutation. Recently, somatic mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) were detected in 56-88% of JAK2/MPL-negative patients affected by ET or PMF. The most frequent mutations in CARL gene are type-1 and 2. Currently, CALR mutations are evaluated by sanger sequencing. The evaluation of CARL mutations increases the diagnostic accuracy in patients without other molecular markers and could represent a new therapeutic target for molecular drugs.We developed a novel detection assay in order to identify type-1 and 2 CALR mutations by PNA directed PCR clamping. Seventy-five patients affected by myeloproliferative neoplasms and seven controls were examined by direct DNA sequencing and by PNA directed PCR clamping. The assay resulted to be more sensitive, specific and cheaper than sanger sequencing and it could be applied even in laboratory not equipped for more sophisticated analysis. Interestingly, we report here a case carrying both type 1 and type2 mutations in CALR gene.