CYP2B6 c.983T>C polymorphism is associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity in Malawian and Ugandan HIV populations.
ABSTRACT: Nevirapine, an NNRTI used in HIV treatment, can cause hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients. In the most serious cases (1.3%) this can manifest as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).DNA samples were obtained and analysed from a total of 209 adult patients with nevirapine hypersensitivity (57 from a prospective cohort and 152 routine clinic patients) and compared with 463 control patients on nevirapine without any hypersensitivity. The case group included 70 patients with SJS/TEN. All individuals were genotyped for two SNPs in the CYP2B6 gene [c.516G>T (CYP2B6*9) and c.983T>C (CYP2B6*18)] using the TaqMan real-time genotyping platform. The replication cohort comprised 29 controls and 55 nevirapine hypersensitive patients, including 8 SJS/TEN cases.An association between the CYP2B6 c.983T>C polymorphism and nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN was observed. In the SJS/TEN group, 30% of individuals possessed at least one c.983T>C versus 16% in the tolerant group [P = 0.006; OR (95% CI) 2.24 (1.27-3.94)]. This association was not significant in the replication cohort [P = 0.075; OR (95% CI) 4.33 (0.80-23.57)]. Combined analysis resulted in an OR of 2.52 (95% CI 1.48-4.20; P = 0.0005) for the association of c.983T>C with SJS/TEN. No association was observed for c.983T>C with other hypersensitivity phenotypes and for CYP2B6 c.516G>T with any hypersensitivity phenotypes.Our data show an association between the c.983T>C polymorphism and nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN. CYP2B6 c.983T>C has a frequency of 5%-10% in a variety of African populations, but is not observed in Caucasians, thus representing an ethnic-specific predisposing factor.
Project description:Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) affect the steady state plasma concentration of nevirapine. CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C are common in African populations, but data on their influence on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical response in African women are limited. We investigated the impact of CYP 516G>T and 983T>C on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected Kenyan women.Study subjects were 66 HIV-1-seropositive women taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Plasma collected at week 12 was analyzed for nevirapine concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. Baseline samples were genotyped for CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load, and genotypic drug resistance in plasma and genital secretions were assessed at baseline and during follow up. We evaluated the effect of each genotype on plasma nevirapine concentration at week 12 and on change in CD4 cell count at months 3, 6 and 12. Associations between plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes were analyzed by logistic or linear regression.Women with CYP2B6 516TT genotype (n=9) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (14.33 μg/mL) compared to those with heterozygous 516GT (9.18 μg/mL; n=25) and wild- type 516GG (7.95 μg/mL; n=32) genotypes (P=0.01). Women heterozygous for the CYP2B6 983TC genotype (n=13) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (12.94 μg/mL), compared to women with the homozygous 983TT (8.35 μg/mL; n=53) genotype (P=0.007). In Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, plasma nevirapine levels predicted greater change in CD4 cell count after ART initiation (adjusted beta 119.4 cells/μL, 95% CI, 27.3-211.5 cells/μL, P=0.01). The CYP2B6 983TT genotype also predicted greater change in CD4 cell count (adjusted beta 68.6 cells/μL, 95% CI, 3.9-133.4 cells/μL, P=0.04). We found no associations between CYP2B6 genotypes and virologic response or toxicity.CYP2B6 516G>T and CYP2B6 983T>C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients.
Project description:The extremely high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and limitations of current antiretroviral medicines demand new tools to optimize therapy such as pharmacogenomics for person-to-person variations. African populations exhibit greater genetic diversity than other world populations, thus making it difficult to extrapolate findings from one population to another. Nevirapine, an antiretroviral medicine, displays large plasma concentration variability which adversely impacts therapeutic virological response. This study, therefore, aimed to identify sources of variability in nevirapine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, focusing on genetic variation in CYP2B6 and CYP1A2. Using a cross-sectional study design, 118 HIV-infected adult Zimbabwean patients on nevirapine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were characterized for three key functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), CYP2B6 c.516G>T (rs3745274), CYP2B6 c.983T>C (rs28399499), and CYP1A2 g.-163C>A (rs762551). We investigated whether genotypes at these loci were associated with nevirapine plasma concentration, a therapeutic biomarker, and CD4 cell count, a biomarker of disease progression. CYP2B6 and CYP1A2 were chosen as the candidate genes based on reports in literature, as well as their prominence in the metabolism of efavirenz, a drug in the same class with nevirapine. Nevirapine plasma concentration was determined using LC-MS/MS. The mean nevirapine concentration for CYP2B6 c.516T/T genotype differed significantly from that of 516G/G (p < 0.001) and 516G/T (p < 0.01) genotypes, respectively. There were also significant differences in mean nevirapine concentration between CYP2B6 c.983T > C genotypes (p = 0.04). Importantly, the CYP1A2 g.-163C>A SNP was significantly associated with the pharmacodynamics endpoint, the CD4 cell count (p = 0.012). Variant allele frequencies for the three SNPs observed in this Zimbabwean group were similar to other African population groups but different to observations among Caucasian and Asian populations. We conclude that CYP2B6 c.516G>T and CYP2B6 c.983T>C could be important sources of nevirapine pharmacokinetic variability that could be considered for dosage optimization, while CYP1A2 g.-163C>A seems to be associated with HIV disease progression. These inter- and intra-population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics differences suggest that a single prescribed dosage may not be appropriate for the treatment of disease. Further research into a personalized nevirapine regimen is required.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine.Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for HIV/AIDS. Plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine were assessed by HPLC, and genotyping for 516G>T, 983T>C and 1459T>C polymorphisms in CYP2B6 was conducted by real-time PCR-based allelic discrimination.The minor allele frequency for 516G>T, 983T>C and 1459T>C was 0.29, 0 and 0.08 in Caucasians and 0.34, 0.07 and 0.02 in Blacks, respectively. Two Black patients with the 983C allele receiving efavirenz were identified and both were withdrawn from therapy within 1 week of sampling due to toxicity. In multivariate analyses, efavirenz and nevirapine plasma concentrations were significantly associated with 983T>C (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.02, respectively), 516G>T (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and time of drug analysis post-dose (P < 0.0001 for both). Body mass index was independently related to efavirenz (P = 0.04) but not nevirapine concentrations, and age was related to nevirapine (P = 0.05) but not efavirenz concentrations. Consistent with other studies, 1459C>T was not associated with plasma concentrations of either drug (P > 0.05 for both drugs).This is the first report that the 983T>C genotype (part of the CYP2B6*18 haplotype) impacts on nevirapine plasma concentrations and the first study to assess the impact of 983C homozygosity on efavirenz concentrations. These data have implications for administration of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to Black patients.
Project description:Nevirapine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 and CYP3A4. We characterized relationships between clinical parameters, human genetics, pharmacokinetics, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations in pregnant women following single-dose intrapartum nevirapine.In AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5207, women received nevirapine at onset of labor and were randomly assigned to receive lamivudine/zidovudine, emtricitabine/tenofovir, or lopinavir/ritonavir for 7 or 21 days. Plasma nevirapine level was quantified on postpartum day 1 and on weeks 1, 3, and 5. We assayed 214 polymorphisms in CYP2B6 and other genes and evaluated associations with pharmacokinetic parameters, including elimination constant, time to protein-adjusted 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), and week 5 nevirapine level below the quantification limit.Among 301 women with evaluable pharmacokinetic and genotype data, lower body mass index and random assignment to receive lopinavir/ritonavir were associated with more rapid nevirapine elimination. Among those of African ancestry, longer time to IC50 was associated with CYP2B6 983T → C (P = .004) but not with CYP2B6 516G → T (P = .8). Among Indians, slower nevirapine elimination was associated with CYP2B6 516G → T (P = .04). Emergent resistance was infrequent and not associated with pharmacokinetics or CYP2B6 genotype.The effects on plasma drug exposure following single-dose nevirapine may be greater for CYP2B6 983T → C than for 516G → T and are less pronounced than at steady state.
Project description:We modeled nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected Malawian patients to assess the relationship between drug exposure and patient characteristics, genetic polymorphisms, and development of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). One thousand one hundred seventeen patients were prospectively recruited and followed for 26 weeks with multiple or single serum samples obtained in a subset of patients for NVP quantification. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes were typed. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling was utilized to assess the influence of patient characteristics and host genetics on NVP apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and to explore the relationship between NVP CL/F and HSR. Published haplotype distributions were used to simulate NVP concentrations in Caucasians versus Africans. One hundred eighty patients (101 female) were included in the model; 25 experienced HSR. No associations between patient demographics or HSR and NVP CL/F were evident. A significant relationship between CYP2B6 c.983T>C and CYP2B6 c.516G>T and NVP CL/F was observed (P < 0.01). NVP CL/F was reduced by 23% and 36% in patients with CYP2B6 983TT/516TT and 983TC/516GG or GT, respectively, compared to the reference genotype. Simulated exposures suggested similar proportions (13 to 17%) of patients with subtherapeutic NVP among Caucasians and an African population. Influence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on NVP CL/F in this population is in agreement with other reports. Our data indicate a lack of association between NVP exposure and HSR. Based on these data, dose optimization based solely on ethnicity (without individual gene testing) is unlikely to impact on risk of treatment failure or toxicity even in an African population with high carriage of poor metabolizer mutations.
Project description:Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 affect the steady-state plasma concentrations of nevirapine and efavirenz. In many resource-limited countries, a single dose of nevirapine has been widely prescribed to pregnant women at delivery, to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We characterized associations between genetic polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of single doses of nevirapine and efavirenz.Plasma drug concentrations were determined over the 13-day period after administration of a 200-mg oral dose of nevirapine to nonpregnant, HIV-negative African Americans. A 600-mg oral dose of efavirenz was subsequently administered, and pharmacokinetic sampling was repeated. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental approach. Primary analyses involved 2 CYP2B6 polymorphisms (516G --> T and 983T --> C) known to predict increased steady-state plasma nevirapine and efavirenz exposure. Exploratory analyses involved another 51 polymorphisms in CYP2B6, ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5.On the basis of the composite CYP2B6 516/983 genotype, the 34 participants comprised 10 extensive, 17 intermediate, and 7 slow metabolizer genotypes. The composite CYP2B6 516/983 genotype was significantly associated with plasma drug exposure and clearance for efavirenz but not nevirapine. Exploratory analyses suggested possible associations between additional CYP2B6 polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine and efavirenz.Selective pressure for drug-resistant HIV-1 after administration of single-dose nevirapine may not differ substantially according to CYP2B6 516/983 genotype. Additional polymorphisms, genes, and populations warrant further study.
Project description:In a previous analysis involving protocol ANRS 12154, interindividual variability in steady-state nevirapine clearance among HIV-infected Cambodians was partially explained by CYP2B6 516G?T (CYP2B6*6). Here, we examine whether additional genetic variants predict nevirapine clearance in this cohort.Analyses included Phnom Penh ESTHER (Ensemble pour une Solidarité Thérapeutique Hospitalière en Réseau) cohort participants who had consented for genetic testing. All participants were receiving nevirapine plus two nucleoside analogs. The mean individual nevirapine clearance estimates were derived from a population model developed on nevirapine concentrations at 18 and 36 months of therapy. Polymorphisms were assayed in ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and NR1I2.Of 198 assayed loci, 130 were polymorphic. Among 129 individuals with evaluable genetic data, nevirapine clearance ranged from 1.06 to 5.00 l/h in 128 individuals and was 7.81 l/h in one individual. In bivariate linear regression, CYP2B6 516G?T (CYP2B6*6) was associated with lower nevirapine clearances (P=3.5×10). In a multivariate linear regression model conditioned on CYP2B6 516G?T, independent associations were identified with CYP2B6 rs7251950, CYP2B6 rs2279343, and CYP3A4 rs2687116. The CYP3A4 association disappeared after censoring the outlier clearance value. A model that included CYP2B6 516G?T (P=1.0×10), rs7251950 (P=4.8×10), and rs2279343 (P=7.1×10) explained 11% of interindividual variability in nevirapine clearance.Among HIV-infected Cambodians, several CYP2B6 polymorphisms were associated independently with steady-state nevirapine clearance. The prediction of nevirapine clearance was improved by considering several polymorphisms in combination.
Project description:The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine is the cornerstone of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, nevirapine is associated with a 6%-10% risk of developing a hypersensitivity reaction, with different phenotypes, including the blistering conditions Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Our aim was to identify predictive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers that are associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity.We identified 117 HIV-infected Malawian adults with nevirapine hypersensitivity (15 drug-induced liver injury [DILI], 33 SJS/TEN, 20 hypersensitivity syndrome, and 46 nevirapine-induced rash plus 3 with both DILI and SJS phenotype) and 155 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched nevirapine-exposed controls. HLA typing for 5 loci (A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1) was undertaken using a sequence-based high-resolution protocol. Logistic regression analysis included CD4(+) cell count as a covariate.HLA-C*04:01 was found to markedly increase the risk for SJS (odds ratio [OR] = 17.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.31-92.80) and all hypersensitivity phenotypes (OR = 2.64; 95% CI, 1.13-6.18) when compared to the baseline rare allele group in a binary logistic regression model. The OR for absolute risk of SJS/TEN associated with carriage of HLA-C*04:01 was 5.17 (95% CI, 2.39-11.18). Positive predictive value was 2.6% and negative predictive value was 99.2%. In addition, a number of alleles within the HLA-DQB1 loci protected against nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity phenotypes.Our study has identified HLA-C*04:01 carriage as a risk factor for nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN in a Malawian HIV cohort. Validation of these findings in a larger cohort of patients and mechanistic investigation of the pathogenesis are required.
Project description:Prior candidate gene studies have associated CYP2B6 516G?T [rs3745274] and 983T?C [rs28399499] with increased plasma efavirenz exposure. We sought to identify novel variants associated with efavirenz pharmacokinetics.Antiretroviral therapy-naive AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies A5202, A5095, and ACTG 384 included plasma sampling for efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Log-transformed trough efavirenz concentrations (Cmin) were previously estimated by population pharmacokinetic modeling. Stored DNA was genotyped with Illumina HumanHap 650Y or 1MDuo platforms, complemented by additional targeted genotyping of CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 with MassARRAY iPLEX Gold. Associations were identified by linear regression, which included principal component vectors to adjust for genetic ancestry.Among 856 individuals, CYP2B6 516G?T was associated with efavirenz estimated Cmin (P=8.5×10). After adjusting for CYP2B6 516G?T, CYP2B6 983T?C was associated (P=9.9×10). After adjusting for both CYP2B6 516G?T and 983T?C, a CYP2B6 variant (rs4803419) in intron 3 was associated (P=4.4×10). After adjusting for all the three variants, non-CYP2B6 polymorphisms were associated at P-value less than 5×10. In a separate cohort of 240 individuals, only the three CYP2B6 polymorphisms replicated. These three polymorphisms explained 34% of interindividual variability in efavirenz estimated Cmin. The extensive metabolizer phenotype was best defined by the absence of all three polymorphisms.Three CYP2B6 polymorphisms were independently associated with efavirenz estimated Cmin at genome-wide significance, and explained one-third of interindividual variability. These data will inform continued efforts to translate pharmacogenomic knowledge into optimal efavirenz utilization.
Project description:AIMS:Genetic factors, notably CYP2B6 516G?T [rs3745274] and 983T?C [rs28399499], explain much of the interindividual variability in efavirenz pharmacokinetics, but data from Africa are limited. We characterized relationships between genetic polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children. METHODS:Steady-state mid-dosing interval efavirenz concentrations were measured. We genotyped 241 polymorphisms in genes potentially relevant to efavirenz metabolism and transport, including ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, NR1I2 and NR1I3. RESULTS:Among 113 participants (59 adults and 54 children), minor allele frequencies for CYP2B6 516G?T, 983T?C, and 15582C?T [rs4803419] were 0.36, 0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Based on composite CYP2B6 15582/516/983 genotype, there were 33 extensive metabolizer, 62 intermediate metabolizer and 18 slow metabolizer genotypes. Median (IQR) mid-dose efavirenz concentrations were 1.44 (1.21-1.93) µg ml(-1), 2.08 (1.68-2.94) µg ml(-1) and 7.26 (4.82-8.34) µg ml(-1) for extensive, intermediate and slow metabolizers, respectively. In univariate analyses, a model that included composite genotype best predicted efavirenz concentrations (? = 0.28, 95% CI 0.21, 0.35, P?=?2.4 × 10(-11)). Among individual CYP2B6 polymorphisms, 516G?T best predicted efavirenz concentrations (??=?0.22, 95% CI 0.13, 0.30, P?=?1.27 × 10(-6)). There was also associations with 983T?C (? = 0.27, 95% CI 0.10, 0.44, P?=?0.002) and 15582C?T (??=?0.11, 95% CI 0.01, 0.22, P?=?0.04). Associations were consistent in adults and children. No other polymorphisms were independently associated with efavirenz concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Composite CYP2B6 genotype based on CYP2B6 516G?T, 983T?C, and 15582C?T best described efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children.