TERT promoter mutations in gliomas, genetic associations and clinico-pathological correlations.
ABSTRACT: The role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in gliomagenesis has been recently further strengthened by the frequent occurrence of TERT promoter mutations (TERTp-mut) in gliomas and evidence that the TERT SNP genetic rs2736100 influences glioma risk. TERTp-mut creates a binding site for Ets/TCF transcription factors, whereas the common rs2853669 polymorphism disrupts another Ets/TCF site on TERT promoter.We sequenced for TERTp-mut in 807 glioma DNAs and in 235 blood DNAs and analysed TERT expression by RT-PCR in 151 samples. TERTp-mut status and TERTp polymorphism rs2853669 were correlated with histology, genomic profile, TERT mRNA expression, clinical outcome and rs2736100 genotype.TERTp-mut identified in 60.8% of gliomas (491 out of 807) was globally associated with poorer outcome (Hazard ratio (HR)=1.50). We defined, based on TERTp-mut and IDH mutation status, four prognostic groups: (1) TERTp-mut and IDH-mut associated with 1p19q codeletion, overall survival (OS)>17 years; (2) TERTp-wt and IDH-mut, associated with TP53 mutation, OS=97.5 months; (3) TERTp-wt and IDH-wt, with no specific association, OS=31.6 months; (4) TERTp-mut and IDH-wt, associated with EGFR amplification, OS=15.4 months. TERTp-mut was associated with higher TERT mRNA expression, whereas the rs2853669 variant was associated with lower TERT mRNA expression. The mutation of CIC (a repressor of ETV1-5 belonging to the Ets/TCF family) was also associated with TERT mRNA upregulation.In addition to IDH mutation status, defining the TERTp-mut status of glial tumours should afford enhanced prognostic stratification of patients with glioma. We also show that TERTp-mut, rs2853669 variant and CIC mutation influence Tert expression. This effect could be mediated by Ets/TCF transcription factors.
Project description:Grade II and III gliomas have variable clinical behaviors, showing the distinct molecular genetic alterations from glioblastoma (GBM), many of which eventually transform into more aggressive tumors. Since the classifications of grade II/III gliomas based on the genetic alterations have been recently emerging, it is now a trend to include molecular data into the standard diagnostic algorithm of glioma.Here we sequenced TERT promoter mutational status (TERTp-mut) in the DNA of 377 grade II/III gliomas and analyzed the clinical factors, molecular aberrations, and transcriptome profiles.We found that TERTp-mut occurred in 145 of 377 grade II and III gliomas (38.5%), mutually exclusive with a TP53 mutation (TP53-mut; P < .001) and coincident with a 1p/19q co-deletion (P = .002). TERTp-mut was an independent predictive factor of a good prognosis in all patients (P = .048). It has been an independent factor associated with a good outcome in the IDH mutation (IDH-mut) subgroup (P = .018), but it has also been associated with a poor outcome in the IDH wild-type (IDH-wt) subgroup (P = .049). Combining TERTp-mut and IDH-mut allowed the grade II/III malignancies to be reclassified into IDH-mut/TERTp-mut, IDH-mut only, TERTp-mut only, and IDH-wt/TERTp-wt. 1p/19q co-deletion, TP53-muts, Ki-67 expression differences, and p-MET expression differences characterized IDH-mut/TERTp-mut, IDH-mut only, TERTp-mut only, and IDH-wt/TERTp-wt subtypes, respectively.Our results showed that TERTp-mut combined with IDH-mut allowed simple classification of grade II/III gliomas for stratifying patients and clarifying diagnostic accuracy by supplementing standard histopathological criteria.
Project description:The promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been regarded as biomarkers with distinct clinical and phenotypic features. Investigated the possible correlations between tumor location and genetic alterations would enhance our understanding of gliomagenesis and heterogeneity of glioma. We examined mutations of TERTp and IDH by direct sequencing and fluorescence in-situ hybridization in a cohort of 225 grades II and III diffuse gliomas. Correlation analysis between molecular markers and tumor locations was performed by Chi-square tests/Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found gliomas in frontal lobe showed higher frequency of TERTp mutation (P=0.0337) and simultaneously mutations of IDH and TERTp (IDH (mut)-TERTp(mut)) (P=0.0281) than frequency of biomarkers mutation of tumors in no-Frontal lobes, while lower frequency of TERTp mutation (P<0.0001) and simultaneously wild type of IDH and TERTp (IDH (wt)-TERTp(wt)) (P<0.0001) in midline than no-midline lobes. Logistic regression analysis indicated that locations of tumors associated with TERTp mutation (OR=0.540, 95% CI 0.324-0.900, P=0.018) and status of combinations of IDH and TERTp (IDH (mut)-TERTp (mut) vs. IDH (wt)-TERTp (wt) OR=0.162, 95% CI 0.075-0.350, P<0.001). In conclusion, grades II and III gliomas harboring TERTp mutation were located preferentially in the frontal lobe and rarely in midline. Association of IDH-TERTp status and tumor location suggests their potential values in molecular classification of grades II and III gliomas.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the lethal tumors with poor prognosis. However, prognostic prediction approaches need to be further explored. Therefore, we developed an evaluation system that could be used for prognostic prediction of GBM patients. Published mRNA expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were analyzed. Quantitative Realtime-PCR of signature genes and molecular aberrations of 178 Xiangya GBM patients were used for confirmation. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed for functional annotation. As a result, we established a 13-gene signature which named Combined Therapy Sensitivity Index (CTSI). Based on a cutoff point, we divided patients into high-risk group and low-risk group. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis, we found that patients in the high-risk group had a shorter overall survival time than patients in the low-risk group (p<0.001 in TCGA and CGGA datasets, p=0.047 in GSE4271 dataset, p=0.008 in Xiangya GBM cohort, HR: 1.65-3.42). By comparing the status of IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation (TERTp-mut) and MGMT promoter methylation, CTSI was predictable in IDH wild-type (IDH-wt)/MGMT promoter unmethylated (MGMTp-unmeth) patients (p=0.037 in IDH-wt/TERTp-mut/MGMTp-unmeth subgroup, HR: 1.98; p=0.032 in IDH-wt/TERTp-wt/MGMTp-unmeth subgroup, HR: 2.09). Based on GESA, the Gene Ontology (GO) gene sets were enriched differently between CTSI high-risk and low-risk groups. Our results showed CTSI risk score can predict the prognosis of IDH-wt/MGMTp-unmeth GBM patients. Based on CTSI, combined with the status of IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation and MGMT promoter methylation, a stepwise prognosis evaluation system which can provide precise prognosis prediction for GBM patients was established.
Project description:The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene is responsible for telomere maintenance in germline and stem cells, and is re-expressed in 90% of human cancers. CpG methylation in the TERT promoter (TERTp) was correlated with TERT mRNA expression. Furthermore, two hotspot mutations in TERTp, dubbed C228T and C250T, have been revealed to facilitate binding of transcription factor ETS/TCF and subsequent TERT expression. This study aimed to elucidate the combined contribution of epigenetic (promoter methylation and chromatin accessibility) and genetic (promoter mutations) mechanisms in regulating TERT gene expression in healthy skin samples and in melanoma cell lines (n = 61). We unexpectedly observed that the methylation of TERTp was as high in a subset of healthy skin cells, mainly keratinocytes, as in cutaneous melanoma cell lines. In spite of the high promoter methylation fraction in wild-type (WT) samples, TERT mRNA was only expressed in the melanoma cell lines with either high methylation or intermediate methylation in combination with TERT mutations. TERTp methylation was positively correlated with chromatin accessibility and TERT mRNA expression in 8 melanoma cell lines. Cooperation between epigenetic and genetic mechanisms were best observed in heterozygous mutant cell lines as chromosome accessibility preferentially concerned the mutant allele. Combined, these results suggest a complex model in which TERT expression requires either a widely open chromatin state in TERTp-WT samples due to high methylation throughout the promoter or a combination of moderate methylation fraction/chromatin accessibility in the presence of the C228T or C250T mutations.
Project description:TERT promoter (TERTp) mutations are found in the majority of World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV adult IDH wild-type glioblastoma (IDH-wt GBM). Here, we characterized the subset of IDH-wt GBMs that do not have TERTp mutations. In a cohort of 121 adult grade IV gliomas, we identified 109 IDH-wt GBMs, after excluding 11 IDH-mutant cases and one H3F3A -mutant case. Within the IDH-wt cases, 16 cases (14.7%) were TERTp wild-type (TERTp-wt). None of the 16 had BRAF V600E or H3F3A G34 hotspot mutations. When compared to TERTp mutants, patients with TERTp-wt GBMs, were significantly younger at first diagnosis (53.2 years vs. 60.7 years, p?=?0.0096), and were more frequently found to have cerebellar location (p?=?0.0027). Notably, 9 of 16 (56%) of TERTp-wt GBMs contained a PIK3CA or PIK3R1 mutation, while only 16/93 (17%) of TERTp-mutant GBMs harbored these alterations (p?=?0.0018). As expected, 8/16 (50%) of TERTp-wt GBMs harbored mutations in the BAF complex gene family (ATRX, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and ARID1A), compared with only 8/93 (9%) of TERTp-mutant GBMs (p?=?0.0003). Mutations in BAF complex and PI3K pathway genes co-occurred more frequently in TERTp-wt GBMs (p?=?0.0002), an association that has been observed in other cancers, suggesting a functional interaction indicative of a distinct pathway of gliomagenesis. Overall, our finding highlights heterogeneity within WHO-defined IDH wild-type GBMs and enrichment of the TERTp-wt subset for BAF/PI3K-altered tumors, potentially comprising a distinct clinical subtype of gliomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High grade glioma molecular profiling is of particular interest in neurooncology. The role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) varies dependent upon other molecular parameters. We explored the role of TERT in 101 high-grade gliomas. METHODS:A total of 101 patients (pts) with grade III-IV gliomas treated with standard of care and informative tumor genotypes were included in the present study. Of 55 genes targeted with the next-generation sequencing panel, mutations (muts) were found in 37; these were included in the analysis. TERT mut were tested with Sanger sequencing. MGMT promoter methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR. RESULTS:270 mut were detected in 92/101 tumors (91.1%). TERT was the most frequently mutated gene (74.3%). IDH1/2 mut were mutually exclusive with mut in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene. Mutated TERT was associated with wild-type (wt) IDH1/2 (p = 0.025). The 12-month overall survival (OS) rate was 74.3% (median OS: 22 months). Pts with TERT and NF1 wt had a median OS of 40.8 months, while among pts with NF1 wt/TERT mutant, the median OS was 18.5 months. NF1 and TERT mut univariately conferred shorter OS (HR = 3.19; p = 0.004 and HR = 2.28; p = 0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, mutated TERT showed marginal unfavorable prognostic significance for OS (p = 0.049), while NF1 lost its unfavorable significance (p = 0.151). CONCLUSIONS:TERT is herein proven to confer poor prognosis in high grade gliomas, independent of IDH and MGMT. NF1 seems to also confer poor prognosis although our small numbers do not allow for firm conclusions.
Project description:Abstract Our previous data showed that WHO grade II/III gliomas with isocitrate dehydrogenase wide-type (IDH-wt) and telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation (TERTp-mut) have dismal prognosis as glioblastoma. This study compared concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CRT) with radiotherapy(RT) alone on the outcome of these patients. Between September 2016 and November 2018, 30 eligible grade II/III glioma patients with IDH-wt and TERTp-mut were randomly assigned to receive either RT (60 Gy in 30 daily fractions for 6 weeks) alone (n=15) or concurrent CRT with daily temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide (n=15). The median follow-up duration was 15.5 months. The median age was 51 years (range, 24–66 years). The median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score at randomization was 80 (range, 60–80). Surgery was the primary treatment. The characteristics of the two treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The 1-year OS rate was significant difference between CRT group (92.3%; 95% CI: 77.8–100) and RT alone group(71.1%; 95% CI: 47.0–95.2) (p = 0.019). Local, distant, and combined tumor recurrence patterns were observed in 4 (26.7%), 1 (6.7%), and 3 patients (20%) in the CRT group and 4 (26.7%), 3 (20%), and 3 patients (20%) in the RT alone group. Those treated with RT alone had shorter median PFS (9 vs 18 months, HR: 0.517; 95% CI: 0.193 to 1.386; p = 0.19). CRT with temozolomide and extent of resection were statistically significant predictors for survival on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that CRT was associated with a significantly better OS compared with RT alone (OR=0.195; 95% CI, 0.044 to 0.867; p=0.032). Consequently, concurrent CRT with daily temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide for newly diagnosed IDHwt/TERTp-mut grade II/III gliomas had significantly better OS compared with RT alone. A large multi-center prospective randomized trial is warranted. The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02766270).
Project description:IDH mutations frequently occur in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas and have favorable prognosis compared to wild-type tumors. However, whether IDH mutations in WHO grade II and II diffuse gliomas predict enhanced sensitivity to adjuvant radiation (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still being debated. Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in gliomas. We previously demonstrated that TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers in glioma survival prognostication when combined with IDH mutations. This study analyzed IDH and TERT promoter mutations in 295 WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas treated with or without adjuvant therapies to explore their impact on the sensitivity of tumors to genotoxic therapies. IDH mutations were found in 216 (73.2%) patients and TERT promoter mutations were found in 112 (38%) patients. In multivariate analysis, IDH mutations (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS in patients receiving genotoxic therapies while TERT promoter mutations were not. In univariate analysis, IDH and TERT promoter mutations were not significant prognostic factors in patients who did not receive genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were factors independently impacting PFS (RT p = 0.001, CHT p = 0.026) in IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas but not in IDH wild-type group. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated TERT promoter mutations further stratified IDH wild-type WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas into two subgroups with different responses to genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were significant parameters influencing PFS in the IDH wt/TERT mut subgroup (RT p = 0.015, CHT p = 0.015) but not in the IDH wt/TERT wt subgroup. Our data demonstrated that IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas had better PFS and OS than their IDH wild-type counterparts when genotoxic therapies were administered after surgery. Importantly, we also found that TERT promoter mutations further stratify IDH wild-type WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas into two subgroups with different responses to adjuvant therapies. Taken together, TERT promoter mutations may predict enhanced sensitivity to genotoxic therapies in IDH wild-type WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas and may justify intensified treatment in this subgroup.
Project description:Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene promoter (TERTp) mutations are recognized as one of the most frequent genetic events in bladder cancer (BC). No studies have focused on the relevance of TERTp mutations in the specific group of tumors treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy. Methods - 125 non muscle invasive BC treated with BCG therapy (BCG-NMIBC) were screened for TERTp mutations, TERT rs2853669 single nucleotide polymorphism, and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) hotspot mutations. Results - TERTp mutations were found in 56.0% of BCG-NMIBC and were not associated with tumor stage or grade. FGFR3 mutations were found in 44.9% of the cases and were not associated with tumor stage or grade nor with TERTp mutations. The TERT rs2853669 single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with tumors of higher grade. The specific c.1-146G>A TERTp mutation was an independent predictor of nonrecurrence after BCG therapy (hazard ratio-0.382; 95% confidence interval-0.150-0.971, p = 0.048). Conclusions - TERTp mutations are frequent in BCG-NMIBC and -146G>A appears to be an independent predictive marker of response to BCG treatment with an impact in recurrence-free survival.
Project description:Mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene promoter (TERTp) are common in glioblastomas (GBMs) and oligodendrogliomas (ODGs), and therefore, have a key role in tumorigenesis and may be of prognostic value. However, the extent of their prognostic importance in various gliomas is controversial. We studied 168 patients separated into five groups: Group 1: 65 patients with ODG carrying an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDH-mutant) and 1p/19q-codeletion, Group 2: 23 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), IDH-mutant, Group 3: 13 patients with GBM, IDH-mutant, Group 4: 15 patients with AA, IDH-wildtype (WT), and Group 5: 52 patients with GBM, IDH-WT. TERTp mutations were found in 96.9%, 4.4%, 76.9%, 20.0%, and 84.6% of patients in Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The R132H mutation in IDH1 was found in 60.5% (23/38) of patients in the AA cohort (Groups 2 and 4) and 20.0% (13/65) of patients from our GBM cohort (Groups 3 and 5), whereas all patients with ODG (Group 1) had a mutation either in IDH1 (n?=?62) or IDH2 (n?=?3). Using Kaplan Meier survival analysis, we found that the TERTp mutation was correlated with poor overall survival (OS) in Groups 2 and 4 combined (P?=?0.001) and in Group 4 (P?=?0.113), and in multivariate analysis, the TERTp mutant group was associated with significantly poor survival in Group 5 (P?=?0.045). However, IDH mutation, MGMT methylation, and younger patient age (<55 years old) were significantly correlated with favorable OS (all P?<?0.05) in our cohort of astrocytic and ODGs. In patients with ODG (Group 1), mutant IDH and TERTp did not have prognostic value because these mutations were universally present. Based on the revised 2016 WHO classification of gliomas, we found that TERTp mutation was frequently present in patients with GBM or ODG and because it was strongly correlated with poor survival outcome in patients with IDH-WT GBM in multivariate analysis, it may be of prognostic value in this subgroup of patients with gliomas.