Risk of diarrhea in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sitagliptin: a meta-analysis of 30 randomized clinical trials.
ABSTRACT: Sitagliptin is an important drug used for diabetes treatment and is used as a monotherapy in diabetic patients. However, there are also reported cases of diarrhea with sitagliptin use. Unfortunately, data concerning the relationship of diarrhea with sitagliptin use in various conditions have yet to be identified. Therefore, the overall incidence and risk of diarrhea with sitagliptin use have not been well defined.We conducted searches on Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomized controlled trials. Registered relevant trials at the clinical trials registration website were also searched. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the overall incidence, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) by using either random-effects or fixed-effect models according to the heterogeneity of the included studies.A total of 8,891 subjects with diabetes from 30 randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of sitagliptin-associated diarrhea was 4.48% (95% CI: 3.59%-5.58%). Compared with the controls, the use of sitagliptin was not associated with a significantly increased risk of diarrhea with an odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.78%-1.55%; P=0.58). No evidence of publication bias was observed.Our study has shown that there is no difference in diarrhea risk between sitagliptin and controlled therapies. Moreover, sitagliptin is not a medicine that potentially increases the risk of diabetic diarrhea. More studies are recommended to further investigate this association.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In a previous pooled analysis of 12 double-blind clinical studies that included data on 6,139 patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, was shown to be generally well tolerated compared with treatment with control agents. As clinical development of sitagliptin continues, additional studies have been completed, and more patients have been exposed to sitagliptin. The purpose of the present analysis is to update the safety and tolerability assessment of sitagliptin by pooling data from 19 double-blind clinical studies.<h4>Methods</h4>The present analysis included data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes who received either sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N = 5,429; sitagliptin group) or a comparator agent (placebo or an active comparator) (N = 4,817; non-exposed group). The 19 studies from which this pooled population was drawn represent the double-blind, randomized studies that included patients treated with the usual clinical dose of sitagliptin (100 mg/day) for between 12 weeks and 2 years and for which results were available as of July 2009. These 19 studies assessed sitagliptin taken as monotherapy, initial combination therapy with metformin or pioglitazone, or as add-on combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea +/- metformin, insulin +/- metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin). Patients in the non-exposed group were taking placebo, metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea +/- metformin, insulin +/- metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin. The analysis used patient-level data from each study to evaluate between-group differences in the exposure-adjusted incidence rates of adverse events.<h4>Results</h4>Summary measures of overall adverse events were similar in the sitagliptin and non-exposed groups, except for an increased incidence of drug-related adverse events in the non-exposed group. Incidence rates of specific adverse events were also generally similar between the two groups, except for increased incidence rates of hypoglycemia, related to the greater use of a sulfonylurea, and diarrhea, related to the greater use of metformin, in the non-exposed group and constipation in the sitagliptin group. Treatment with sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this updated pooled safety analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes, sitagliptin 100 mg/day was generally well tolerated in clinical trials of up to 2 years in duration.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in type 2 diabetic patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has so far remained uncertain.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a government-operated, population-based database, from March 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2011. Type 2 diabetic patients hospitalized for AMI were included in our study. We compared subjects using sitagliptin with comparison group to evaluate its cardiovascular safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke.<h4>Results</h4>We identified a total of 3,282 type 2 diabetic patients hospitalized for AMI (mean follow-up 1.15 years). Of these patients, 547 (16.7%) who were exposed to sitagliptin were defined as the sitagliptin group and 2,735 (83.3 %) who did not use sitagliptin were the comparison group. The incidence of primary composite cardiovascular outcomes was 9.50 per 100 person-years in the sitagliptin group and was 9.70 per 100 person-years in the comparison group (hazard ratio (HR), 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29, P=0.849). Compared to the non-sitagliptin group, the sitagliptin group had similar risks of all-cause mortality, hospitalization for heart failure (HF) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a HR of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61-1.11, P=0.195), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.67-1.29, P=0.660), and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.75-1.14, P=0.473), respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The use of sitagliptin in type 2 diabetic patients with recent AMI was not associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events.
Project description:To analyze the association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and acute pancreatitis in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. A retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database. The risk associated with sitagliptin was compared to that with acarbose, a second-line antidiabetic drug prescribed for patients with similar diabetes severity and with a known neutral effect on pancreatitis. Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010, a total of 8526 sitagliptin initiators and 8055 acarbose initiators who had hypertriglyceridemia or prior hospitalization history for acute pancreatitis were analyzed for the risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis stratified for baseline propensity score. In the crude analysis, sitagliptin was associated with a decreased risk of acute pancreatitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.88) compared to acarbose in diabetic patients with prior history of hospitalization for pancreatitis or hypertriglyceridemia. The association was abolished after stratification for propensity score quintiles (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.79-1.16). Similar results were found separately in both patients' histories of prior hospitalization of acute pancreatitis (adjusted HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76-1.24) and those with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65-1.13). No significant association was found for different durations or accumulative doses of sitagliptin. In the stratified analysis, no significant effect modification was found in relation to patients' characteristics. Use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in high-risk diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia or with history of acute pancreatitis.
Project description:To compare the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sitagliptin or non-sitagliptin comparators.A post hoc assessment of cardiovascular safety in 14,611 patients was performed by pooling data from 25 double-blind studies, which randomised patients at baseline to sitagliptin 100 mg/day or a non-sitagliptin comparator (i.e., non-exposed). Included studies were limited to those at least 12 weeks in duration (range: 12 to 104 weeks). Patient-level data were used in this analysis of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including ischaemic events and cardiovascular deaths. Analyses were performed in three cohorts: the entire 25-study cohort, the cohort from placebo-controlled portions of studies (n=19), and the cohort from studies comparing sitagliptin to a sulphonylurea (n=3).In the entire cohort analysis, 78 patients had at least 1 reported MACE-related event, with 40 in the sitagliptin group and 38 in the non-exposed group. The exposure-adjusted incidence rate was 0.65 per 100 patient-years in the sitagliptin group and 0.74 in the non-exposed group (incidence rate ratio = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 1.30]). In the analysis comparing sitagliptin to placebo, the exposure-adjusted incidence rate was 0.80 per 100-patient-years with sitagliptin and 0.76 with placebo (incidence rate ratio = 1.01 [95% CI: 0.55, 1.86]). In the analysis comparing sitagliptin to sulphonylurea, the exposure-adjusted incidence rate was 0.00 per 100 patient-years with sitagliptin and 0.86 with sulphonylurea (incidence rate ratio = 0.00 [95% CI: 0.00, 0.31]).A pooled analysis of 25 randomised clinical trials does not indicate that treatment with sitagliptin increases cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a subanalysis, a higher rate of cardiovascular-related events was associated with sulphonylurea relative to sitagliptin.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Impaired renal function is a major complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Mild renal impairment is present in 38% of patients with T2DM and may impact choice of antihyperglycemic agent. Sulfonylureas and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are commonly used to treat hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM and renal impairment. Although in general sulfonylurea use is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain, while DPP-4 inhibitor use is associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, and is weight neutral, the relative efficacy and tolerability of these agents in patients with mild renal impairment has not been evaluated.<h4>Methods</h4>In a post hoc analysis, data from 1,211 subjects with T2DM and mild renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rates of 60 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), who completed 25 or 30 weeks of one of three double-blind clinical trials comparing the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin 100 mg/day with sulfonylureas in titrated doses, were pooled. The analysis compared change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, incidence of symptomatic hypoglycemia and the percentages of subjects meeting a composite endpoint of HbA1c decrease >0.5% without symptomatic hypoglycemia or body weight gain between sitagliptin and sulfonylurea treatment groups.<h4>Results</h4>HbA1c and FPG decreased similarly with sitagliptin or sulfonylurea. A lower incidence of hypoglycemia was observed with sitagliptin. Body weight decreased with sitagliptin but increased with sulfonylurea. A greater percentage of subjects treated with sitagliptin (41.1%) than treated with sulfonylurea (16.9%) achieved the composite endpoint of >0.5% HbA1c reduction with no symptomatic hypoglycemia or body weight gain.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this analysis of subjects with T2DM and mild renal impairment, treatment with sitagliptin provided glycemic efficacy similar to sulfonylurea, with less hypoglycemia and with body weight loss compared to body weight gain seen with sulfonylurea.<h4>Trial registrations</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00482079, #NCT00094770, #NCT00701090.
Project description:The incidence of heart failure hospitalization (HHF) after taking sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis is unclear. In this population-based cohort study, we identified individuals with T2DM and ESRD on dialysis who were treated with sitagliptin between 2009 and 2011 and randomly selected a control cohort matched by age, sex, duration of T2DM, hypertension medications, use of statin and aspirin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and insulin usage, atherosclerotic heart disease, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a 1:4 ratio. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate HHF risk. The overall incidence of HHF was higher in the sitagliptin cohort than in the control cohort (1130 vs. 754 per 10000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95% CI?=?1.21-1.90). There was a significant trend towards increased HHF risk associated with increased sitagliptin dose (p for trend?<?0.01). Subjects at greater risk of HHF after taking sitagliptin were those without severe hypoglycemia, without ACE inhibitors treatment, with history of heart failure or receiving hemodialysis rather than peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, use of sitagliptin was associated with an increased risk of HHF in patients with T2DM on dialysis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To synthesize current evidence of the impact of Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on hypoglycemia, treatment discontinuation and glycemic level in patients with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review and network meta-analysis.<h4>Data sources</h4>Literature search (Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library), website of clinical trial, bibliographies of published systematic reviews.<h4>Eligibility criteria</h4>Randomized controlled trials with available data comparing GLP-1 RAs with placebo or traditional anti-diabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Data synthesis</h4>Traditional pairwise meta-analyses within DerSimonian-Laird random effects model and network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework were performed to calculate odds ratios for the incidence of hypoglycemia, treatment discontinuation, HbA1c<7.0% and HbA1c<6.5%. Ranking probabilities for all treatments were estimated to obtain a treatment hierarchy using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) and mean ranks.<h4>Results</h4>78 trials with 13 treatments were included. Overall, all GLP-1 RAs except for albiglutide increased the risk of hypoglycemia when compared to placebo. Reduction in the incidence of hypoglycemia was found for all GLP-1 RAs versus insulin (except for dulaglutide) and sulphonylureas. For the incidence of treatment discontinuation, increase was found for exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide and taspoglutide versus placebo, insulin and sitagliptin. For glycemic level, decrease was found for all GLP-1 RAs versus placebo. Dulaglutide, exenatide long-acting release (exe_lar), liraglutide and taspoglutide had significant lowering effect when compared with sitagliptin (HbA1c<7.0%) and insulin (HbA1c<6.5%). Finally, according to SUCRAs, placebo, thiazolidinediones and albiglutide had the best decrease effect on hypoglycemia; sulphanylureas, sitagliptin and insulin decrease the incidence of treatment discontinuation most; exe_lar and dulaglutide had the highest impact on glycemic level among 13 treatments.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among 13 treatments, GLP-1 RAs had a significant reduction with glycemic level but a slight increase effect on hypoglycemia and treatment discontinuation. While albiglutide had the best decrease effect on hypoglycemia and treatment discontinuation among all GLP-1 RAs. However, further evidence is necessary for more conclusive inferences on mechanisms underlying the rise in hypoglycemia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Incretin-based therapies which include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are recommended by several practice guidelines as second-line agents for add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who do not achieve glycemic control with metformin plus lifestyle interventions alone. The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of existing head to head studies to compare the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head studies to compare GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. A random effects model was selected to perform the meta-analyses, results were expressed as weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks for dichotomous outcomes, both with 95% confidence intervals, and with I2 values and P values as markers of heterogeneity.<h4>Results</h4>Four head-to-head randomized controlled studies with 1755 patients were included. Compared to sitagliptin, GLP-1 analogues are more effective in reducing HbA1C (weight mean difference -0.41%, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.31) and body weight (weight mean difference -1.55 kg, 95% CI -1.98 to -1.12). Conversely, GLP-1 analogues are associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events compared to sitagliptin: nausea (relative risk 3.14, 95% CI 2.15 to 4.59), vomiting (relative risk 2.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.56), diarrhea (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.69), and constipation (relative risk 2.50, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.70).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The result of this meta-analysis demonstrates that compared to sitagliptin, GLP-1 analogues are more effective for glycemic control and weight loss, but have similar efficacy in reducing blood pressure and lipid parameters, however, GLP-1 analogues are associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events and a similar incidence of hypoglycemia compared to sitagliptin.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the risk of pancreatitis associated with the use of incretin-based treatments in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review and meta-analysis.<h4>Data sources</h4>Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov.<h4>Eligibility criteria</h4>Randomised and non-randomised controlled clinical trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies, and case-control studies of treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with placebo, lifestyle modification, or active anti-diabetic drugs.<h4>Data collection and analysis</h4>Pairs of trained reviewers independently screened for eligible studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. A modified Cochrane tool for randomised controlled trials and a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies were used to assess bias. We pooled data from randomised controlled trials using Peto odds ratios, and conducted four prespecified subgroup analyses and a post hoc subgroup analysis. Because of variation in outcome measures and forms of data, we describe the results of observational studies without a pooled analysis.<h4>Results</h4>60 studies (n=353,639), consisting of 55 randomised controlled trials (n=33,350) and five observational studies (three retrospective cohort studies, and two case-control studies; n=320,289) were included. Pooled estimates of 55 randomised controlled trials (at low or moderate risk of bias involving 37 pancreatitis events, raw event rate 0.11%) did not suggest an increased risk of pancreatitis with incretins versus control (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 2.17). Estimates by type of incretin suggested similar results (1.05 (0.37 to 2.94) for GLP-1 agonists v control; 1.06 (0.46 to 2.45) for DPP-4 inhibitors v control). Analyses according to the type of control, mode, duration of treatment, and individual incretin agents suggested no differential effect by subgroups, and sensitivity analyses by alternative statistical modelling and effect measures did not show important differences in effect estimates. Three retrospective cohort studies (moderate to high risk of bias, involving 1466 pancreatitis events, raw event rate 0.47%) also did not suggest an increased risk of pancreatitis associated with either exenatide (adjusted odds ratios 0.93 (0.63 to 1.36) in one study and 0.9 (0.6 to 1.5) in another) or sitagliptin (adjusted hazard ratio 1.0, 0.7 to 1.3); a case-control study at moderate risk of bias (1003 cases, 4012 controls) also suggested no significant association (adjusted odds ratio 0.98, 0.69 to 1.38). Another case-control study (1269 cases, 1269 controls) at moderate risk of bias, however, suggested that the use of either exenatide or sitagliptin was associated with significantly increased odds of acute pancreatitis (use within two years v no use, adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 1.36 to 3.13).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The available evidence suggests that the incidence of pancreatitis among patients using incretins is low and that the drugs do not increase the risk of pancreatitis. Current evidence, however, is not definitive, and more carefully designed and conducted observational studies are warranted to definitively establish the extent, if any, of increased risk.
Project description:Whether sitagliptin may increase thyroid cancer risk has not been investigated in the Asian populations. This study evaluated the association in Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes from 1999 to 2008 by using the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance. They should have been followed for at least 6 months after March 1, 2009, the date when sitagliptin was approved for reimbursement. Patients newly treated with sitagliptin (n=58238, "ever users of sitagliptin") or other antidiabetic drugs (n =312853, "never users of sitagliptin") were followed until December 31, 2011. The treatment effect (for ever versus never users, and for tertiles of cumulative duration of therapy) was estimated by Cox regression incorporated with the inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity score. Results showed that the respective number of incident thyroid cancer in ever users and never users was 28 and 172, with respective incidence of 29.34 and 22.13 per 100,000 person-years. The overall hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.516 (1.011-2.271) suggested a significantly higher risk associated with sitagliptin use. In tertile analyses, the hazard ratio for the first ( < 6.53 months), second (6.53-14.00 months) and third ( > 14 months) tertile of cumulative duration was 1.995 (1.015-3.919), 2.516 (1.451-4.364) and 0.595 (0.244-1.449), respectively. Analyses after excluding patients with benign thyroid disease and in a subsample matched on baseline characteristics supported the findings in the original sample. In conclusion, sitagliptin use is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, especially during the first year of its treatment.