Role of Pnn in alternative splicing of a specific subset of lncRNAs of the corneal epithelium.
ABSTRACT: GG-H whole transcriptome array analysis suggested involvement of PININ (PNN) in the alternative splicing of multiple long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). To further investigate PNN's role in regulating the alternative splicing of lncRNAs in a corneal epithelial context, we performed detailed analyses for detecting and identifying alternatively spliced lncRNAs.Total RNA was isolated from PNN knockdown human corneal epithelial (HCET) cells or Pnn-deficient mouse corneas, and subjected to real-time-PCR (RT-PCR) assays, and the alternatively spliced lncRNAs were counted. Alternatively spliced lncRNAs were detected with in situ hybridization with variant-specific RNA probes on human cornea sections.Our analysis uncovered PNN's impact on the transcript levels of several lncRNAs including Linc00085 and HAS2-AS1. Interestingly, a mouse ortholog of HAS2-AS1, Has2as, clearly exhibited a differential splicing pattern among three major splice variants in the Pnn-deficient mouse cornea. The sequence analyses and quantification of splice variants of candidate lncRNAs, including RP11-295B20.2, RP11-18I14.1, and RP11-322M19.1, demonstrated complex configuration of their splicing changes, with a significant impact of PNN on the process. Knockdown of PNN in HCET cells led to specific changes in the inclusion of multiple cassette exons as well as in the use of alternative splice sites in RP11-322M19.1 and RP11-18I14.1, resulting in considerable net changes in the ratio between the splice variants. Finally, in situ hybridization analyses revealed the presence of RP11-295G20.2 in the nuclei of corneal epithelial cells, but not in the stromal cells of the human cornea, while RP11-322M19.1 was present in epithelial and non-epithelial cells.The data suggest PNN's role in the alternative splicing of a specific subset of lncRNAs might have a significant impact on the corneal epithelium.
Project description:PURPOSE:We investigated the impact of PININ (PNN) and epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the corneal epithelial context. METHODS:Isoform-specific RT-PCR assays were performed on wild-type and Pnn knockout mouse cornea. Protein interactions were examined by deconvolution microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. For genome-wide alternative splicing study, immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCET) harboring doxycycline-inducible shRNA against PNN or ESRP1 were created. Total RNA was isolated from four biological replicates of control and knockdown HCET cells, and subjected to hGlue3_0 transcriptome array analysis. RESULTS:Pnn depletion in developing mouse corneal epithelium led to disrupted alternative splicing of multiple ESRP-regulated epithelial-type exons. In HCET cells, ESRP1 and PNN displayed close localization in and around nuclear speckles, and their physical association in protein complexes was identified. Whole transcriptome array analysis on ESRP1 or PNN knockdown HCET cells revealed clear alterations in transcript profiles and splicing patterns of specific subsets of genes. Separate RT-PCR validation assays confirmed successfully specific changes in exon usage of several representative splice variants, including PAX6(5a), FOXJ3, ARHGEF11, and SLC37A2. Gene ontologic analyses on ESRP1- or PNN-regulated alternative exons suggested their roles in epithelial phenotypes, such as cell morphology and movement. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggested that ESRP1 and PNN modulate alternative splicing of a specific subset of target genes, but not general splicing events, in HCET cells to maintain or enhance epithelial characteristics.
Project description:Pnn depletion in developing mouse corneal epithelium led to disrupted alternative splicing of multiple ESRP-regulated epithelial-type exons. In human corneal epithelial cells (HCET), ESRP1 and PNN displayed close localization in and around nuclear speckles and their physical association in protein complexes was identified. In this study, gene expression profiling was performed to identify PNN- and ESRP1-regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing in human corneal epithelial cells. Immortalized human corneal epithelial cells harboring doxycycline-inducible shRNA against PNN or ESRP1 were created. Whole transcriptome array analysis on ESRP1 or PNN knockdown HCET cells revealed clear alterations in transcript level and splicing pattern of specific subsets of genes with significant overlaps in their candidate targets. Our data suggest that ESRP1 and PNN modulate alternative splicing of a specific subset of exons, but not general splicing events. ESRP1 and PNN may together participate in the regulation of epithelial-specific splicing program in a genome-wide fashion. Parental HCET, shRNA-PNN HCET, and shRNA-ESRP1 HCET cells were cultured for 3 days with/without doxycycline. Total RNA was isolated from four biological replicates of each sample group and then subjected to hGlue3_0 transcriptome array analysis.
Project description:The specialized corneal epithelium requires differentiated properties, specific for its role at the anterior surface of the eye. Thus, tight maintenance of the differentiated qualities of the corneal epithelial is essential. Pinin (PNN) is an exon junction component (EJC) that has dramatic implications for corneal epithelial cell differentiation and may act as a stabilizer of the corneal epithelial cell phenotype. Our studies revealed that PNN is involved in transcriptional repression complexes and spliceosomal complexes, placing PNN at the fulcrum between chromatin and mRNA splicing. Transcriptome analysis of PNN-knockdown cells revealed clear and reproducible alterations in transcript profiles and splicing patterns of a subset of genes that would significantly impact the epithelial cell phenotype. We further investigated PNN's role in the regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) in a corneal epithelial context.Human corneal epithelial (HCET) cells that carry the doxycycline-inducible PNN-knockdown shRNA vector were used to perform RNA-seq to determine differential gene expression and differential AS events.Multiple genes and AS events were identified as differentially expressed between PNN-knockdown and control cells. Genes upregulated by PNN knockdown included a large proportion of genes that are associated with enhanced cell migration and ECM remodeling processes, such as MMPs, ADAMs, HAS2, LAMA3, CXCRs, and UNC5C. Genes downregulated in response to PNN depletion included IGFBP5, FGD3, FGFR2, PAX6, RARG, and SOX10. AS events in PNN-knockdown cells compared to control cells were also more likely to be detected, and upregulated. In particular, 60% of exon-skipping events, detected in only one condition, were detected in PNN-knockdown cells and of the shared exon-skipping events, 92% of those differentially expressed were more frequent in the PNN knockdown.These data suggest that lowering of PNN levels in epithelial cells results in dramatic transformation in the number and composition of splicing variants and that PNN plays a crucial role in the selection of which RNA isoforms differentiating cells produce. Many of the genes affected by PNN knockdown are known to affect the epithelial phenotype. This window into the complexity of RNA splicing in the corneal epithelium implies that PNN exerts broad influence over the regulation and maintenance of the epithelial cell phenotype.
Project description:The specialized corneal epithelium requires differentiated properties, specific for its role at the anterior surface of the eye, thus tight maintenance of the differentiated qualities of the corneal epithelial is essential. Our studies have focused on pinin (PNN), an exon junction component (EJC) that has dramatic implications on corneal epithelial cell differentiation and may act as a stabilizer of the corneal epithelial cell phenotype. Our studies revealed that PNN is involved in both transcriptional repression complexes and the spliceosomal complexes, placing PNN at the fulcrum between chromatin and mRNA splicing. Transcriptome analysis of PNN-knockdown cells revealed clear and reproducible alterations in transcript profiles and splicing patterns of a subset of genes that would significantly impact the epithelial cell phenotype. Here, we further investigate PNN’s role in the regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) in a corneal epithelial context. We used human corneal epithelial cells (HCET cells) that carry doxycycline-inducible PNN-knockdown shRNA vector and performed RNA-seq to determine differential gene expression and differential AS events. Multiple genes and AS events were identified as differentially expressed between PNN-knockdown and controls cells. Genes up-regulated by PNN-knockdown included a large proportion of genes that are associated with processes associated with enhanced cell migration and ECM remodeling including: MMPs, ADAMs, HAS2, LAMA3, CXCRs and UNC5C. Genes down-regulated in response to PNN depletion included: IGFBP5. FGD3, FGFR2, PAX6, RARG and SOX10. AS events in PNN compared to controls was also more likely to be detected, and uregulated in PNN-knockdowns. In particular, 60% of exon skipping events detected in only one condition were detected in PNN-knockdowns and of the shared exon skipping events, 92% of those differentially expressed were more frequent in the PNN-knockdown. This suggests that in the absence of PNN the epithelial cells are dramatically transformed in the amount and composition of isoforms and that PNN plays a crucial role in the selection of which isoforms differentiating cells produce. Many of the genes affected by PNN-knockdown are known to affect epithelial phenotype. This window into the complexity of RNA splicing in the corneal epithelium implies that PNN exerts broad influence over the regulation and maintenance of epithelial cell phenotype. We used HCET cells that carry doxycycline-inducible PNN knockdown shRNA vector and performed RNA-seq to determine differential gene expression and differential alternative splicing events.
Project description:Purpose:To determine the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm in vitro and on the normal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-infected cornea. Methods:An MTT viability assay tested the effects of PM2.5 on mouse corneal epithelial cells (MCEC) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCET). MCEC were tested for reactive oxygen species using a 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay; RT-PCR determined mRNA levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in MCEC (HMGB1, toll-like receptor 2, IL-1?, CXCL2, GPX1, GPX2, GR1, superoxide dismutase 2, and heme oxygenase 1) and HCET (high mobility group box 1, CXCL2, and IL-1?). C57BL/6 mice also were infected and after 6 hours, the PM2.5 was topically applied. Disease was graded by clinical score and evaluated by histology, plate count, myeloperoxidase assay, RT-PCR, ELISA, and Western blot. Results:After PM2.5 (25-200 µg/mL), 80% to 90% of MCEC and HCET were viable and PM exposure increased reactive oxygen species in MCEC and mRNA expression levels for inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in mouse and human cells. In vivo, the cornea of PA+PM2.5 exposed mice exhibited earlier perforation over PA alone (confirmed histologically). In cornea, plate counts were increased after PA+PM2.5, whereas myeloperoxidase activity was significantly increased after PA+PM2.5 over other groups. The mRNA levels for several proinflammatory and oxidative stress markers were increased in the cornea in the PA+PM2.5 over other groups; protein levels were elevated for high mobility group box 1, but not toll-like receptor 4 or glutathione reductase 1. Uninfected corneas treated with PM2.5 did not differ from normal. Conclusions:PM2.5 triggers reactive oxygen species, upregulates mRNA levels of oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and high mobility group box 1 protein, contributing to perforation in PA-infected corneas.
Project description:Background:Mounting evidence suggests that alternative splicing is one of the ways for cells to adapt to environmental stress insults. The aim of this study was firstly to examine the effect of silica on the alternative splicing of lung fibrosis-associated genes. Methods:Microarray analysis was used to construct the alternative splicing profile. Functional experiments were conducted using Cell Counting Kit-8, cell cycle, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) analyses. Alternative splicing variants were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) polymerase chain reaction method. Results:A total of 1850 genes that have alternative splices in response to silica insult were identified. PCDHB11, MALAT1, MT2A, RP11-126D17.1, and RP11-415I12.2 are the top 5 upregulated genes with occurrence of alternative splice, whereas NDE1, RNPEPL1, TREML2, CSF2RB, and PRKCSH are the top 5 downregulated genes with occurrence of alternative splice. Bioinformatic analysis showed these genes with the occurrence of alternative splice mainly are associated with EMT pathway, N-Glycan biosynthesis, and leukocyte transendothelial migration. Further study indicated that PRKCSH-2 knockdown promotes A549 cell proliferation potential by partially promoting EMT signals. Conclusions:Significant changes in alternative splicing of silicosis-associated genes occur in patients with silicosis in silica conditions. Our study provides basic founding for further investigation into the detail molecular mechanisms underlying silica-induced silicosis.
Project description:Many nascent long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) undergo the same maturation steps as pre-mRNAs of protein-coding genes (PCGs), but they are often poorly spliced. To identify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, we searched for putative splicing inhibitory sequences using the ncRNA-a2 as a model. Genome-wide analyses of intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs) revealed that lincRNA splicing efficiency positively correlates with 5'ss strength while no such correlation was identified for PCGs. In addition, efficiently spliced lincRNAs have higher thymidine content in the polypyrimidine tract (PPT) compared to efficiently spliced PCGs. Using model lincRNAs, we provide experimental evidence that strengthening the 5'ss and increasing the T content in PPT significantly enhances lincRNA splicing. We further showed that lincRNA exons contain less putative binding sites for SR proteins. To map binding of SR proteins to lincRNAs, we performed iCLIP with SRSF2, SRSF5 and SRSF6 and analyzed eCLIP data for SRSF1, SRSF7 and SRSF9. All examined SR proteins bind lincRNA exons to a much lower extent than expression-matched PCGs. We propose that lincRNAs lack the cooperative interaction network that enhances splicing, which renders their splicing outcome more dependent on the optimality of splice sites.
Project description:Recursive splicing (RS) starts by defining an "RS-exon," which is then spliced to the preceding exon, thus creating a recursive 5' splice site (RS-5ss). Previous studies focused on cryptic RS-exons, and now we find that the exon junction complex (EJC) represses RS of hundreds of annotated, mainly constitutive RS-exons. The core EJC factors, and the peripheral factors PNN and RNPS1, maintain RS-exon inclusion by repressing spliceosomal assembly on RS-5ss. The EJC also blocks 5ss located near exon-exon junctions, thus repressing inclusion of cryptic microexons. The prevalence of annotated RS-exons is high in deuterostomes, while the cryptic RS-exons are more prevalent in Drosophila, where EJC appears less capable of repressing RS. Notably, incomplete repression of RS also contributes to physiological alternative splicing of several human RS-exons. Finally, haploinsufficiency of the EJC factor Magoh in mice is associated with skipping of RS-exons in the brain, with relevance to the microcephaly phenotype and human diseases.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have shown great potential as powerful and non-invasive tumor markers. However, little is known about their value as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer (PC). We applied an Arraystar Human LncRNA Microarray which targeting 7419 lncRNAs to determine the lncRNA expression profile in PC and to screen the potential biomarkers. The most increased lncRNAs in PC tissues were HOTTIP-005, XLOC_006390, and RP11-567G11.1. Increased HOTTIP-005 and RP11-567G11.1 expression were poor prognostic factors for patients with PC (n = 144, p < 0.0001). The expression patterns of HOTTIP splice variants in PC were also detected. HOTTIP-005 and HOTTIP-001 were the first and second most increased HOTTIP splice variants, respectively. Plasma HDRF and RDRF (HOTTIP-005 and RP11-567G11.1 derived RNA fragments in plasma/serum) were present in stable form. Their levels were significantly increased in the patients with PC as compared to the healthy controls (n = 127 and 122 respectively, p < 0.0001) and the high levels were derived from PC. HDRF and RDRF levels are promising indicators for distinguishing patients with PC from those without PC. This study identified HOTTIP-005 and RP11-567G11.1 and their plasma fragments with the potential to be used as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of PC. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:Recent developments in our understanding of the interactions between long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and cellular components have improved treatment approaches for various human diseases including cancer, vascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Although investigation of specific lncRNAs revealed their role in the metabolism of cellular RNA, our understanding of their contribution to post-transcriptional regulation is relatively limited. In this study, we explore the role of lncRNAs in modulating alternative splicing and their impact on downstream protein-RNA interaction networks. Analysis of alternative splicing events across 39 lncRNA knockdown and wildtype RNA-sequencing datasets from three human cell lines-HeLa (cervical cancer), K562 (myeloid leukemia), and U87 (glioblastoma)-resulted in the high-confidence (false discovery rate (fdr) < 0.01) identification of 11,630 skipped exon events and 5895 retained intron events, implicating 759 genes to be impacted at the post-transcriptional level due to the loss of lncRNAs. We observed that a majority of the alternatively spliced genes in a lncRNA knockdown were specific to the cell type. In tandem, the functions annotated to the genes affected by alternative splicing across each lncRNA knockdown also displayed cell-type specificity. To understand the mechanism behind this cell-type-specific alternative splicing pattern, we analyzed RNA-binding protein (RBP)-RNA interaction profiles across the spliced regions in order to observe cell-type-specific alternative splice event RBP binding preference. Despite limited RBP binding data across cell lines, alternatively spliced events detected in lncRNA perturbation experiments were associated with RBPs binding in proximal intron-exon junctions in a cell-type-specific manner. The cellular functions affected by alternative splicing were also affected in a cell-type-specific manner. Based on the RBP binding profiles in HeLa and K562 cells, we hypothesize that several lncRNAs are likely to exhibit a sponge effect in disease contexts, resulting in the functional disruption of RBPs and their downstream functions. We propose that such lncRNA sponges can extensively rewire post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks by altering the protein-RNA interaction landscape in a cell-type-specific manner.