Analysis of biomarker utility using a PBPK/PD model for carbaryl.
ABSTRACT: There are many types of biomarkers; the two common ones are biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of effect. The utility of a biomarker for estimating exposures or predicting risks depends on the strength of the correlation between biomarker concentrations and exposure/effects. In the current study, a combined exposure and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model of carbaryl was used to demonstrate the use of computational modeling for providing insight into the selection of biomarkers for different purposes. The Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES) was used to generate exposure profiles, including magnitude and timing, for use as inputs to the PBPK/PD model. The PBPK/PD model was then used to predict blood concentrations of carbaryl and urine concentrations of its principal metabolite, 1-naphthol (1-N), as biomarkers of exposure. The PBPK/PD model also predicted acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in red blood cells (RBC) as a biomarker of effect. The correlations of these simulated biomarker concentrations with intake doses or brain AChE inhibition (as a surrogate of effects) were analyzed using a linear regression model. Results showed that 1-N in urine is a better biomarker of exposure than carbaryl in blood, and that 1-N in urine is correlated with the dose averaged over the last 2 days of the simulation. They also showed that RBC AChE inhibition is an appropriate biomarker of effect. This computational approach can be applied to a wide variety of chemicals to facilitate quantitative analysis of biomarker utility.
Project description:Toxicity from acute exposure to nerve agents and organophosphorus toxicants is due to irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. AChE in red blood cells is a surrogate for AChE in the nervous system. Previously we developed an immunopurification method to enrich red blood cell AChE (RBC AChE) as a biomarker of exposure. The goal of the present work was to provide an alternative RBC AChE enrichment strategy, by binding RBC AChE to Hupresin affinity gel. AChE was solubilized from frozen RBC by addition of 1% Triton X-100. Insoluble debris was removed by centrifugation. The red, but not viscous, RBC AChE solution was loaded on a Hupresin affinity column. Hemoglobin and other proteins were washed off with 3 M NaCl, while retaining AChE bound to Hupresin. Denatured AChE was eluted with 1% trifluoroacetic acid. The same protocol was used for 20 mL of RBC AChE inhibited with a soman model compound. The acid denatured protein was digested with pepsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on a 6600 Triple-TOF mass spectrometer. A targeted method identified the aged soman adduct on serine 203 in peptide FGESAGAAS. It was concluded that Hupresin can be used to enrich soman-inhibited AChE solubilized from 8 mL of frozen human erythrocytes, yielding a quantity sufficient for detecting soman exposure.
Project description:Organophosphates (OPs) have a long history of use as insecticides over the world. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interethnic differences in kinetics, biomarker formation and in vivo red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in the Chinese and the Caucasian population. To this purpose, PBK models for CPF in both the Chinese and Caucasian population were developed, and used to study time- and dose-dependent interethnic variation in urinary biomarkers and to convert concentration-response curves for RBC AChE inhibition to in vivo dose-response curves in these two populations by reverse dosimetry. The results obtained revealed a marked interethnic difference in toxicokinetics of CPF, with lower urinary biomarker levels at similar dose levels and slower CPF bioactivation and faster CPO detoxification in the Chinese compared with the Caucasian population, resulting in 5- to 6-fold higher CPF sensitivity of the Caucasian than the Chinese population. These differences might be related to variation in the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the major biotransformation enzymes involved. To conclude, the interethnic variation in kinetics of CPF may affect both its biomarker-based exposure assessment as well as its toxicity and risk assessment and that PBK modelling facilitates the characterisation and quantification of these interethnic variations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Application of idarucizumab and hemodialysis are options to reverse the action of the oral anticoagulant dabigatran in emergency situations. OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to build and evaluate a mechanistic, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model of idarucizumab, including its effects on dabigatran plasma concentrations and blood coagulation, in healthy and renally impaired individuals, and to include the effect of hemodialysis on dabigatran exposure. METHODS:The idarucizumab model was built with the software packages PK-Sim® and MoBi® and evaluated using the full range of available clinical data. The default kidney structure in MoBi® was extended to mechanistically describe the renal reabsorption of idarucizumab and to correctly reproduce the reported fractions excreted into urine. To model the PD effects of idarucizumab on dabigatran plasma concentrations, and consequently also on blood coagulation, idarucizumab-dabigatran binding was implemented and a previously established PBPK model of dabigatran was expanded to a PBPK/PD model. The effect of hemodialysis on dabigatran was implemented by the addition of an extracorporeal dialyzer compartment with a clearance process governed by dialysate and blood flow rates. RESULTS:The established idarucizumab-dabigatran-hemodialysis PBPK/PD model shows a good descriptive and predictive performance. To capture the clinical data of patients with renal impairment, both glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption were modeled as functions of the individual creatinine clearance. CONCLUSIONS:A comprehensive and mechanistic PBPK/PD model to study dabigatran reversal has been established, which includes whole-body PBPK modeling of idarucizumab, the idarucizumab-dabigatran interaction, dabigatran hemodialysis, the pharmacodynamic effect of dabigatran on blood coagulation, and the impact of renal function in these different scenarios. The model was applied to explore different reversal scenarios for dabigatran therapy.
Project description:Nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides make a covalent bond with the active site serine of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in inhibition of AChE activity and toxic symptoms. AChE in red blood cells (RBCs) serves as a surrogate for AChE in the nervous system. Mass spectrometry analysis of adducts on RBC AChE could provide evidence of exposure. Our goal was to develop a method of immunopurifying human RBC AChE in quantities adequate for detecting exposure by mass spectrometry. For this purpose, we immobilized 3 commercially available anti-human acetylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies (AE-1, AE-2, and HR2) plus 3 new monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies were characterized for binding affinity, epitope mapping by pairing analysis, and nucleotide and amino acid sequences. AChE was solubilized from frozen RBCs with 1% (v/v) Triton X-100. A 16 mL sample containing 5.8 ?g of RBC AChE was treated with a quantity of soman model compound that inhibited 50% of the AChE activity. Native and soman-inhibited RBC AChE samples were immunopurified on antibody-Sepharose beads. The immunopurified RBC AChE was digested with pepsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on a 6600 Triple-TOF mass spectrometer. The aged soman-modified PheGlyGluSerAlaGlyAlaAlaSer (FGESAGAAS) peptide was detected using a targeted analysis method. It was concluded that all 6 monoclonal antibodies could be used to immunopurify RBC AChE and that exposure to nerve agents could be detected as adducts on the active site serine of RBC AChE.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Environmental epidemiology and biomonitoring studies typically rely on biological samples to assay the concentration of non-persistent exposure biomarkers. Between-participant variations in sampling conditions of these biological samples constitute a potential source of exposure misclassification. Few studies attempted to correct biomarker levels for this error. We aimed to assess the influence of sampling conditions on concentrations of urinary biomarkers of select phenols and phthalates, two widely-produced families of chemicals, and to standardize biomarker concentrations on sampling conditions.<h4>Methods</h4>Urine samples were collected between 2002 and 2006 among 287 pregnant women from Eden and Pélagie cohorts, from which phthalates and phenols metabolites levels were assayed. We applied a 2-step standardization method based on regression residuals. First, the influence of sampling conditions (including sampling hour, duration of storage before freezing) and of creatinine levels on biomarker concentrations were characterized using adjusted linear regression models. In the second step, the model estimates were used to remove the variability in biomarker concentrations due to sampling conditions and to standardize concentrations as if all samples had been collected under the same conditions (e.g., same hour of urine collection).<h4>Results</h4>Sampling hour was associated with concentrations of several exposure biomarkers. After standardization for sampling conditions, median concentrations differed by--38% for 2,5-dichlorophenol to +80?% for a metabolite of diisodecyl phthalate. However, at the individual level, standardized biomarker levels were strongly correlated (correlation coefficients above 0.80) with unstandardized measures.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sampling conditions, such as sampling hour, should be systematically collected in biomarker-based studies, in particular when the biomarker half-life is short. The 2-step standardization method based on regression residuals that we proposed in order to limit the impact of heterogeneity in sampling conditions could be further tested in studies describing levels of biomarkers or their influence on health.
Project description:Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models were constructed from in vivo experimental data in rats and then extrapolated from animals to humans after assessing and adjusting the most sensitive model parameters as well as species specific physiological parameters. Repeated urinary voids from workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been collected over the course of a typical workweek and during subsequent days off work; urinary concentrations of 3-OHBaP were then determined. Based on the information obtained for each worker (BaP air concentration, daily shift hours, tasks, protective equipment), the time courses of 3-OHBaP in the urine of the different workers have been simulated using the PBPK and toxicokinetic models, considering the various possible exposure routes, oral, dermal and inhalation. Both models were equally able to closely reproduce the observed time course of 3-OHBaP in the urine of workers and predicted similar exposure scenarios. Simulations of various scenarios suggest that the workers under study were exposed mainly by the dermal route. Comparison of measured air concentration levels of BaP with simulated values needed to obtain a good approximation of observed time course further pointed out that inhalation was not the main route of exposure for most of the studied workers. Both kinetic models appear as a useful tool to interpret biomonitoring data of PAH exposure on the basis of 3-OHBaP levels.
Project description:Current exposure assessment research does not sufficiently address multi-pollutant exposure and their correlations in human media. Understanding the extent of chemical exposure in reproductive-aged women is of particular concern due to the potential for in utero exposure and fetal susceptibility.The objectives of this study were to characterize concentrations of chemical biomarkers during preconception and examine correlations between and within chemical classes.We examined concentrations of 135 biomarkers from 16 chemical classes in blood and urine from 73 women aged 18-40 enrolled in Snart Foraeldre/Milieu, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy planners in Denmark (2011-2014). We compared biomarker concentrations with United States similarly-aged, non-pregnant women who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Environmental Survey (NHANES) and with other international biomonitoring studies. We performed principal component analysis to examine biomarker correlations.The mean number of biomarkers detected in the population was 92 (range: 60-108). The most commonly detected chemical classes were phthalates, metals, phytoestrogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Except blood mercury, urinary barium and enterolactone, geometric means were higher in women from NHANES. Chemical classes measured in urine generally did not load on a single component, suggesting high between-class correlation among urinary biomarkers, while there is high within-class correlation for biomarkers measured in serum and blood.We identified ubiquitous exposure to multiple chemical classes in reproductive-aged Danish women, supporting the need for more research on chemical mixtures during preconception and early pregnancy. Inter- and intra-class correlation between measured biomarkers may reflect common exposure sources, specific lifestyle factors or shared metabolism pathways.
Project description:Exosomes, which are small extracellular vesicles produced from various cell types, contain a variety of molecular constituents, such as proteins, lipids, and RNA. Recently, exosomal biomarkers have been investigated to probe the understanding and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Previous reports have demonstrated increased exosomal α-synuclein (α-syn) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Interestingly, the cholinergic loss was revealed in the central and peripheral nervous systems in histopathology and molecular neuroimaging. Thereby, we simultaneously examined acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with α-syn as exosomal markers. Exosomes were isolated from the plasma of 34 FP-CIT PET proven patients with PD and 29 HC. Exosomal α-syn and AChE activity were quantified andthe relationship with clinical parameters was analyzed. Remarkably, exosomal AChE activity was significantly decreased in PD compared to HC (<i>P</i> = 0.002). Moreover, exosomal AChE activity in PD revealed a strong negative correlation with disease severity, including H&Y (<i>P</i> = 0.007) and UPDRS part III (<i>P</i> = 0.047) scores. By contrast, no significant difference in exosomal α-syn concentration was observed between groups. These results support the occurrence of cholinergic dysfunction in PD, and they could be implicated with disease progression, especially motor deficits. Exosomal AChE activity with advanced exosome isolation techniques may be a reliable biomarker for the early diagnosis and prognosis of PD.
Project description:The aim of this mRNA expression profiling experiment was to screen for ecotoxicogenomic fingerprints in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (96 hpf) as aquatic vertebrate non-target model exposed to sub lethal concentrations of the carbamate insecticide Carbaryl (CAS 63-25-2). The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) classified Carbaryl after its mode of action (MoA) in the target organism as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor (Group 1A). The goal is to identify toxicogenomic profiles with predictive character and potential molecular key events (KE) explaining upstream adverse effects in aquatic non-target organisms. This will provide useful information to refine and improve existing adverse outcome pathways (AOP). Furthermore, integrating the obtained profiles for this and other tested chemicals in a collective database will enable us in the future to derive predictions about the ecotoxicological hazard for chemcials with unknown apical effects, based on similarly altered transcriptomic and proteomic profiles. In a modified version of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (OECD 236), 15 fertilized eggs were exposed to two different sub lethal concentrations of Carbaryl for 96 hours under semi-static conditions. Each test comprised of a low exposure (LE, 275 µg/L), high exposure (HE, 1100 µg/L) and negative control (NC) group and was performed in triplicates. At 96 hours post fertilization (hpf), 10 larvae were randomly picked for each sample and pooled for RNA and protein extraction with NucleoSpin RNA/Protein kit (Macherey-Nagel). RNA quality was assessed with a 2100 Bioanalyzer system (Agilent) before coding RNA was purified (PolyA selection with TruSeq RNA Library Prep Kit v2) and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 System (Illumina) in 50 bp single read mode, producing roughly 30 million reads per sample. Adapter sequences were removed with trimmomatic and sequences were aligned to the D.rerio reference genome GRCz11 with STAR. Counting of feature mapped reads was performed through featureCounts. Library gene count tables were then merged to a single count matrix as input for differential gene expression analysis with DESeq2.
Project description:Improvement of diet at the population level is a cornerstone of national and international strategies for reducing chronic disease burden. A critical challenge in generating robust data on habitual dietary intake is accurate exposure assessment. Self-reporting instruments (e.g., food frequency questionnaires, dietary recall) are subject to reporting bias and serving size perceptions, while weighed dietary assessments are unfeasible in large-scale studies. However, secondary metabolites derived from individual foods/food groups and present in urine provide an opportunity to develop potential biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). Habitual dietary intake assessment in population surveys using biomarkers presents several challenges, including the need to develop affordable biofluid collection methods, acceptable to participants that allow collection of informative samples. Monitoring diet comprehensively using biomarkers requires analytical methods to quantify the structurally diverse mixture of target biomarkers, at a range of concentrations within urine. The present article provides a perspective on the challenges associated with the development of urine biomarker technology for monitoring diet exposure in free-living individuals with a view to its future deployment in "real world" situations. An observational study (<i>n</i> = 95), as part of a national survey on eating habits, provided an opportunity to explore biomarker measurement in a free-living population. In a second food intervention study (<i>n</i> = 15), individuals consumed a wide range of foods as a series of menus designed specifically to achieve exposure reflecting a diversity of foods commonly consumed in the UK, emulating normal eating patterns. First Morning Void urines were shown to be suitable samples for biomarker measurement. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, coupled with liquid chromatography, was used to assess simultaneously the behavior of a panel of 54 potential BFIs. This panel of chemically diverse biomarkers, reporting intake of a wide range of commonly-consumed foods, can be extended successfully as new biomarker leads are discovered. Towards validation, we demonstrate excellent discrimination of eating patterns and quantitative relationships between biomarker concentrations in urine and the intake of several foods. In conclusion, we believe that the integration of information from BFI technology and dietary self-reporting tools will expedite research on the complex interactions between dietary choices and health.