The role of FKBP5 in mood disorders: action of FKBP5 on steroid hormone receptors leads to questions about its evolutionary importance.
ABSTRACT: Research on the FKBP5 gene and FKBP51 protein has more than doubled since the discovery that polymorphisms in this gene could alter treatment outcomes and depressive behavior in humans. This coincided with other data suggesting that the stress hormone axis contributes to the development of numerous mental illnesses. As a result, FKBP51 now lies at the heart of the research of many stress related psychiatric disorders, which has led to advances in the understanding of this protein and its role in humans and in animal models. Specifically, FKBP5-/- mice and a naturally existing overexpression of FKBP5 in 3 genera of new world monkeys have helped understand the effects of FKBP5 in vivo. This review will highlight these finding as well as discuss the current evolutionary need for the FKBP5 gene.
Project description:The gene FKBP5 codes for FKBP51, a co-chaperone protein of the Hsp90 complex that increases with age. Through its association with Hsp90, FKBP51 regulates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene associate with increased recurrence of depressive episodes, increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, attempt of suicide, and major depressive disorder in HIV patients. Variation in one of these SNPs correlates with increased levels of FKBP51. FKBP51 is also increased in HIV patients. Moreover, increases in FKBP51 in the amygdala produce an anxiety phenotype in mice. Therefore, we tested the behavioral consequences of FKBP5 deletion in aged mice. Similar to that of naïve animals treated with classical antidepressants FKBP5-/- mice showed antidepressant behavior without affecting cognition and other basic motor functions. Reduced corticosterone levels following stress accompanied these observed effects on depression. Age-dependent anxiety was also modulated by FKBP5 deletion. Therefore, drug discovery efforts focused on depleting FKBP51 levels may yield novel antidepressant therapies.
Project description:Adverse experiences and chronic stress are well-known risk factors for the development of major depression, and an impaired stress response regulation is frequently observed in acute depression. Impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling plays an important role in these alterations, and a restoration of GR signalling appears to be a prerequisite of successful antidepressant treatment. Variants in genes of the stress response regulation contribute to the vulnerability to depression in traumatized subjects. Consistent findings point to an important role of FKBP5, the gene expressing FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), which is a strong inhibitor of the GR, and thus, an important regulator of the stress response. We investigated the role of FKBP5 and FKB51 expression with respect to stress response regulation and antidepressant treatment outcome in depressed patients. This study included 297 inpatients, who participated in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and were treated for acute depression. In this open-label study, patients received antidepressant treatment according to the attending doctor's choice. In addition to the FKBP5 genotype, changes in blood FKBP51 expression during antidepressant treatment were analyzed using RT-PCR and ZeptoMARKTM reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM). Stress response regulation was evaluated in a subgroup of patients using the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test. As expected, increased FKBP51 expression was associated with an impaired stress response regulation at baseline and after six weeks was accompanied by an elevated cortisol response to the combined dex/CRH test. Further, we demonstrated an active involvement of FKBP51 in antidepressant treatment outcome. While patients responding to antidepressant treatment had a pronounced reduction of FKBP5 gene and FKBP51 protein expression, increasing expression levels were observed in nonresponders. This effect was moderated by the genotype of the FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780, with carriers of the minor allele showing the most pronounced association. Our findings demonstrate that FKBP5 and, specifically, its expression product FKBP51 are important modulators of antidepressant treatment outcome, pointing to a new, promising target for future antidepressant drug development.
Project description:Stress responses and related outcomes vary markedly across individuals. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of this variability is of great relevance for developing individualized prevention strategies and treatments for stress-related disorders. An important modulator of stress responses is the FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5/FKBP51). FKBP5 acts as a co-chaperone that modulates not only glucocorticoid receptor activity in response to stressors but also a multitude of other cellular processes in both the brain and periphery. Notably, the FKBP5 gene is regulated via complex interactions among environmental stressors, FKBP5 genetic variants, and epigenetic modifications of glucocorticoid-responsive genomic sites. These interactions can result in FKBP5 disinhibition that has been shown to contribute to a number of aberrant phenotypes in both rodents and humans. Consequently, FKBP5 blockade may hold promise as treatment intervention for stress-related disorders, and recently developed selective FKBP5 blockers show encouraging results in vitro and in rodent models. Although risk for stress-related disorders is conferred by multiple environmental and genetic factors, the findings related to FKBP5 illustrate how a deeper understanding of the molecular and systemic mechanisms underlying specific gene-environment interactions may provide insights into the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FKBP5 gene increase the expression of the FKBP51 protein and have been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, levels of FKBP51 are increased with aging and in Alzheimer disease, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. However, aside from its glucocorticoid responsiveness, little is known about what regulates FKBP5 In recent years, non-coding RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, have been shown to modulate disease-related genes and processes. The current study sought to investigate which miRNAs could target and functionally regulate FKBP5 Following in silico data mining and initial target expression validation, miR-511 was found to suppress FKBP5 mRNA and protein levels. Using luciferase p-miR-Report constructs and RNA pulldown assays, we confirmed that miR-511 bound directly to the 3'-UTR of FKBP5, validating the predicted gene-microRNA interaction. miR-511 suppressed glucocorticoid-induced up-regulation of FKBP51 in cells and primary neurons, demonstrating functional, disease-relevant control of the protein. Consistent with a regulator of FKBP5, miR-511 expression in the mouse brain decreased with age but increased following chronic glucocorticoid treatment. Analysis of the predicted target genes of miR-511 revealed that neurogenesis, neuronal development, and neuronal differentiation were likely controlled by these genes. Accordingly, miR-511 increased neuronal differentiation in cells and enhanced neuronal development in primary neurons. Collectively, these findings show that miR-511 is a functional regulator of FKBP5 and can contribute to neuronal differentiation.
Project description:PURPOSE:Here, we explore the involvement of FKBP51 in glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance (IR) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), including its potential role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moreover, we assess the metabolic effects of reducing the activity of FKBP51 using the specific inhibitor SAFit1. METHODS:Human SAT was obtained by needle biopsies of the lower abdominal region. FKBP5 gene expression was assessed in fresh SAT explants from a cohort of 20 T2D subjects group-wise matched by gender, age and BMI to 20 non-diabetic subjects. In addition, human SAT was obtained from non-diabetic volunteers (20F/9M). SAT was incubated for 24?h with or without the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and SAFit1. Incubated SAT was used to measure the glucose uptake rate in isolated adipocytes. RESULTS:FKBP5 gene expression levels in SAT positively correlated with several indices of IR as well as glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r?=?0.33, p?<?0.05). FKBP5 gene expression levels tended to be higher in T2D subjects compared to non-diabetic subjects (p?=?0.088). Moreover, FKBP5 gene expression levels were found to inversely correlate with lipolytic, lipogenic and adipogenic genes. SAFit1 partly prevented the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS:FKBP5 gene expression in human SAT tends to be increased in T2D subjects and is related to elevated glucose levels. Moreover, FKBP5 gene expression is inversely associated with the expression of lipolytic, lipogenic and adipogenic genes. SAFit1 can partly prevent glucose uptake impairment by glucocorticoids, suggesting that FKBP51 might be a key factor in glucocorticoid-induced IR.
Project description:Expression of FKBP51, a large molecular weight immunophilin, is strongly enhanced by glucocorticoids, progestins, and androgens. However, the activity of a 3.4-kb fragment of the FKBP51 gene (FKBP5) promoter was only weakly increased by progestin and we show here that it is unresponsive to glucocorticoids and androgens. The entire FKBP5 was scanned for consensus hormone response elements (HREs) using MatInspector. We found that 2 regions of intron E, which are conserved in rat and mouse FKBP5, contain HRE-like sequences with high match scores. Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments (approximately 1 kb in length) containing these regions were amplified and tested in reporter gene assays for steroid responsiveness. One region of intron E of FKBP5 (pIE2) conferred both glucocorticoid and progestin responsiveness to 2 heterologous reporter genes, whereas the other, less-conserved region of intron E (pIE1) was responsive only to progestins. The inclusion of pIE1 upstream of pIE2 (pIE1IE2) enhanced progestin but not glucocorticoid responsiveness. None of the constructs containing intronic sequences was responsive to androgens. Mutation of the putative HREs within pIE1 and pIE2 eliminated hormone responsiveness. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that progesterone receptors (PR) bound to the HRE in pIE1, whereas both PR and glucocorticoid receptors interacted with the HRE in pIE2. These data suggest that distal intronic elements significantly contribute to transcriptional regulation of FKBP5 by glucocorticoids and progestins.
Project description:Molecular abnormalities within the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stress signaling pathway may confer, or reflect, susceptibility to stress in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but the extent of such abnormalities in the brain is not known. Using RNA-Seq and qPCR in two postmortem cohorts totaling 55 schizophrenia, 34 bipolar disorder and 55 control individuals, we identified increased FKBP5 and PTGES3 mRNA expression, and decreased BAG1 mRNA expression, in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (68.0% [p < 0.001], 26.0% [p < 0.01] and 12.1% [p < 0.05] respectively). We also observed increased FKBP5 and decreased BAG1 mRNA expression in bipolar disorder (47.5% [p < 0.05] and 14.9% [p < 0.005]). There were no diagnostic differences in steady-state FKBP51 protein levels, nor in HSPA1A, HSP90AA1, DNAJB1 or HSPB1 mRNA levels. GR, co-factor and chaperone mRNA levels were strongly correlated. These results reveal coordinated cortical dysregulation of FKBP5, PTGES3, BAG1 and GR genes within the glucocorticoid signaling pathway in psychotic illness.
Project description:Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress. Expression of FKBP5 increases with age through reduced DNA methylation. High levels of FKBP51 are linked to GR resistance and reduced stress coping behaviour. Moreover, common allelic variants in the FKBP5 gene are associated with increased risk of developing affective disorders like anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review highlights the current understanding of the Hsp90 co-chaperone, FKBP5, in disease from both human and animal studies. In addition, FKBP5 genetic implications in the clinic involving life stress exposure, gender differences and treatment outcomes are discussed.This article is part of the theme issue 'Heat shock proteins as modulators and therapeutic targets of chronic disease: an integrated perspective'.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>FKBP51, (FKBP5), is a negative regulator of Akt. Variability in FKBP5 expression level is a major factor contributing to variation in response to chemotherapeutic agents including gemcitabine, a first line treatment for pancreatic cancer. Genetic variation in FKBP5 could influence its function and, ultimately, treatment response of pancreatic cancer.<h4>Experimental design</h4>We set out to comprehensively study the role of genetic variation in FKBP5 identified by Next Generation DNA resequencing on response to gemcitabine treatment of pancreatic cancer by utilizing both tumor and germline DNA samples from 43 pancreatic cancer patients, including 19 paired normal-tumor samples. Next, genotype-phenotype association studies were performed with overall survival as well as with FKBP5 gene expression in tumor using the same samples in which resequencing had been performed, followed by functional genomics studies.<h4>Results</h4>In-depth resequencing identified 404 FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and tumor DNA. SNPs with the strongest associations with survival or FKBP5 expression were subjected to functional genomic study. Electromobility shift assay showed that the rs73748206 "A(T)" SNP altered DNA-protein binding patterns, consistent with significantly increased reporter gene activity, possibly through its increased binding to Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR). The effect of rs73748206 was confirmed on the basis of its association with FKBP5 expression by affecting the binding to GR in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the same patients for whom DNA was used for resequencing.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This comprehensive FKBP5 resequencing study provides insights into the role of genetic variation in variation of gemcitabine response.
Project description:Alcohol misuse has been linked to dysregulation of stress, emotion, and reward brain circuitries. A candidate key mediator of this association is the FK506-binding protein (FKBP5), a negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. The aim of the present study was to further understand the Fkbp5/FKBP5-related genetic underpinnings underlying the relationship between early life social relations and alcohol drinking. The effect of maternal separation and voluntary alcohol drinking on Fkbp5 expression was investigated in the brain of young adult rats, whereas the interaction effect of the functional FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 genotype and parent-child relationship on problematic drinking was examined in young adult humans. In rats, Fkbp5 expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, core regions of the reward system, was affected in a region-dependent manner and in opposite direction by maternal separation and alcohol drinking. Fkbp5 expression in the cingulate cortex was affected by the combined effect of maternal separation and alcohol drinking. In humans, the TT genotype, in the presence of a poor relationship between the child and parents, was associated with problematic drinking behavior. The present findings suggest that Fkbp5 expression in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic regions associates with early life stress-mediated sensitivity to alcohol drinking and that FKBP5 genotype interacts with parent-child relationship to influence alcohol drinking. These findings are the first to point to a role of FKBP5 in propensity to alcohol misuse and call for studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms to identify potential drug targets.