Gp78 elongates of polyubiquitin chains from the distal end through the cooperation of its G2BR and CUE domains.
ABSTRACT: The modification of proteins with polyubiquitin chains alters their stability, localization and activity, thus regulating various aspects of cellular functions in eukaryotic cells. The ER quality control protein E3 gp78 catalyzes Lys48-linked polyubiquitin-chain- assembly on the Ube2g2 active site and is capable of transferring preassembled ubiquitin chains to its substrates. However, the underlying mechanism of polyubiquitin- chain-assembly remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the active site-linked ubiquitin chain is extended from the distal end by the cooperative actions of the G2BR and CUE domains of gp78. The G2BR domain is involved in ubiquitin chain synthesis by binding to the donor Ube2g2~Ub and promoting ubiquitin transfer from the E2 in cis. The CUE domain shows preferential binding to the ubiquitin chain compared to monoubiquitin and helps to position the distal ubiquitin in the correct orientation to attack the Ube2g2~Ub thioester bond. Our studies reveal that two interactions, one between the donor Ube2g2~Ub and the gp78 G2BR domain and another between the Ube2g2-linked ubiquitin chain and the gp78 CUE domain, cooperatively drive polyubiquitin-chain-assembly on the Ube2g2 active site.
Project description:Conformational dynamics plays a fundamental role in molecular recognition and activity in enzymes. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ube2g2 functions with the ubiquitin ligase (E3) gp78 to assemble poly-ubiquitin chains on target substrates. Two domains in gp78, RING and G2BR, bind to two distant regions of Ube2g2, and activate it for ubiquitin (Ub) transfer. G2BR increases the affinity between the RING and Ube2g2 by 50-fold, while the RING catalyzes the transfer of Ub from the Ube2g2?Ub conjugate. How G2BR and RING activate Ube2g2 is unclear. In this work, conformational dynamics in Ube2g2 revealed a clear correlation of binding G2BR and RING with the sequential progression toward Ub transfer. The interrelationship of the existence and exchange between ground and excited states leads to a dynamic energy landscape model, in which redistribution of populations contributes to allostery and activation. These findings provide insight into gp78's modulation of conformational exchange in Ube2g2 to stimulate ubiquitination.
Project description:RING finger proteins constitute the large majority of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) and function by interacting with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) charged with ubiquitin. How low-affinity RING-E2 interactions result in highly processive substrate ubiquitination is largely unknown. The RING E3, gp78, represents an excellent model to study this process. gp78 includes a high-affinity secondary binding region for its cognate E2, Ube2g2, the G2BR. The G2BR allosterically enhances RING:Ube2g2 binding and ubiquitination. Structural analysis of the RING:Ube2g2:G2BR complex reveals that a G2BR-induced conformational effect at the RING:Ube2g2 interface is necessary for enhanced binding of RING to Ube2g2 or Ube2g2 conjugated to Ub. This conformational effect and a key ternary interaction with conjugated ubiquitin are required for ubiquitin transfer. Moreover, RING:Ube2g2 binding induces a second allosteric effect, disrupting Ube2g2:G2BR contacts, decreasing affinity and facilitating E2 exchange. Thus, gp78 is a ubiquitination machine where multiple E2-binding sites coordinately facilitate processive ubiquitination.
Project description:The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ube2g2 together with its cognate E3 ligase gp78 catalyzes the synthesis of lysine-48 polyubiquitin chains constituting signals for the proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we employ NMR spectroscopy in combination with single-turnover diubiquitin formation assays to examine the role of the RING domain from gp78 in the catalytic activation of Ube2g2∼Ub conjugates. We find that approximately 60% of the Ube2g2∼Ub conjugates occupy a closed conformation in the absence of gp78-RING, with the population increasing to 82% upon gp78-RING binding. As expected, strong mutations in the hydrophobic patch residues of the ∼Ub moiety result in Ube2g2∼Ub populating only open states with corresponding loss of the ubiquitin conjugation activity. Less disruptive mutations introduced into the hydrophobic patch of the ∼Ub moiety also destabilize the closed conformational state, yet the corresponding effect on the ubiquitin conjugation activity ranges from complete loss to an enhancement of the catalytic activity. These results present a picture in which Ube2g2's active site is in a state of continual dynamic flux with the organization of the active site into a catalytically viable conformation constituting the rate-limiting step for a single ubiquitin ligation event. Ube2g2's function as a highly specific K48-polyubiquitin chain elongator leads us to speculate that this may be a strategy by which Ube2g2 reduces the probability of nonproductive catalytic outcomes in the absence of available substrate.
Project description:The activity of RING finger ubiquitin ligases (E3) is dependent on their ability to facilitate transfer of ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) to substrates. The G2BR domain within the E3 gp78 binds selectively and with high affinity to the E2 Ube2g2. Through structural and functional analyses, we determine that this occurs on a region of Ube2g2 distinct from binding sites for ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) and RING fingers. Binding to the G2BR results in conformational changes in Ube2g2 that affect ubiquitin loading. The Ube2g2:G2BR interaction also causes an approximately 50-fold increase in affinity between the E2 and RING finger. This results in markedly increased ubiquitylation by Ube2g2 and the gp78 RING finger. The significance of this G2BR effect is underscored by enhanced ubiquitylation observed when Ube2g2 is paired with other RING finger E3s. These findings uncover a mechanism whereby allosteric effects on an E2 enhance E2-RING finger interactions and, consequently, ubiquitylation.
Project description:The RING finger-dependent ubiquitin ligase (E3) gp78, known as the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor, contributes to tumor progression. The protein interacts with its cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), Ube2g2, via its RING domain and a unique region called G2BR that strongly binds to E2. The binding of G2BR to Ube2g2 allosterically enhances the binding of RING to E2, and the binding of RING triggers the departure of G2BR from E2 also in an allosteric fashion. Targeting these allosteric events, we developed a family of inhibitors that irreversibly block E2-E3 interactions and thereby eliminate the tumorigenic effect of gp78. One among 19 compounds screened with the NCI 60 tumor cell lines exhibited outstanding anticancer activities. At 10 ?M, it caused >50% growth inhibition to 40% of the cell lines; at 100 ?M, it showed lethiferous activity against most cell lines.
Project description:Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination regulates a variety of cellular processes by targeting ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. Although polyubiquitination had been presumed to occur by transferring ubiquitin molecules, one at a time, from an E2 active site to a substrate, we recently showed that the endoplasmic reticulum-associated RING finger ubiquitin ligase gp78 can mediate the preassembly of Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains on the catalytic cysteine of its cognate E2 Ube2g2 and subsequent transfer to a substrate. Active site-linked polyubiquitin chains are detected in cells on Ube2g2 and its yeast homolog Ubc7p, but how these chains are assembled is unclear. Here, we show that gp78 forms an oligomer via 2 oligomerization sites, one of which is a hydrophobic segment located in the gp78 cytosolic domain. We further demonstrate that a gp78 oligomer can simultaneously associate with multiple Ube2g2 molecules. This interaction is mediated by a novel Ube2g2 surface distinct from the predicted RING binding site. Our data suggest that a large gp78-Ube2g2 heterooligomer brings multiple Ube2g2 molecules into close proximity, allowing ubiquitin moieties to be transferred between neighboring Ube2g2s to form active site-linked polyubiquitin chains.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control pathway of fundamental importance to cellular homeostasis. Although multiple ERAD pathways exist for targeting topologically distinct substrates, all pathways require substrate ubiquitination. Here, we characterize a key role for the UBE2G2 Binding Region (G2BR) of the ERAD accessory protein ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) in ERAD pathways. This 27-amino acid (aa) region of AUP1 binds with high specificity and low nanomolar affinity to the backside of the ERAD ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) UBE2G2. The structure of the AUP1 G2BR (G2BRAUP1) in complex with UBE2G2 reveals an interface that includes a network of salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions essential for AUP1 function in cells. The G2BRAUP1 shares significant structural conservation with the G2BR found in the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78 and in vitro can similarly allosterically activate ubiquitination in conjunction with ERAD E3s. In cells, AUP1 is uniquely required to maintain normal levels of UBE2G2; this is due to G2BRAUP1 binding to the E2 and preventing its rapid degradation. In addition, the G2BRAUP1 is required for both ER membrane recruitment of UBE2G2 and for its activation at the ER membrane. Thus, by binding to the backside of a critical ERAD E2, G2BRAUP1 plays multiple critical roles in ERAD.
Project description:Recognition of ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains by ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) is vital for ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathways. The endoplasmic reticulum resident RING finger ubiquitin ligase (E3) gp78 regulates critical proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to maintain cellular homeostasis and includes a UBD known as the CUE domain, which is essential for function. A probable role of this domain is to recognize ubiquitin-modified substrates, enabling gp78 to assemble polyubiquitin chains on these substrates and mark them for degradation. Here, we report the molecular details of the interaction of gp78CUE domain with ubiquitin and diubiquitin. The gp78CUE domain exhibits a well-defined set of interactions with ubiquitin and a dynamic, promiscuous interaction with diubiquitin chains. This leads to a model in which the CUE domain functions to both facilitate substrate binding and enable switching between adjacent ubiquitin molecules of a growing chain to enable processivity in ubiquitination.
Project description:Efficient targeting of proteins for degradation from the secretory pathway is essential to homeostasis. This occurs through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In this study, we establish that a human ubiquitin ligase (E3), gp78, and a specific E2, Ube2g2, are both critically important for ERAD of multiple substrates. gp78 exhibits a complex domain structure that, in addition to the RING finger, includes a ubiquitin-binding Cue domain and a specific binding site for Ube2g2. Disruption of either of these domains abolishes gp78-mediated ubiquitylation and protein degradation, resulting in accumulation of substrates in their fully glycosylated forms in the ER. This suggests that gp78-mediated ubiquitylation is an early step in ERAD that precedes dislocation of substrates from the ER. The in vivo requirement for both an E2-binding site distinct from the RING finger and a ubiquitin-binding domain intrinsic to an E3 suggests a previously unappreciated level of complexity in ubiquitin ligase function. These results also provide proof of principle that interrupting a specific E2-E3 interaction can selectively inhibit ERAD.
Project description:Ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13/Uev1, catalyzes processive assembly of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains for TAK1 activation in the IL-1R/TLR pathways. However, what domain and how it functions to enable TRAF6's processivity are largely uncharacterized. Here, we find TRAF6 coiled-coil (CC) domain is crucial to enable its processivity. The CC domain mediates TRAF6 oligomerization to ensure efficient long polyubiquitin chain assembly. Mutating or deleting the CC domain impairs TRAF6 oligomerization and processive polyubiquitin chain assembly. Fusion of the CC domain to the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/STUB1 renders the latter capable of NF-?B activation. Moreover, the CC domain, after oligomerization, interacts with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13, which further contributes to TRAF6 processivity. Point mutations within the CC domain that weaken TRAF6 interaction with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13 diminish TRAF6 processivity. Our results reveal that the CC oligomerization primes its interaction with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13 to confer processivity to TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase activity.Ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 catalyzes assembly of free polyubiquitin chains for TAK1 activation in the IL-1R/TLR pathways, but the mechanism underlying its processivity is unclear. Here, the authors show that TRAF6 coiled-coil oligomerization domain primes its interaction with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13 to confer processivity.