Duration of rhinovirus shedding in the upper respiratory tract in the first year of life.
ABSTRACT: Current molecular diagnostic methods have detected rhinovirus RNA in a high proportion of asymptomatic infants and children, raising the question of the clinical significance of these findings. This study investigates the prevalence of prolonged rhinovirus RNA presence in the upper respiratory tract of infants during the first year of life.In a longitudinal study, infants were followed from birth up to 12 months. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected monthly (months 1-6 and month 9) and during an upper respiratory infection. Rhinoviruses were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Presence of repeated rhinovirus RNA was evaluated by nucleotide sequence analysis.A total of 2153 specimens from 362 infants were studied; 341 distinct rhinovirus infections in 216 infants were identified. Follow-up specimens were available within 30 days for 179 infections, creating the sample set to assess prolonged rhinovirus presence. Of the 179 infections, 46 involved the detection of the same rhinovirus strain in repeated specimens, including 8 events of prolonged presence of the same strain (detected in specimens collected >30 days apart), representing 4.5% of the evaluable rhinovirus infections. There were 26 events in which a rhinovirus strain was replaced by a different strain within a 30-day interval, representing 14.5% of the 179 infections.Although rhinovirus infections are common in healthy infants, prolonged presence of rhinovirus RNA in the respiratory tract after an upper respiratory infection was uncommon (<5%). Detection of rhinovirus RNA in an infant most likely represents an infection within a 30-day period.
Project description:Sensitive diagnostic assays have increased the detection of viruses in asymptomatic individuals. The clinical significance of asymptomatic respiratory viral infection in infants is unknown.High-throughput, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect 13 common respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal specimens collected during 2028 visits from 362 infants followed from near birth up to 12 months of age. Specimens were collected at monthly interval (months 1-6 and month 9) and during upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) episodes. Subjects were followed closely for acute otitis media (AOM) development.Viruses were detected in 76% of 394 URTI specimens and 27% of asymptomatic monthly specimens. Rhinovirus was detected most often; multiple viruses were detected in 29% of the specimens. Generalized mixed-model analyses associated symptoms with increasing age and female sex; detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus, and adenovirus was highly associated with symptoms. Increasing age was also associated with multiple virus detection. Overall, 403 asymptomatic viral infections in 237 infants were identified. Viral load was significantly higher in URTI specimens than asymptomatic specimens but did not differentiate cases of URTI with and without AOM complication. The rate of AOM complicating URTI was 27%; no AOM occurred following asymptomatic viral infections. AOM development was associated with increasing age and infection with RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and bocavirus.Compared to symptomatic infection, asymptomatic viral infection in infants is associated with young age, male sex, low viral load, specific viruses, and single virus detection. Asymptomatic viral infection did not result in AOM.
Project description:Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of human respiratory infections, and quantitative rhinovirus diagnostic tools are needed for clinical investigations. Although results obtained by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are frequently converted to viral RNA loads, this presents several limitations regarding accurate virus RNA quantification, particularly given the need to reliably quantify all known rhinovirus genotypes with a single assay. Using an internal extraction control and serial dilutions of an in vitro-transcribed rhinovirus RNA reference standard, we validated a quantitative one-step real-time PCR assay. We then used chimeric rhinovirus genomes with 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) originating from the three rhinovirus species and from one enterovirus to estimate the impact of the 5'UTR diversity. Respiratory specimens from infected patients were then also analyzed. The assay quantification ability ranged from 4.10 to 9.10 log RNA copies/ml, with an estimated error margin of ±10%. This variation was mainly linked to target variability and interassay variability. Taken together, our results indicate that our assay can reliably estimate rhinovirus RNA load, provided that the appropriate error margin is used. In contrast, due to the lack of a universal rhinovirus RNA standard and the variability related to sample collection procedures, accurate absolute rhinovirus RNA quantification in respiratory specimens is currently hardly feasible.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Simple and safe strategies for the prevention of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are needed. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that early prebiotic or probiotic supplementation would reduce the risk of virus-associated RTIs during the first year of life in a cohort of preterm infants. METHODS:In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00167700), 94 preterm infants (gestational age, ?32 + 0 and ?36 + 6 weeks; birth weight, >1500 g) treated at Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland, were allocated to receive oral prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharide and polydextrose mixture, 1:1), a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC 53103), or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) between days 3 and 60 of life. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically defined virus-associated RTI episodes confirmed from nasal swabs by using nucleic acid testing. Secondary outcomes were the severity and duration of RTIs. RESULTS:A significantly lower incidence of RTIs was detected in infants receiving prebiotics (rate ratio [RR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P < .001) or probiotics (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.90; P = .022) compared with those receiving placebo. Also, the incidence of rhinovirus-induced episodes, which comprised 80% of all RTI episodes, was found to be significantly lower in the prebiotic (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14-0.66; P = .003) and probiotic (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24-1.00; P = .051) groups compared with the placebo group. No differences emerged among the study groups in rhinovirus RNA load during infections, duration of rhinovirus RNA shedding, duration or severity of rhinovirus infections, or occurrence of rhinovirus RNA in asymptomatic infants. CONCLUSIONS:Gut microbiota modification with specific prebiotics and probiotics might offer a novel and cost-effective means to reduce the risk of rhinovirus infections.
Project description:BackgroundAlthough rhinovirus infection is associated with increased risks of acute and chronic respiratory outcomes during childhood compared with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to determine the differences in nasal airway microRNA profiles and their downstream effects between infants with rhinovirus and RSV bronchiolitis.MethodsAs part of a multicenter cohort study of infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined nasal samples obtained from 16 infants with rhinovirus and 16 infants with RSV. We tested nasal airway samples using microarrays to profile global microRNA expression and determine the predicted regulation of targeted transcripts. We also measured gene expression and cytokines for NF?B pathway components.ResultsBetween the virus groups, 386 microRNAs were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05). In infants with rhinovirus, the NF?B pathway was highly ranked as a predicted target for these differentially expressed microRNAs compared with RSV. Pathway analysis using measured mRNA expression data validated that rhinovirus infection had upregulation of NF?B family (RelA and NF?B2) and downregulation of inhibitor ?B family. Infants with rhinovirus had higher levels of NF?B-induced type-2 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-13; FDR<0.01).ConclusionIn infants with bronchiolitis, rhinovirus and RSV infections had different nasal airway microRNA profiles associated with NF?B signaling.
Project description:Respiratory viruses alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome and may be associated with a distinct microbial signature. To test this hypothesis, we compared the nasopharyngeal microbiome of 135 previously healthy infants with acute respiratory infection due to human rhinovirus (HRV; n = 52) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; n = 83). The nasopharyngeal microbiome was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Respiratory viruses were identified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We found significant differences in the overall taxonomic composition and abundance of certain bacterial genera between infants infected with HRV and those infected with RSV. Our results suggest that respiratory tract viral infections are associated with different nasopharyngeal microbial profiles.
Project description:Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract infections in all age groups and in all geographical area. The role of hMPV in causing respiratory tract infections in Kuwait was not yet investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hMPV infection in Kuwait among patients with respiratory tract infection with respect to other respiratory viruses. During January-December 2009, 460 respiratory samples from 388 patients with respiratory tract infection were collected from different hospitals. They were tested for hMPV RNA by real-time PCR, and for other respiratory viruses by conventional PCR. Out of 388 patients, 110 (28%) were positive for viral respiratory infections; 21 (5.4%) were positive for hMPV, 29 (7.5%) were positive for rhinovirus, 13 (4%) were positive for respiratory syncytial virus, and 10 (3%) were positive for adenovirus. Most (n?=?19, 90.5%) of hMPV-positive patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, 76% of them were of age 2 years and below, and 24% of age 59 years and above. All hMPV-positive elderly patients had pneumonia while 50% of hMPV-positive infants had bronchopneumonia. Children with hMPV/rhinovirus co-infection (n?=?3, 1%) had recurrent chest infection and frequent intensive care unit admission. The hMPV infection was mostly detected between December and May, and genotype B was more prevalent than genotype A. This is the first study demonstrating the prevalence of hMPV infection in Kuwait, and suggests that hMPV infection is prevalent in infants and elderly patients with lower respiratory tract infection.
Project description:Human rhinovirus type C is a recently discovered species that has been associated with respiratory tract infections of unusual severity in some cases. However, the precise type of diseases associated with this new human rhinovirus needs to be investigated. In the present report, we used adapted real-time PCR assays to screen different clinical specimens collected from a 14-month-old boy presenting an acute lower respiratory tract disease complicated by a severe pericarditis. RT-PCR identified picornavirus RNA in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen, pericardial fluid, plasma and stools. This supported the existence of a disseminated viral infection that extended to the pericardial space. 5'UTR and VP1 sequence analysis performed directly from the BAL sample allowed genotyping of the virus as a human rhinovirus C. This observation highlights the need for adapted diagnostic tools and the potential for the new rhinovirus species C to cause complications, including pericarditis.
Project description:Routine screening of lung transplant recipients and hospital patients for respiratory virus infections allowed to identify human rhinovirus (HRV) in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, including immunocompromised hosts chronically infected with the same strain over weeks or months. Phylogenetic analysis of 144 HRV-positive samples showed no apparent correlation between a given viral genotype or species and their ability to invade the lower respiratory tract or lead to protracted infection. By contrast, protracted infections were found almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, thus suggesting that host factors rather than the virus genotype modulate disease outcome, in particular the immune response. Complete genome sequencing of five chronic cases to study rhinovirus genome adaptation showed that the calculated mutation frequency was in the range observed during acute human infections. Analysis of mutation hot spot regions between specimens collected at different times or in different body sites revealed that non-synonymous changes were mostly concentrated in the viral capsid genes VP1, VP2 and VP3, independent of the HRV type. In an immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient infected with the same HRV strain for more than two years, both classical and ultra-deep sequencing of samples collected at different time points in the upper and lower respiratory tracts showed that these virus populations were phylogenetically indistinguishable over the course of infection, except for the last month. Specific signatures were found in the last two lower respiratory tract populations, including changes in the 5'UTR polypyrimidine tract and the VP2 immunogenic site 2. These results highlight for the first time the ability of a given rhinovirus to evolve in the course of a natural infection in immunocompromised patients and complement data obtained from previous experimental inoculation studies in immunocompetent volunteers.
Project description:Nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 39 rhinovirus B isolates (RV-B), representing 13 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies at the University of Wisconsin that attempt to link rhinovirus (RV) diversity and respiratory disease in infants.
Project description:We present a case of severe pneumonia, associated with a prolonged infection by a species C rhinovirus (HRV) in a 3-week old neonate. HRV RNA was identified in nasal and nasopharyngeal secretions, bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial specimens, stool and urine, collected from the patient during a one-month period. No other viral or bacterial agents were detected. Sequence analysis of two regions of the viral genome, amplified directly from the clinical specimens revealed a novel HRV-C variant. These observations highlight the occurrence of severe neonatal infections caused by HRVs and the need of rapid viral diagnostics for their detection.