FNDC5 (irisin) gene and exceptional longevity: a functional replication study with rs16835198 and rs726344 SNPs.
ABSTRACT: Irisin might play an important role in reducing the risk of obesity, insulin resistance, or several related diseases, and high irisin levels may contribute to successful aging. Thus, the irisin precursor (FNDC5) gene is a candidate to influence exceptional longevity (EL), i.e., being a centenarian. It has been recently shown that two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene, rs16835198 and rs726344, are associated with in vivo insulin sensitivity in adults. We determined luciferase gene reporter activity in the two above-mentioned SNPs and studied genotype distributions among centenarians (n?=?175, 144 women) and healthy controls (n?=?347, 142 women) from Spain. We also studied an Italian [79 healthy centenarians (40 women) and 316 healthy controls (156 women)] and a Japanese cohort [742 centenarians (623 women) and 499 healthy controls (356 women)]. The rs726344 SNP had functional significance, as shown by differences in luciferase activity between the constructs of this SNP (all P???0.05), with the variant A-allele having higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P?=?0.04). For the rs16835198 SNP, the variant T-allele tended to show higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P?=?0.07). However, we found no differences between genotype/allele frequencies of the two SNPs in centenarians versus controls in any cohort, and no significant association (using logistic regression adjusted by sex) between the two SNPs and EL. Further research is needed with different cohorts as well as with additional variants in the FNDC5 gene or in other genes involved in irisin signaling.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>Recently, the novel myokine irisin was described to drive adipose tissue 'browning', to increase energy expenditure, and to improve obesity and insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice. Here, we assessed whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 locus, encoding the irisin precursor, contribute to human prediabetic phenotypes (overweight, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, impaired insulin release).<h4>Methods</h4>A population of 1,976 individuals was characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests and genotyped for FNDC5 tagging SNPs. Subgroups underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. From 37 young and 14 elderly participants recruited in two different centres, muscle biopsies were obtained for the preparation of human myotube cultures.<h4>Results</h4>After appropriate adjustment and Bonferroni correction for the number of tested variants, SNPs rs16835198 and rs726344 were associated with in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity. Via interrogation of publicly available data from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium, rs726344's effect on insulin sensitivity was replicated. Moreover, novel data from human myotubes revealed a negative association between FNDC5 expression and appropriately adjusted in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity in young donors. This finding was replicated in myotubes from elderly men.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>This study provides evidence that the FNDC5 gene, encoding the novel myokine irisin, determines insulin sensitivity in humans. Our gene expression data point to an unexpected insulin-desensitizing effect of irisin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of common variants of FNDC5 on type 2 diabetes and clinical traits related to glucose metabolism in a large Chinese population sample. METHODS: Three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms within the region of the FNDC5 gene were selected and genotyped in 6822 participants. Detailed clinical investigations and biochemistry measurements were carried out in all of the participants. Subjects without diabetes were classified into normal weight and overweight/obese subgroups according to body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: None of the SNPs were associated with either the risk of type 2 diabetes in all of the participants or with any of the clinical quantitative traits in the controls with normal glucose regulation. Subgroup analysis showed that in controls with normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), the rs16835198 major allele G was significantly associated with fasting insulin levels, and that each additional copy of the allele resulted in a 0.0178 mU/L increment of the values (p = 0.046). Moreover, after adjusting for confounding variables, there were trends towards correlation of rs16835198 with HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.057) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (p = 0.083). In overweight/obese subjects (BMI ? 25 Kg/m(2)), we noted rs16835198 showed trends towards association with fasting insulin (p = 0.057) and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.091), both of which declined with additional copies of the major allele G. Moreover, rs16835198 was significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.013), and HOMA-? cell function (p = 0.028) in the overweight/obese subjects. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between BMI-rs16835198 and fasting insulin levels in the control group (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the effect of the common FNDC5 SNP rs16835198 on fasting insulin was significantly modified by BMI in the Chinese Han population.
Project description:Irisin is a recently identified myokine that plays an important role in preventing obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the common FNDC5 (irisin precursor) gene variants influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and verified the impact of FNDC5 gene variants on serum irisin levels, glucose and lipid metabolism in a Saudi population.Genomic DNA from 814 (394 T2DM and 414 controls) subjects were genotyped for the five common SNPs (rs3480A/G, rs1746661G/T, rs1298190A/G, rs726344A/G and rs1570569G/T) of the FNDC5 gene using the TaqMan genotyping assay. Biochemical parameters and hematic concentrations of irisin and insulin as well as anthropometric indices were collected.Serum irisin levels were higher in T2DM patients compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Analyses of FNDC5 SNPs showed that: 1) The rs3480 GG associates with decreased risk of obesity (p = 0.005; odds ratio: 0.48) and lower body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.03). In addition, GGAAG was identified as the protective haplotype against risk of obesity (p = 0.001; odds ratio: 0.23). 2) The rs1746661 G allele associates with higher triglyceride (TG) levels (p = 0.019). 3) The rs157069 TT genotype associates with higher fasting insulin (p = 0.029) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.002) as well as with lower circulating irisin levels (p = 0.016).SNPs in FNDC5 gene correlates with obesity and glucose-lipid metabolism possibly because they modulate the serum levels of irisin.
Project description:Focal adhesion is critical for cell survival. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK, or PTK2) is an important component of the human interactome and thus is a potential longevity-related protein. Here we studied the association between two PTK2 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7843014, rs7460) and exceptional longevity (EL). In addition to gaining insight into their functionality by determining luciferase gene reporter activity, we studied the genotype/allele frequency of these two SNPs among three different cohorts: (1) Spanish centenarians (n=175, 100-111 years, 144 women) and healthy controls (n=355, 20-50 years, 284 women); (2) Italian centenarians (n=79, 100-104 years, 40 women) and controls (n=316, 29-50 years, 156 women); and (3) Japanese centenarians (n=742, 100-116 years, 623 women) and healthy controls (n=499, 23-59 years, 356 women). Both SNPs had functional significance, with the A allele up-regulating luciferase activity compared to the other allele (rs7460 T allele and rs7843014 C allele, respectively). The A allele of both SNPs was negatively associated with EL in the Spanish cohort (rs7460, odds ratio [OR] adjusted by sex=0.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.3, 0.6, p<0.001); rs7843014, OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.3, 0.5, p<0.001). The OR of being a centenarian if having the rs7460-TT genotype was 6.68 (95% CI 4.1, 10.8, p<0.001). The rs7843014 CC genotype was also positively associated with EL (OR=7.58, 95% CI 4.6, 12.3, p<0.001]. No association was, however, found for the Italian or Japanese cohorts. Thus, two genotypes of the FAK gene, rs7460 TT and rs7843014 CC, are possibly associated with lower gene expression and might favor the likelihood of reaching EL in the Spanish population. Further research is needed to unveil the mechanisms by which FAK expression could perhaps influence the rate of aging.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate whether the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) could regulate FNDC5/Irisin expression and the role of Irisin in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Methods and Results:We treated primary human hepatocytes, HepG2 cells, and Rhesus macaques with FXR agonist (CDCA, GW4064, and ivermectin). FNDC5 expression was highly induced by CDCA and GW4064 in hepatocytes, HepG2 cells, and the circulating level of Irisin increased in Rhesus macaques. Luciferase reporter and CHIP assays were used to determine whether FXR could regulate FNDC5 promoter activity. Irisin-ApoE-/- and ApoE-/- mice were used to study the metabolic function of Irisin in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Irisin-ApoE-/- mice showed improved hyperlipidemia and alleviated atherosclerosis as compared with ApoE-/- mice. Irisin upregulated the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8 in liver and intestine, which increased the transport of biliary cholesterol and fecal cholesterol output. Conclusion:Activation of FXR induces FNDC5 mRNA expression in human and increased the circulating level of Irisin in Rhesus macaques. FNDC5/Irisin is a direct transcriptional target of FXR. Irisin may be a novel therapeutic strategy for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The beneficial functions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) decline with decreased cell survival, limiting their therapeutic efficacy for myocardial infarction (MI). Irisin, a novel myokine which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), is believed to be involved in a cardioprotective effect, but little was known on injured BM-MSCs and MI repair yet. Here, we investigated whether FNDC5 or irisin could improve the low viability of transplanted BM-MSCs and increase their therapeutic efficacy after MI. METHODS:BM-MSCs, isolated from dual-reporter firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein positive (Fluc+-eGFP+) transgenic mice, were exposed to normoxic condition and hypoxic stress for 12?h, 24?h, and 48?h, respectively. In addition, BM-MSCs were treated with irisin (20?nmol/L) and overexpression of FNDC5 (FNDC5-OV) in serum deprivation (H/SD) injury. Furthermore, BM-MSCs were engrafted into infarcted hearts with or without FNDC5-OV. RESULTS:Hypoxic stress contributed to increased apoptosis, decreased cell viability, and paracrine effects of BM-MSCs while irisin or FNDC5-OV alleviated these injuries. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging and immunofluorescence results illustrated that BM-MSCs with overexpression of FNDC5 treatment (FNDC5-MSCs) improved the survival of transplanted BM-MSCs, which ameliorated the increased apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis of BM-MSCs in vivo. Interestingly, FNDC5-OV elevated the secretion of exosomes in BM-MSCs. Furthermore, FNDC5-MSC therapy significantly reduced fibrosis and alleviated injured heart function. CONCLUSIONS:The present study indicated that irisin or FNDC5 improved BM-MSC engraftment and paracrine effects in infarcted hearts, which might provide a potential therapeutic target for MI.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Preptin, irisin and adropin are 3 new players in energy regulation that are related body mass index, lipids, glucose and insulin levels which may affect incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of preptin genes (rs1003483, rs1004446, rs2239681, rs680, and rs3741204), irisin (rs16835198 and rs3480) and adropin (rs2281997) gene in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. METHODS:This case-control study was carried out on 372 volunteers, which were divided into 3 subgroups including: CAD patients with hypertension (CAD+H+), CAD patients with no hypertension (CAD+H-), and non-hypertensive non-CAD subjects as control group (CAD-H-) as health control. Genomic DNA from whole blood was extracted and eight SNPs were assessed using polymerase chain reaction- ligase detection reaction method. RESULTS:A significant difference was found in the genotype and allele frequency of preptin rs1003483 gene in CAD+H+ compared to CAD+H- groups (P?=?.019 and P?=?.018, respectively). Allele frequency of rs1003483 was significantly different between CAD+H- groups and healthy control groups (P?=?.043). There also existed a significant difference the genotype frequency of rs1004446 gene in CAD+H+ compared to CAD+H- groups (P?=?.027). CONCLUSIONS:The findings of present study revealed that the preptin rs1003483 and rs1004446 gene polymorphism might serve as predisposing factor in CAD and hypertension.
Project description:There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years) deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1) gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown), here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n = 138, age range 100-111 years (114 women)] and healthy controls [n = 334, 20-50 years (141 women)] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain). We also studied healthy centenarians [n = 79, 100-104 years (40 women)] and controls [n = 316, 27-81 years (156 women)] from Italy, and centenarians [n = 742, 100-116 years (623 women)] and healthy controls [n = 499, 23-59 years (356 women)] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P = 0.001). Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people.
Project description:Forkhead box O3A (FOXOA3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are arguably the strongest gene candidates to influence human exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., being a centenarian), but inconsistency exists among cohorts. Epistasis, defined as the effect of one locus being dependent on the presence of 'modifier genes', may contribute to explain the missing heritability of complex phenotypes such as EL. We assessed the potential association of epistasis among candidate polymorphisms related to physical capacity, as well as antioxidant defense and cardiometabolic traits, and EL in the Japanese population. A total of 1565 individuals were studied, subdivided into 822 middle-aged controls and 743 centenarians.We found a FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele-dependent association of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FDNC5) rs16835198 with EL: the frequency of carriers of the FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele among individuals with the rs16835198 GG genotype was significantly higher in cases than in controls (P?<?0.05). On the other hand, among non-carriers of the APOE 'risk' ?4-allele, the frequency of the FDNC5 rs16835198 G-allele was higher in cases than in controls (48.4% vs. 43.6%, P?<?0.05). Among carriers of the 'non-risk' APOE ?2-allele, the frequency of the rs16835198 G-allele was higher in cases than in controls (49% vs. 37.3%, P?<?0.05).The association of FDNC5 rs16835198 with EL seems to depend on the presence of the FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele and we report a novel association between FNDC5 rs16835198 stratified by the presence of the APOE ?2/?4-allele and EL. More research on 'gene*gene' and 'gene*environment' effects is needed in the field of EL.
Project description:Defective brain hormonal signaling has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disorder characterized by synapse and memory failure. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine released on cleavage of the membrane-bound precursor protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), also expressed in the hippocampus. Here we show that FNDC5/irisin levels are reduced in AD hippocampi and cerebrospinal fluid, and in experimental AD models. Knockdown of brain FNDC5/irisin impairs long-term potentiation and novel object recognition memory in mice. Conversely, boosting brain levels of FNDC5/irisin rescues synaptic plasticity and memory in AD mouse models. Peripheral overexpression of FNDC5/irisin rescues memory impairment, whereas blockade of either peripheral or brain FNDC5/irisin attenuates the neuroprotective actions of physical exercise on synaptic plasticity and memory in AD mice. By showing that FNDC5/irisin is an important mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise in AD models, our findings place FNDC5/irisin as a novel agent capable of opposing synapse failure and memory impairment in AD.