Determinants of initial utilization of community healthcare services among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases in South China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although expected to act as gate-keeping primary care providers, as community health service (CHS) facilities are severely under-utilized; Chinese people in both rural and urban areas used predominantly higher-tier facilities for primary care purpose, with significant financial and outcome consequences. This study intends to explore the determinants of initial utilization of CHS among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) in order to understand the care-seeking behavior among urban and rural residents in South China. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to create a sample of 19,466 adults with NCDs from 7,970 urban households and 32,035 adults with NCDs from 3,860 rural households in Guangdong, China. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted in 2010 to collect data on patient characteristics, medical conditions, and awareness and utilization of healthcare. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to study utilization patterns and the factors associated with the patterns. RESULTS: Prevalence of major NCDs in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas (12.55% vs. 8.70%; p<0.001). Second-tier district hospitals were most preferred for initial consultation (46.05% in rural areas vs. 45.32% in urban areas; p<0.001), followed by tertiary general or specialized hospitals (28.39% in rural areas vs. 33.89% in urban areas; p<0.001). The proportion of patients who had initial use of CHS was relatively low (25.56% in rural areas vs. 20.79% in urban areas; p<0.001). Awareness of self-care and the presence of medical insurance were leading factors associated with first contact of CHS facilities in both urban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CHS facilities are not often used as the first contact for patients in both rural and urban areas in south China. Much effect must be made to enhance the gatekeeper system and improve medical insurance coverage in future healthcare reforms.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the association between geographic access to mammography facilities and women's mammography utilization frequency. METHODS:Using data from the population-based 1995-2007 Wisconsin Women's Health study, we used proportional odds and logistic regression to test whether driving times to mammography facilities and the number of mammography facilities within 10 km of women's homes were associated with mammography frequency among women aged 50-74 years and whether associations differed between Rural-Urban Commuting Areas and income and education groups. RESULTS:We found evidence for nonlinear relationships between geographic access and mammography utilization (nonlinear effects of driving times and facility density, P-values .01 and .005, respectively). Having at least one nearby mammography facility was associated with greater mammography frequency among urban women (1 vs. 0 facilities, odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.47), with similar effects among rural women. Adding more facilities had decreasing marginal effects. Long driving times tended to be associated with lower mammography frequency. We found no effect modification by income, education, or urbanicity. In rural settings, mammography nonuse was higher, facility density smaller, and driving times to facilities were longer. CONCLUSIONS:Having at least one mammography facility near one's home may increase mammography utilization, with decreasing effects per each additional facility.
Project description:Objectives:The study determined the levels of geographic differences in the utilization of routine immunization between households in an urban and a rural community. It also identified and compared the determinants of utilization of routine immunization in the two geographic areas. Method:The study was undertaken in two randomly selected communities (one rural and one urban) in Anambra State, Nigeria. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on utilization of immunization services from households. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses. Result:Households in the urban community had a higher level of utilization of routine immunization (95.5%) than those in the rural community (75.3%) and the difference was statistically significant (p?<?0.05). It was also found that more rural dwellers (83.3%) received immunization services from public health facilities compared to the urban dwellers (42%; p?<?0.05). Health facilities were nearer to households in the urban community than the rural community (p?<?0.05). Mean cost of service per visit was higher in the urban community (p?<?0.05), but the difference in the mean cost of transportation per visit was not significant (p?=?0.125). Regression analysis shows that place of residence was highly significant for utilization of routine immunization services (p?<?0.05). Conclusion:Urban-rural differences exist in utilization of routine immunization services. Health facilities are more proximal to consumers in the urban community than the rural community, with higher travel costs among rural dwellers. Ensuring that there is a functional primary healthcare center in every ward and provision of routine immunization services in market places on local market days can help to increase utilization and reduce rural-urban differences in utilization of immunization services.
Project description:Background:Since 2009, community-based hypertension monitoring service (CBHMS) has been provided free of charge by the Chinese government as part of the national Essential Public Health Services (EPHS) policy. This study aimed to examine the disparity in the utilization of CBHMS between urban and rural community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults with hypertension. Methods:Subjects were 3,479 community-residing hypertensive patients, identified from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), 2015, a nationally representative survey of Chinese residents aged 45 years and older. The utilization of CBHMS was defined as having one's blood pressure (BP) examined at least once a season by community or village doctors. Rates of CBHMS use of urban and rural residents with hypertension were compared by using chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with the utilization of CBHMS of hypertensive patients. Results:CBHMS was significantly more likely to be used by rural than urban middle-aged and older residents with hypertension (38.6% vs. 25.1%, P < 0.001). Results from multiple logistic regression analyses showed that urban patients who were living in central (OR = 0.37) and western (OR = 0.48) regions (vs. eastern region), had an educational attainment of middle school (OR = 0.33) and college and above (OR = 0.48) (vs. illiterate), and were not taking antihypertensive agents (OR = 0.26) were less likely to use CBHMS, while rural patients who had no medical insurance (OR = 0.56), and were not taking antihypertensive agents (OR = 0.31) were less likely to use CBHMS. Conclusions:The national CBHMS is more likely to be used by rural middle-aged and older adults with hypertension in China. The urban-rural difference in the utilization of CBHMS may be resulted from the different demographics of urban and rural middle-aged and older residents and uneven distributions of health services resources between urban and rural areas. Urban-rural disparities in characteristics of CBHMS use should be taken into consideration when promoting the utilization of CBHMS in China.
Project description:This study explores the impact of lifestyle and environment on gene expression through whole transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood samples in Fijian population (native Melanesians and Indians) living in the rural and urban areas. 41 individuals (14 urban Melanesians, 10 rural Melanesians and 17 urban Indians) of both gender were sampled under informed consents. Only healthy individuals aged between 18 and 65 were sampled. RNA from each sample was hybridized to an Illumina array. No replicates were done in this study
Project description:Understanding the barriers that women in Haiti face to giving birth at a health facility is important for improving coverage of facility delivery and reducing persistently high maternal mortality. We linked health facility survey data and population survey data to assess the role of the obstetric service environment in affecting women's use of facility delivery care.Data came from the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the 2013 Haiti Service Provision Assessment (SPA) survey. DHS clusters and SPA facilities were linked with their geographic coordinate information. The final analysis sample from the DHS comprised 4,921 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. Service availability was measured with the number of facilities providing delivery services within a specified distance from the cluster (within 5 kilometers for urban areas and 10 kilometers for rural areas). We measured facility readiness to provide obstetric care using 37 indicators defined by the World Health Organization. Random-intercept logistic regressions were used to model the variation in individual use of facility-based delivery care and cluster-level service availability and readiness, adjusting for other factors.Overall, 39% of women delivered their most recent birth at a health facility and 61% delivered at home, with disparities by residence (about 60% delivered at a health facility in urban areas vs. 24% in rural areas). About one-fifth (18%) of women in rural areas and one-tenth (12%) of women in nonmetropolitan urban areas lived in clusters where no facility offered delivery care within the specified distances, while nearly all women (99%) in the metropolitan area lived in clusters that had at least 2 such facilities. Urban clusters had better service readiness compared with rural clusters, with a wide range of variation in both areas. Regression models indicated that in both rural and nonmetropolitan urban areas availability of delivery services was significantly associated with women's greater likelihood of using facility-based delivery care after controlling for other covariates, while facilities' readiness to provide delivery services was also important in nonmetropolitan urban areas.Increasing physical access to delivery care should become a high priority in rural Haiti. In urban areas, where delivery services are more available than in rural areas, improving quality of care at facilities could potentially lead to increased coverage of facility delivery.
Project description:We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban (15.0% vs 29.1%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of itching.There are differences in the sexual behavior and practices of adolescents and young persons' residing in the urban and rural area with implication for HIV prevention programming.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease and their risk factors in a rural and urban region of Haiti. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Community health workers enumerated 2648 households (909 rural and 1739 urban) via a multistage cluster random sampling method from July 2015 to May 2016, completed 705 rural and 1419 urban assessments for adults aged 25-65 years. OUTCOME MEASURES:We performed a WHO STEPS based questionnaire, measured two blood pressure values, weight, height, abdominal circumference and point of care test finger stick blood sample for haemoglobin A1c, creatinine and cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides). RESULTS:After adjusting for age and sex, the overall prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease were 15.6% (±2.93%), 19.7% (±1.57%) and 12.3% (±2.72%), respectively. Of the three non-communicable diseases (NCDs), only diabetes showed a significant difference between rural and urban sites (p=0.000), with the rural site (23.1%) having a higher prevalence than the urban site (16.4%). When comparing male and female participants, females were significantly more likely than males to have an NCD (p?0.011). Females had a higher prevalence of most of the risk factors when compared with males. The urban location had a higher prevalence than the rural location for four risk factors that showed a significant difference between location (p?0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Women in Haiti had significantly higher prevalence rates of most NCDs and risk factors than men, and urban populations frequently, but not always, had higher rates of NCDs risk factors than the rural population. Further, it was shown that using point of care blood tests combined with community health workers, it is feasible to screen for NCDs and risk factors in remote areas which otherwise have limited access to healthcare.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol. DESIGN:Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology. SETTING:Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded. RESULTS:Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31?mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05?mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65?mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38?mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44?mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16?mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11?mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25?mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women. CONCLUSION:The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for stable patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) offer a range of health systems innovations, their comparative desirability to patients remains unknown. We conducted a discrete choice experiment to quantify service attributes most desired by patients to inform model prioritization. METHODS:Between July and December 2016, a sample of HIV-positive adults on ART at 12 clinics in Zambia were asked to choose between 2 hypothetical facilities that differed across 6 DSD attributes. We used mixed logit models to explore preferences, heterogeneity, and trade-offs. RESULTS:Of 486 respondents, 59% were female and 85% resided in urban locations. Patients strongly preferred infrequent clinic visits [3- vs. 1-month visits: ? (ie, relative utility) = 2.84; P < 0.001]. Milder preferences were observed for waiting time for ART pick-up (1 vs. 6 hours.; ? = -0.67; P < 0.001) or provider (1 vs. 3 hours.; ? = -0.41; P = 0.002); "buddy" ART collection (? = 0.84; P < 0.001); and ART pick-up location (clinic vs. community: ? = 0.35; P = 0.028). Urban patients demonstrated a preference for collecting ART at a clinic (? = 1.32, P < 0.001), and although most rural patients preferred community ART pick-up (? = -0.74, P = 0.049), 40% of rural patients still preferred facility ART collection. CONCLUSIONS:Stable patients on ART primarily want to attend clinic infrequently, supporting a focus in Zambia on optimizing multimonth prescribing over other DSD features-particularly in urban areas. Substantial preference heterogeneity highlights the need for DSD models to be flexible, and accommodate both setting features and patient choice in their design.
Project description:Historically, health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa have mainly managed acute, infectious diseases. Few data exist for the preparedness of African health facilities to handle the growing epidemic of chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We assessed the burden of NCDs in health facilities in northwestern Tanzania and investigated the strengths of the health system and areas for improvement with regard to primary care management of selected NCDs.Between November, 2012, and May, 2013, we undertook a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 24 public and not-for profit health facilities in urban and rural Tanzania (four hospitals, eight health centres, and 12 dispensaries). We did structured interviews of facility managers, inspected resources, and administered self-completed questionnaires to 335 health-care workers. We focused on hypertension, diabetes, and HIV (for comparison). Our key study outcomes related to service provision, availability of guidelines and supplies, management and training systems, and preparedness of human resources.Of adult outpatient visits to hospitals, 58% were for chronic diseases compared with 20% at health centres, and 13% at dispensaries. In many facilities, guidelines, diagnostic equipment, and fi rst-line drug therapy for the primary care of NCDs were inadequate, and management, training, and reporting systems were weak. Services for HIV accounted for most chronic disease visits and seemed stronger than did services for NCDs. Ten (42%) facilities had guidelines for HIV whereas three (13%) facilities did for NCDs. 261 (78%) health workers showed fair knowledge of HIV, whereas 198 (59%) did for hypertension and 187 (56%) did for diabetes. Generally, health systems were weaker in lower-level facilities. Front-line health-care workers (such as non-medical-doctor clinicians and nurses) did not have knowledge and experience of NCDs. For example, only 74 (49%) of 150 nurses had at least fair knowledge of diabetes care compared with 85 (57%) of 150 for hypertension and 119 (79%) of 150 for HIV, and only 31 (21%) of 150 had seen more than fi ve patients with diabetes in the past 3 months compared with 50 (33%) of 150 for hypertension and 111 (74%) of 150 for HIV.Most outpatient services for NCDs in Tanzania are provided at hospitals, despite present policies stating that health centres and dispensaries should provide such services. We identifi ed crucial weaknesses (and strengths) in health systems that should be considered to improve primary care for NCDs in Africa and identified ways that HIV programmes could serve as a model and structural platform for these improvements.