Determinates of tumor response to radiation: tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control.
ABSTRACT: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose.Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs(-/-)) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays.The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses.The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose.
Project description:Purpose:Variations in the radiosensitivity of tumor cells within and between tumors impact tumor response to radiation, including the dose required to achieve permanent local tumor control. The increased expression of DNA-PKcs, a key component of a major DNA damage repair pathway in tumors treated by radiation, suggests that DNA-PKcs-dependent repair is likely a cause of tumor cell radioresistance. This study evaluates the relative biological effect of spread-out Bragg-peak protons in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells and the same cells transfected with a functional DNA-PKcs gene. Materials and Methods:A cloned radiation-sensitive DNA-PKcs-deficient tumor line and its DNA-PKcs-transfected resistant counterpart were used in this study. The presence of functional DNA-PKcs was evaluated by DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation. Cells to be proton irradiated or x-irradiated were obtained from the same single cell suspension and dilution series to maximize precision. Cells were concurrently exposed to 6-MV x-rays or mid 137-MeV spread-out Bragg peak protons and cultured for colony formation. Results:The surviving fraction data were well fit by the linear-quadratic model for each of 8 survival curves. The results suggest that the relative biological effectiveness of mid spread-out Bragg peak protons is approximately 6% higher in DNA-PKcs-mediated resistant tumor cells than in their DNA-PKcs-deficient and radiation-sensitive counterpart. Conclusion:DNA-PKcs-dependent repair of radiation damage is less capable of repairing mid spread-out Bragg peak proton lesions than photon-induced lesions, suggesting protons may be more efficient at sterilizing DNA-PKcs-expressing cells that are enriched in tumors treated by conventional fractionated dose x-irradiation.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) modulates various cell functions through IGF-dependent or independent mechanisms. However, its biological roles in the radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance and molecular mechanisms of the association between IGFBP-3 and OSCC radiosensitivity. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of IGFBP-3 in 52 OSCC specimens from patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and surgery (phase II study). Associations between IGFBP-3 expression and clinicopathological features were also evaluated. In addition, we examined the effects of IGFBP-3 on post-X-ray irradiation radiosensitivity and DNA damage in vitro. High IGFBP-3 expression was significantly correlated with poor chemoradiotherapy responses and prognosis. With IGFBP-3 knockdown, irradiated OSCC cells exhibited significantly higher radiosensitivity compared with that of control cells. Moreover, IGFBP-3 depletion in OSCC cells reduced phosphorylation of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), which is required for DNA double-strand break repair during non-homologous end joining. These findings indicate that IGFBP-3 may have a significant role in regulating DNA repair and is be a potential biomarker for predicting clinical response to radiotherapy and prognosis in OSCC.
Project description:The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs directly phosphorylated Akt1 at S473 in an in vitro kinase assay but not vice-versa. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs or Akt restored radiosensitivity in tumour cells expressing Akt1-E17K or Akt1-TDSD. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated radioresistance depends on its activation state and nuclear localization and is accessible to pharmacologic inhibition.
Project description:Noncycling and terminally differentiated (TD) cells display differences in radiosensitivity and DNA damage response. Unlike other TD cells, Sertoli cells express a mixture of proliferation inducers and inhibitors in vivo and can reenter the cell cycle. Being in a G1-like cell cycle stage, TD Sertoli cells are expected to repair DSBs by the error-prone nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ). Recently, we have provided evidence for the involvement of Ku-dependent NHEJ in protecting testis cells from DNA damage as indicated by persistent foci of the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair proteins phospho-H2AX, 53BP1, and phospho-ATM in TD Sertoli cells of Ku70-deficient mice. Here, we analyzed the kinetics of 53BP1 foci induction and decay up to 12 h after 0.5 Gy gamma irradiation in DNA-PKcs-deficient (Prkdc scid ) and wild-type Sertoli cells. In nonirradiated mice and Prkdc scid Sertoli cells displayed persistent DSBs foci in around 12 % of cells and a fivefold increase in numbers of these DSB DNA damage-related foci relative to the wild type. In irradiated mice, Prkdc scid Sertoli cells showed elevated levels of DSB-indicating foci in 82 % of cells 12 h after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, relative to 52 % of irradiated wild-type Sertoli cells. These data indicate that Sertoli cells respond to and repair IR-induced DSBs in vivo, with repair kinetics being slow in the wild type and inefficient in Prkdc scid . Applying the same dose of IR to Prdkc -/- and Ku -/- mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells revealed a delayed induction of 53BP1 DSB-indicating foci 5 min post-IR in Prdkc -/- cells. Inefficient DSB repair was evident 7 h post-IR in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells, but not in Ku -/- MEFs. Our data show that quiescent Sertoli cells repair genotoxic DSBs by DNA-PKcs-dependent NEHJ in vivo with a slower kinetics relative to somatic DNA-PKcs-deficient cells in vitro, while DNA-PKcs deficiency caused inefficient DSB repair at later time points post-IR in both conditions. These observations suggest that DNA-PKcs contributes to the fast and slow repair of DSBs by NHEJ.
Project description:Brain tumor xenografts initiated from human glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cells (TSC) simulate the biological characteristics of GBMs in situ. Therefore, to determine whether the brain microenvironment affects the intrinsic radiosensitivity of GBM cells, we compared the radioresponse of GBM TSCs grown in vitro and as brain tumor xenografts.As indicators of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), ?H2AX, and 53BP1 foci were defined after irradiation of 2 GBM TSC lines grown in vitro and as orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Microarray analysis was conducted to compare gene expression patterns under each growth condition.Dispersal of radiation-induced ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci was faster in the tumor cells grown as orthotopic xenografts compared with cells irradiated in vitro. In addition, cells irradiated in vivo were approximately 3-fold less susceptible to foci induction as compared with cells grown in vitro. Microarray analysis revealed a significant number of genes whose expression was commonly affected in the 2 GBM models by orthotopic growth conditions. Consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to foci induction, genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were expressed at higher levels in the brain tumor xenografts.?H2AX and 53BP1 foci analyses indicate that GBM cells irradiated within orthotopic xenografts have a greater capacity to repair DSBs and are less susceptible to their induction than tumor cells irradiated under in vitro growth conditions. Because DSB induction and repair are critical determinants of radiosensitivity, these results imply that the brain microenvironment contributes to GBM radioresistance.
Project description:The effectiveness of radiotherapy treatment could be significantly improved if tumor cells could be rendered more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) without altering the sensitivity of normal tissues. However, many of the key therapeutically exploitable mechanisms that determine intrinsic tumor radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B) and irradiated normal tissue cells (MRC5). Using gammaH2AX foci at 24 hours after IR, we identified several genes, such as BRCA2, Lig IV, and XRCC5, whose knockdown is known to cause increased cell radiosensitivity, thereby validating the primary screening end point. In addition, we identified POLQ (DNA polymerase ) as a potential tumor-specific target. Subsequent investigations showed that POLQ knockdown resulted in radiosensitization of a panel of tumor cell lines from different primary sites while having little or no effect on normal tissue cell lines. These findings raise the possibility that POLQ inhibition might be used clinically to cause tumor-specific radiosensitization.
Project description:Here, we present a modified in vitro end-joining (EJ) assay to quantify EJ capacity, accuracy as well as pathway switch to alternative end-joining (Alt-EJ) or single strand annealing (SSA). A novel transformation assay was established to specifically measure circular repair products, which correlate with classical EJ efficiency. The EJ assay was validated using EJ-deficient mammalian cell lines (Ku80, DNA-PKcs, LigIV, or XRCC4 mutants). A pathway switch to Alt-EJ and SSA was seen exclusively in Ku-deficient cells. Circular EJ product formation correlated with cell survival and DSB repair capacity after X-irradiation. Investigation of 14 HNSCC cell lines revealed differences in the total EJ capacity but a broader variation in the amount of circular repair products. Sequencing of repair junctions in HNSCC cells demonstrated a predominance of high-fidelity EJ and an avoidance of both Alt-EJ and SSA. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of circular repair products, repair of IR-induced DSB and radiosensitivity. Collectively, these data indicate that the presented in vitro-EJ-assay can not only estimate the repair capacity of cancer cells to enable the stratification into radiosensitive or radioresistant, but can also identify repair pathway deregulation such as a switch to Alt-EJ or SSA, which enables tumor targeting.
Project description:Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein that is essential for cell survival. This study reveals that the regulation of radiosensitivity of cancer cells is yet another function of TCTP. The relationship between endogenous TCTP levels and sensitivity to radiation was examined in breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MDA-MB-231, and MCF7) and lung cancer cells lines (A549, H1299, and H460). Cancer cells with high expression levels of TCTP were more resistant to radiation. TCTP overexpression inhibited radiation-induced cell death, while silencing TCTP led to an increase in radiosensitivity. DNA damage in the irradiated TCTP-silenced A549 cells was greater than in irradiated control shRNA-transfected A549 cells. p53, a well-known reciprocal regulator of TCTP, was increased in irradiated TCTP down-regulated A549 cells. Moreover, introduction of p53 siRNA in TCTP knocked-down A549 cells abrogated the increased radiosensitivity induced by TCTP knockdown. An in vivo xenograft study also confirmed enhanced radiosensitivity in TCTP down-regulated A549 cells. These findings suggest that TCTP has the potential to serve as a therapeutic target to overcome radiation resistance in cancer, a major problem for the effective treatment of cancers.